Skip to main content

Full text of "Bird notes"

See other formats









I Bound at) 
A. M.N.H. 







By iiiiitiKiI ci)n/)(h>ice and m at mil aid 

Great, tU'eih are done and yreat di.tforerif.t made. 

Kditkd Hv 




J. H. Hkn'siock, Avian Pi;kss 


( ontents 





Title Page 

Secretary's Report 

List of Plates 

Illustrations in the Text 

List of Contributors '^''"• 

The Magazine ^ 

General Index -^° 

Index to Genera and Species ^9^ 

Inset ^'■^e" P^-^'- 

Scci-ciai \''s h'r/^ori. 

Secretary's Report. 

There is but little for one to say about the troublous years 
tbroui^h which we, and the world in j^eneral, have been passinjj^. 
We have cause for mutual i^ratulation and the reverse. 

Satisfaction that we ha\e held our own, and tlie reverse 
that we haxe done no nnore. 

When th.e roll is revised we thindv our nund)ers will be 
al)out the same as last year, possibly a few less. We can all 
assist in the effort to materially increase our membership, and 
the present is the best i:)eriod of the year for such an united effort. 

A\'iculture has not yet fully recovered from the paralysing- 
effects of the war — mrmv aviaries are even yet not re-opened, 
j>erha]is never will be, and many others have but fe^v occupants, 
and it is api)arept that the aftermath of war has been as disas- 
trous in its results to aAiculture and kindred pursuits as the 
war period itself, and probably to this cause are to be attributed 
the difficulties with which we liave been contendini;' tlurin;.;- the 
past year and years. 

One thinj^" must be commented upon, viz : the slackness 
of a portion of our membershiji in the payment of subscriptions, 
and the lack of courtesy in not replying" to applications made 
tor same. The work of the Hon. Sec. has been doubled from 
this cause, and, if these members persist in their tactics, either 
the F.B.C. must expel such from the did), or they will find 
themselves in the position of being- unable to secure officers to 
carry on the work of the Club, "i'crb sap. 

We do feel that the mend^ers have not done all that they 
might to assist the officers of the Club, or to further the progress 
of the Club itself, either in the way of copy for the Club Journal, 
or in the small details that tend towards efficiency and progress, 
and this after making all due allowance for the adverse condi- 
tions under which we have all been labouring. 

Re coloured plates : In the coursing of next year we hope 

Secretary's Rcf^ori . v. 

lo have some proposition conceniiii!^' these to hiy before the 
members ; at the moment we can only say that our income barely 
co\ers the cost of Bird Notes, as at present issued, and the 
very small W'orkin;,;- Expenses of the Club. 

Shall we. unitedly, seek to overcome the lethargy that 
has followed the war period, and, with a study of cause and 
effect, seek to make the failures of the ])ast stepping-stones to 
future success and efficiency ? 

The effort required from each individual member is but 
slight indeed to achieve this — three main points stand in the 
forefront of our need, viz : 

(i) More contributors to Bird Notes. 

(2) An increased membership. 

(3) Prompt payment of subscriptions, and an attendance 
to those small details which will materially reduce the 
Hon. Sec.'s correspondence, and at the same time 
curtail the Club's postage expenses. 

A. E. SNAPE, Hon. Business Secretary. 
WESLEY T. PAGE, Hon. Editor. 

List of Plates. 

List of Plates. 

Opposite page 

Group of Hybrid Maniiikins and Bulbuls I 

Kestrel Hawks g 

Algerian Chaffinch on Nest 13 

Nest and Eggs of Algerian Chaffinch 14 

Capt. Reeve's Terrace Aviaries 21 

Nest of Mouse Lark 28 

Azure Jays 47 

Crimson Tragopan 71-2 

Hen Tragopan Incubating 73 

Algerian Chaffinch Brooding Young 95 

Oyster-Catcher "s Nest 96 

Ringed Plover's Nest 96 

Black-cheeked Waxbill at Nest 98 

Mr. Pullar's Aviary No. 3 — West Side 99 

Mr. Pullar's Aviary No. 3 — East Side 100 

Yucatan Jay in Juvenal Plumage 112 

Red Ground Dove Incubating 131 

Y'oung Stone Curlews 132 

Cabani's Weaver's Nests 133 

Mistle Thrush Incubating 134 

(iroup of Grassfinches 155 

(Iroup of Gouldian Finches 164 

r.lack-headed Sibia 168 

Nest and Eggs of Misto Seed-Finch 179 

Misto Seed-Finch and Nest 180 

Nest and Eggs of the Plumbeous Quail 192 

Manchurian Crossoptilons 207 

]\.1anchurian Crossoptilon's Young 208 

Large Piirds" Section of Capt. Rattigan's Aviaries 222 

Looking through Flights of Capt. Rattigan's Aviaries 222 

Quail Finches 235 

Ground Plan. Mr. Shore Baily's Aviaries 235 

Ml. Shore Baily's Weavers' Aviary 250 

Nest and Eggs of Snow Bunting 253 

Nest and Eggs of Geocichla litsibsirupa 254 

Mr. Shore Baily's Waders' Aviary 261 

Spoonbills 262 

Illustrations in the Text. vii. 

Illustrations in Text. 


Interior of tlic DucIkss of Welliiifiton's Aviary 2 

Bronze X Magpie Mannikin Jiybrid y 

Spice Finch x Bcngalese Hybrid 8 

Temminck's Courser and Egyptian Quail 30 

Nest and Eggs of Bramble Finch 31 

Rufous Tinamou Incubating 43 

Young Rufous Tinamou 44. 45 

Pileated Jay -47 

Mexican Blue Jay 48 

Rellow-winged Sugarbird 55 

Yellow-winged Sugarbird and Zebra Finch 57 

Young Cabot's Tragopan 71 

West Side, Mr. Pullar's Aviaries No?. 3. 4 and 5 100 

Plan and Elevation, Mr. H. W. Workman's Aviaries 148 

Soft-Food Box — lid draws out 157 

Hanging Seed-tray 157 

Food Shelter on Outside Table 158 

Hybrid Bcngalese X Nutmeg Finch 200 

Ground Plan, Capt. Rattigan's Parrakeet Aviary 227 

Twite at Nest 251 

Lisf of ( oHir'ibitiors. 

List of Contributors. 

* Denotes Correspondence. 

Bailv, W. Shore, F.Z.S. 

Nesting of the Algerian Chaflinch. 13-5. 

Early Stray Notes. 28-32. 

Great Tinamou, The, 42-5. 

Some Blue Jays, 47-9. 

Tragopans, 71-3. 

May in my Aviaries, 95-9. 

June and July in my Aviaries, 13 1-5. 

Breeding of the Misto Seed-Finch, 179-81. 

Breeding of the New Guinea Quail, [92-3. 

Manchurian Eared-Pheasant, 207-8. 

August, September, and October in my Aviaries, 251-4. 

Bi:.\Ri!Y. W. R. 

* Lettuce as Grcenfood for Budgerigars, 67. 
Four Species of Lovebirds, 181-6. 

r>KKBK, C. William 

The undescribcd Juvenal I^lumage of Yucatan Jays, 112-5. 

Bi ACKBUKN, Miss Olive 

* A Case of Longevity, 153. 

Bgosev, Edward J. 

Notes on a few well-known .Si')ecies, 61-4. 

Bkicut, H. E., P.Z.S. 

* Signs of the Season, 122-3. 

Successful Breeding of the Isabelline Turtle-Dovc, 231-3. 
Successful Breeding of the White-breasted Dove, 241-4. 

BuKGKss, Mrs. Margaret, F.Z.S. 

* My Black-capped Lories, (18-9. 
Some Notes of my Birds, 76-9. 

Carr-Wai.kkk, TIerbert 

* Some .Stray Notes on Birds and Mice, 91-2. 
Stray Aviary Notes, 229-30. 

Chavvner, Miss E. F. 

* The Waxwing, 69. 

* To Keep Owls and Cats from Birds, 279. 

* Breeding Bullfinches in Captivity, 279. 

Cr.\ndall, Lee S, 

Notes on Some Forms of Cissolopha. 111-2. 

The Undescribcd Juvenal IMumagc of Yucatan Jay, 112-5. 

List of Coiifribittors. ix. 


Breeding; Results, iq. 
Dawsox-Smitii. The Lath Lieut. F. 

Notes on Some Owls and liawks, 9-13. 

Dkcoux, a. 

* A Few Notes from a French Aviary, )-'3-4. 

Dickinson, Mrs. D. 

A Seeker after I'.ird Marts. i<'7-7i. 

DuNi.EATii, The Lady 

A Few Notes from our President, 19-20. 

The Desolation of War-time in My .'\viaries and their Re-openinq-. -'5-S. 

Stray Notes from My Aviaries. i5.^">^- 


Prospect, The. 15-6. 

Exhibiting Foreign P)irds, 17. 

Scottish National Show Report, 17. 

Nesting Notes, 69, 151. • 

Rare Birds, 70. 

Zoo Notes, 70, 127, 151-2. 

Zoo, Breeding Results, R8-9, 150. 151-2. 

Zoo, Report, 88-90. 

Zoo. The Rarer Acquisitions, 70, 89-90, ij8, 752. 

Zoo, Prince of Wales' Collection, 127-8. 

Late and Irregular Issue of the Club Journal, 125-7. 

Reviews and Notices of New Books, 127. 

Breeding of Leadbeater's Cockatoo, 150 

Seasonal Notes, 151. 

Aviculture in Japan, 204. 

A Rare Dove, 205. 

GoRRiNGE, Rev. R. E. P., M.A. 

* French Moult with Budgerigars and Parrakeets, 67-8. 

* Unexpected Breeding of Green and Yellow Budgerigars in same nest, 206 

(iRF.Y, Rt. Hon. Viscount, K.G. 

In My Bird Sanctuary, 115-21. 

Hartley, Mrs. E. H. 

* Millet-seed Samples, 91. 
Hicks, C. H. 

Post Mortem Reports, 154, 206. 260, 279. 
IToPKiNSON, E., D.S.O., M.A., M,B., F.Z.S., etc. 

Records of Birds which have Bred in Captivity, 171-7, 197-202, 219-21, 

Lucas, N.\th. S., M.B., F.Z.S. 

Post Mortem Reports, 20, 94, 130. 

Ml-REL, F. 

" French Moult " with Budgerigars and Parrakeets, 34-7. 

X. List 0/ Contributors. 

Page, Wksley T.. F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 
Mannikins, j-9. 

" French Moiill " witli Budgerigars and I'arrakects, 32-8, 68. 
My Yellow-winged Sugar-birds, 55-60. 
Pheasants and Elder as (irecnfood, 93. 
Stray Notes of the Season, 142-7. 

Visits to Members' Aviaries, 187-92, 221-0. 245-50, 261-4. 
A Java Sparrow Episode, 203-4. 
Nesting of the Cape Turtle-Dove, 234-5, 259-60. 

Pailt.ard, p. 

Budgerigars as Foster Mothers, 37-8. 
Porter, J. W. 

Shama, The Best Song Bird, 73-6. 

Pi'Li.AR, L. F. U., F.Z.S. 

Spring Notes for 1922, 99-102. 

R.>ttigj\n, Capt. G. E., F.Z.S. 

Breeding Results for 1921, 39-41. 

* Firstfruits of the Season, 124-5. 

* Current Notes of my Aviaries, 154. 
Quail Finches, 235-41. 
Exhibiting Foreign Birds, 265. 

Torquay Fur and Feather Show Report, 266-71. 

Ri-.An. Mrs. Mart, \ret 

* Seeing other Meniliers' Aviaries and Birds, 19. 

* A Few Notes of my Present Birds, 65-6. 

Rf.kvk, Cai-t. J. S., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 
My Aviaries and Birds, 21-5, 

* \ isiting Members' Aviaries, 46. 
A Cuckoo Episode, 141-2. 

* .Stray Notes, 152. 

Sicii. H. E. 

The Awful Mealworm, 54. 
Snare, Major A. E., O.B.E. 

* Our .Society and Its Journal, 45-6 
Srrawson. Dr. E., M.C, F.Z.S,. ktc, 

J-lappenings in our Aviaries, 164-5, -14-6 
Tavistock, The Marquis ok 

* Peregrine Falcon l^pisodes, 18-9. 

* New Race of Blue-Bonnet Parrakeets, 46. 
Some Notes on Crimson-wing Parrakeets, 50-4. 

* Sula Island King Parrakeet, 65. 

* Breeding Passerine Parrotlets at Liberty, 65. 

* French Moult with Budgerigars and Parrakeets, 67. 

* Compiling a List of Foreign Birds bred at Liberty, 92, 

* Inbreeding of Wild Species, 92, 

Ijst ijj COiifiihiitoiw'. 


TwisrocK, 'I'm; .M\K(.iris oi- 

* Dirticulty or l-";iihirf of Wild liiuls (o RVsciir tlu-ir Yonivjf. q_^. 

* I'lu'.isaiUs and IJdcr as ( Irfcnfooci. 93. 
i'.ti'odiuL; trimson-winj;- I'arrakeets, 1^5-7. 
Sonu- Xotcs nil Ked-Sliiiiinw Parrakeels. 1S1-4. 

* I'jTata, ()4. 

* Si-nilo Pi't-ay. ]j_\. 

* l)isi)Iay of Hatliilda nttiraiKhi. 153. 
Tlie Cockatcol at Liberty. _'oS-q. 

* Kn.^lisli Tick Killiiio- r.irds. J33-4. 
WiiisTi.iK. lincii. 1.1'., l-.Z.S.. 

])iar\ of a X'oya'.^x- Irom Karaclii to Marseilles. ~Cj-^~. 
\'isit to an Indian jlieel. JO0-t4. 

Bird Notes. 

Group of Hybrids, 

From life hij tlie lale II- iloodch'dd. 

^U flights Reserved, 3anuari?. 1922. 


~ THE — 


By Wesley T. 1'agk, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

To the general run of aviculturists the Mannikin group 
are the least pleasing of the Family PLOCEIDJE, and I can 
almost picture a grimace of disgust on the faces of some of my 
readers when they notice the title of this article. Well, I'm a 
bit of an outsider, for I find some members of this group both 
pleasing and interesting, and T have kept most of them. 

I am not speaking of cage-life, for when kept in cages 
most of them are listless and lack interest, except, perhaps, the 
Bronze Mannikin and Bib Finch. 

My experience of them is in the garden (wilderness) 
aviary — one that allows space for flight, and containing room 
for several tall evergreen bushes; here, if not as vivacious as 
the Pekin Robin, they are neither dull nor uninterestmg, far 
from it. for seen against the foliage of some evergreen bush 
they are noticeable and pleasing birds. 

,By wilderness aviary I do not mean merely a dense tangle 
of wild growth, but a well planned arrangement of open spaces, 
bushes and patches of tangled grass and herbage. While con- 
sidering how to fill up this issue I came across a photo (taken 
last year) of the interior of flight of the Duchess of vVellington's 
wilderness aviary, which well illustrates this point (see opposite) ; 
unfortunately the photo only covers the ornamental central 
avenue of the aviary, but behind the flower beds, on either side 
of the aviary, everything is left to grow wild, and here amid 
the tall grass Giant Whydahs have reared young for several 
years in succession, and Indigo Buntings also have successfullv 
reared their offspring. The illustration also shows that it is 

2 Mamukins. 

possible Ic) lia\'e llowcrs and l)ir(ls in the same asiary, t(jr tlii> 
enclosure has been occupied for several years princi[)ally l)y a 
collection of Fringilliitc and Floccinc finches. 

Now to get on with the Mannikins ! The species I have 
in mind are the following: 

Bronze Mannikin {Spcrmcstcs cuciiUata). 

Rufous-backed {S. iiigriceps). 

Bib Finch (S. nana). 

Magpie Mannikin (Atnaiircstlies fringilloidcs). 

Mannikins. 3 

White-headed Mannikin (Mitnia iiiaja). 
Tri-coloured Mannikin (M. malacca). 
Java Sparrow (.1/. orysivora). 
Spice Finch {M. pnnctulata). 
Bhck-headed Mannikin {M. atricapilla). 
Chestnut-breasted Finch (M. castaneitJiorax). 
Yellow-rumped Finch {M. flaTiprynvia). 
Bengalese Finch (.If. domestica). 
Pectoral Finch (M. pectoralis). 

The above is not a complete list of the group, l)ut it will 
answer its purpose, and includes some of the species I have kept. 

Diet : This can be given for the whole group. It is 
very simple. The main dietary is canary, white and IncHan 
millet seeds, and millet sprays. When rearing; young" some 
species — Bronze, and Magpie Mannikins, etc.. are very eager for 
mealworms and other insects : and they also take a little insectile 
mixture, and eat greenfood greedily. However. I have had 
young' of all the species reared on seed and greenfood alone, 
save for such insects as they captured in the aviary. 

It is not my purpose to refer to all the species given in 
my list, but merely to give a few notes on several of the species — 
the same treatment is applicable to all, nor do they vary greatly 
in characteristics and general habits. 

Chestnut-breasted Finch : There are many really 
pretty and pleasing Mannikins, but this is certainly one of the 
most handsome. Its garment is a beautiful harmony, of white, 
buf¥, fawn, browns and black, not much of the latter; visitors 
have seen it perched on a twig of laurel or cypress, and some 
such expression as " What a beautiful 1 ird " a very frequent 
one, is heard, and I cordially agree. 

Their courting movements, and the mannerisms of the 
mated pair are very quaint and interesting — how much there is 
to observe in a year's life of any species ! Their flignc is not 
an elegant one; it is jerky, as if they made a brief pause every 
few beats of the wing, and a real good flight round and round the 
aviary is not frequent, though occasionally indulged in. 

Nidification : This in all birds never lacks interest. We 
note the difference in their demeanour; life seems to have 
assumed a more serious aspect ; and as soon as the brief courting 
days are passed, they soon settle down to construct a house for 

4 M iiiniiL'ins. 

llieir liilurc (comin.L;) family. I'irst a silt' is cliosen, and tliey 
make a serious business of this; what a number of Hkely places 
arc carefully examined and rejected before the ideal spot 's 
found! Then there is no delay; brief recreation and feeding 
only arc allowed to interru])t the building. Their home when 
finished is not an elegant one; externally it looks more like a 
ball of hay, ragged and initidy. thrown together anyhow, but 
examine the interior which is c|uite symmetrical and well finished, 
cosily lined with fine hay and usually a few feathers. In due 
course three to five eggs (my broods have never exceeded three, 
but on two occasions one or two infertile eggs have been left ir. 
the nest after the young have flown) are deposited therein and 
incubation begins, which duties both male and female share, 
but the male's share is small indeed compared with that of his 
wife. How busy and excited they become as soon as soft 
voices are heard in the nest, and with w^hat care and valour they 
guard their home. What a happy day it is wdien they bring out 
their little family into the aviary-world. How interesting to 
watch the family party sunning, feeding, and exercising 
together, ere the parent birds commence the duties of rearing 
another brood. 

I have found them to be double brooded, though often, 
when the season is cold and abnormally wet, only one brood is 

I have lingered too long over this species, but it is rather 
'' favourite of mine. To me it is as beautiful as the somewhat 
garishly clad Gouldian Finch ! 

This species has been successfully crossed with other 

Yellovv-rumped Mannikin. — Quite as beautiful as the 
preceding species, perhaps more so; it has rather a curious his- 
tory as to its place in aviculture : introduced to aviculture at 
one of the large London autumn shows by, I think. Mr. D. Seth- 
Smith, it created a mild furore — it is as handsome as any of the 
(rrassfinches — the following year quite a crowd were on the 
market ; at the present moment few, if ?ny, are alive in this 

Tt is a charming aviary bird and stands conspicuously 
against a background of dark green foliage, and is no more 

Mainiikiiis. 5 

lethargic in its demeanour tli;in a (irasstinch; in fact, not so 
much so as the popular (jouldian Finch. It did not prove a 
ready breeder in captivity, and but few aviculturists have suc- 
ceeded in breeding it. 

Its nidification and other general habits are similar to 
those of the Chestnut-breasted Fincn. 

Pec'I'oral Finch : Another uncommon and beautiTul 
Australian Mannikin, which we seldom see on the market now-a • 
days, quite as desirable as either of the above species, and 
only a few aviculturists have successfully bred it. 

It constructs a domed nest in some thick bush or faggot 
of branches, of rough and untidy exterior, but well lined and 
finished internally. It. however, has a decided predilection 
for an artificial nest site under cover, usually a fairly roomy 
box, which it completely tills from bottom to top with material 
save for the well finished central nest-chamber, leaving only a, 
small hole for entrance, which is usually below the level of the 
nest-chamber floor, so that, save for sounds and the birds' 
demeanour, it is difficult to follov,- progress from the egg to 
exit of the young. 

The above three species are. perhaps, the most attractive 
of this group, though this is, of course, a matter of individual 
opinion, yet among the remaining" species there are many with 
contrasty and handsome plumage, and some of tliem form fairlv 
conspicuous objects in the aviary. 

Rufous-backed Manniktn. — This is another species of 
irregular appearance on the market, though quite a number were 
on offer last year, and one aviculturist at any rate, Capt. G. E. 
Rattigan, bred them quite freely. 

Its nidification and general habits are so similar to those 
we have already given that we need not refer to them further, 
save to remark that when feeding young they are very keen 
on live insects, and supplying a few at intervals during the day. 
certainly enhances the prospect of the young being success- 
fully reared, though young are reared without any live-food 
supply save what the parent birds capture in the aviary. 

They are very desirable and not costly birds for the aviar". 

Broxze-wtnt, ATaxxikixs. — This perky, handsome little 
fellow is, perhaps, the plebeian of the Mannikin family; he 
certainly is the cheapest and most common, being, in fact. 

6 Mannikins. 

always on tlie market, though in pre-war times he and the Java 
Sparrow ran neck and neck for this position with the result of 
honours about even. 

In spite of all this 1 like the little chap; in a roomy aviary 
he is always so merry, perky and enquiring", and mostly, if you 
have a true pair, gives }ou one brood of young per annum, i*' 
no more. 

Their nest, too, is a domed one. rough and uncouHi 
looking outside, but well-linished, snug and all that his familv 
can require inside. Moreover, he knows how to look after i* 
too, for he will successfully defend it, or die, even against a 
cardinal — not often does he fail, for he is so bold, quick and 
alert, the other fellow gets no chance and soon cries enough ! 
1 have dilated again and again on tne pleasing spectacle of 
family parties when the young have left the nest; none are more 
so than this species — though the Zebra Finch, the plebeian of the 
( Irassfinches, runs them close — true the young hide away in the 
bushes for the first two or three days, and you can only locate 
them when they call for food, but after this period you can see 
tliem feeding and foraging or disporting togetner, an object 
lesson of " the gladness of life," which all creatures 
exhibit in greater or less degree — none more so than the little 
Bronze-wing, even though he has no song Avorth mentioning 
wherewith to declare it. 

Magpie, or Pied Mannikin. — This is perhaps the least 
])leasing in form of any of the mannikins, being more than 
double the size of the Bronze-wing, also heavily built and with ,'i 
very powerful beak; but he certainly is not an ugly bird. His 
plumage, if not brilliant, is pleasing; an arrangement of shar,) 
contrasts in glistening black and white, with a fawn-coloured 
patch on each side of the body. 

His powerful form and large beak have given him the 
unenxiable notoriety of being a pugnacious bird; most certainlv 
he has not lived up to this reputation in my aviaries, and I have 
had many ]iairs since T began birdkeeping. In fact, I have 
never seen him attempt to use his powerful beak aggressivelv 
save W'hen defending his nest, and in this he earned my admira- 
tion, not displeasure — with half his body extending from the 
entrance of his nest he would deal pick-axe-like blows with his 

Mannikins. 7 

powerful l)eak. at any bird which came near, anyone of which 
would have been fatal had it reached its mark; for this 1 
certainly did not blame him, especially as ay;"gressors took care 
to keep him out of reach; in fact it was a case of " good luck 
to him." And he was always a proud father indeed when he 
brought forth a troop of babies into the aviary-world. 

The Magpie, too, likes plenty of insects when he is rearing 
3 family, and my advice is "" let 'im 'ave em." 

One season I had neither a trtte pair of Magpie nor Bronze 
Matuiikins in the aviary, simply a cock Bronze and a hen Magpie. 
The Bronze had been the father of several families of his own 
kind, but being bereaved he married again, and the size of the 
only hen of the mannikin fann'ly did not daunt him, but after 
considerable skirmishing, for it amounted to that, the lady 
consented and accepted him. As a result two broods of very 
pretty hybrids were produced about intermediate between the 
parents, both as to size and plumage. 

Bronze-wing x Magpie Mannikin Hybrid. 

I may here remark that many, nay most, Mannikin hybrids 
are fertile when paired back to other species, but not intcr-sc. 

In point of fact Mannikins are, I consider, readier to 
mate among each other, failing a mate of their own species, than 
any other group of birds, and will even mate up with a grass- 
finch sooner than remain unmated. In support of this 
statement I refer my readers to back volumes of Bird Notes. 
and reprint a plate of Mannikin hybrids w-hich the late H. 



(ioodcliikl drew, some years ago, at L.C.B.A. Horticultural 

Hall Show, 1914. 

Ki:\ TO I'LATI':. 
I. Spice X Bib Finch. 
-J. Silverbill x Bengalese. 
3. Red-vented x Red-eared JJullnil. 
4 and 6. Magpie Mannikin x Bengalese. 
5. Greenfinch x Himalayan Siskin. 

Yet, withal, the Tri-coloured Mannikin has not been brefl 
as a species so far as I am aware of, thoui^h it has been success- 
fully crossed with other Munias. 

I must hasten these notes to a completion, dealing- with 
the species yet unnoted collectively, putting the Java Sparrow, 
Bengalese Finch, and Spice Finch first as a trio of strikingiv 
noticeable aviary-birds; perhaps their order of merit is as I 
have placed them ; certainly there are few finer spectacles than ,> 
group of 6-8 Java Sparrows dispersed amid the foliage of a 
roomy garden-aviary. The White variety of this species is 

Spice Im'iicIi X Bengalor Hybrid. 

even more noticeable and beautiful. The pretty Bengalese 
Finch can scarcely liide itself, so noticeable is its colouration; 
this applies to all three forms — the White. Fawn and White, and 
Chocolate and White. The Spice 1^'inch is also a striking an 1 
beautiful l)ir(l. with its warm chestnut-cinnamon back, and 
beautifully laced white underparts; this species is a shy breeder, 
yet it has been successfully crossed many times with various 
other Munias. 



I— I 



Ma)i)iikiiis. <.) 

There still remain four other species to mention in passing 
from our incomplete list, viz : the White-headed, Tri-coloured. 
Black-headed and Bib Finch. The two first named are also 
noticeable and striking birds; so is the Black-headed when he 
places himself against a background of light green, but he is lost 
adid laurel, euonymous. cypress, and the like, unless very closely 
observed. And now, lastly, what can I say in a few terse words 
about the charuiing but insignificant looking" little Bib Finch, 
the mannikin of the Mannikins ? Well, he has not much colour, 
but he is small, only about half the size of the Bronze-wing, in 
fact about the size of an Avadavat. but a little more stoutly built, 
he is a free breeder, has plenty of vim and go, yet non-interfering 
with the other occuy)ants of the aviary. True he has to be 
looked for. but when foimd he is a quiet little picture well worth 
looking at, and, unless it is nesting-time, his modest little wife 
is never far away, and, when seen together amid the foliage of a 
fairly large bush, the eye does not readily turn from them — 
cuddled together, a wee-bit of life amid an immensity of green; 
a pair in a large aviary of mine some years ago received the 
cognomen of " The Babes in the Wood " — a not inappropriate 

Now for my last paragraph: The hybrids mentioned 
and illustrated herein have not been, in any single instance, I 
think, deliberately bred, but are the result of the chance mating 
of odd birds in the aviary. This has been the case with all the 
hybrids, of any group of birds, bred in my aviaries, as I have 
never deliberately tried to cross any species. This article has 
been written against time and physical disability, because other 
copy has failed to come in. 

Notes on Some Owls and Hawhs. 

By the late Lt. F. Davvsox-Smtth. 

[The following rough notes came to hand with others, and were 

evidently intended by our late member, not as an article, but 

as notes to prepare the article from. — Ed.] 

Burrowing Ov^'ls (Speotyto citniciilario). These quaint 

and pretty owls inhabit the burrows of marmots, and thus dwell 

10 A'otcs on Sonic Oivls and Hazuks. 

in open plains; they seem to enjoy the g'lare of the sun. and fly 
about rapidly in search of food in daytime. Not timid, and 
allows fairly close approach; if really disturbed, at once retreat 
into their burrow. When young are only covered in down 
they often sit at entrance of burrow, but descend quickly when 

They feed principally upon insects, and in the West Indies 
on rats and reptiles. 

M. C. L. Bonaparte's records concerning' this species are 
as follows : 

" Marmots, whose excavations are so commodious as to make 't 
" unnecessary that the owl should dig for himself, as he is said to do in 
■' other parts of the world, where no burrowing animals exist. These 
" villages are very numerous, sometimes covering a few acres, and at o'.hers 
" spreading over the surface of the country for miles together. The} are 
" composed of slightly elevated mounds, having the form of a truncated 
" cone, about 2ft. in width at the base, and seldom rising so high as lO'n. 
" above the surface of the soil. The entrance is placed either at the top 
" or on the side, and the whole mound is beaten down externally, especially 
" at the summit, resembling a much used footpath." 

" In all these prairie-dog villages the Pjurrovving Owl is seen moving 
" briskly about, or else in small flocks scattered among the mounds, and 
" at a distance may be mistaken for the marmot itself, when sitting erect. 
" They manifest but little timidity, and allow themselves to be approached, 
" but if alarmed, some, or all of them, soar away again and settle down 
" at a short distance : if further disturbed, this flight is continued until they 
" are no longer in view, or the\- descend into their dwellings, whence they 
" arc so difficult to dislodge." 

" The burrows into which these owls have been seen to dcsc?nd, on 
" the plains of the river Platte, where they are most numerous, were 
" evidently excavated by the marmot ; whence it has been inferred that they 
" were either common, though unfriendly, residents of the same habitation, 
" or that this owl was the sole occupant acquired by right of conquest. 
■' The evidence of this was clearly presented bv the ruinous condition of 
"' l>urrows tenanted by the owl, which were frequently caved in. and their 
" sides channelled by the rains : while the neat and well-preserved mansion 
" of the marmot showed the active care of a skilful and industrious owner. 
" We have no evidence that the owl and marmot habitually resort to one 
" burrow, yet we are assured by Pike and others that a common danger 
" often drives them into the same excavation, where lizards and rattle- 
" snakes also enter for concealment and safety." 

Inhabits X. America, treeless regions of Western 
N. America, from Plains to Pacific, also suitable places in 
many other States. In Dakota and other regions as manv a= 

Notes on Some Ozuls and Haicks. ii 

twenty of these owls sometimes nest in the same hole. Well 
sup])lied with food, shore-larks, mice. etc. Rarely use material 
for nests. Outside holes may be found bits of skin of rats, 
mice. etc. Eggs, glossy white, nearly round, usually 6 to 8 
in number. 

Length of h'nd 9.50 inches. 
'■ The Burrowing Owl is sui)posed to l^c more than a match for prairie- 
dog and rattle-snakes as well." 

It eats young marmots and even old ones. It enlarges 
burrows, beginning at far end of tunnel to remove the earth and 
send it backwards with vigorous kicks until all is clear. Dry 
horse or cow dung is carried to burrow, broken in pieces and 
scattered over nesting chamber, which may be eight or ten feei 
from entrance. Owl's eggs smothered with fleas w'hich 
positively spsckl? the eggs. Birds remain paired for life. 

Nursery duties usually ended by June, and one can see 
funny top-heavy little owls at burrow entrance. Bowing 
toward you as you approach, your entertainer is not shy — a little 
gnome-like creature nearly twists its head off its neck in its 
attempts to follow your movements with its immovable eyes. 
Approach too near and it flies off chattering, " zip. zip " when 
alarmed. They also sharply and rapidly click their bills wdien 
excited or enraged. After sundown one sees these busy 
hunters on the chase, now poised in mid-air like a sparrow-hawk, 
above their prey, now swooping dow'nwards on swift noiseless 
wings to grasp if in their talons and bear it away. A few 
well-directed blows with beak that breaks the vertebrae of neck 
quieten it for ever. They account for surprisingly large prey. 
Like brains best, often leave other parts untouched. A useful 

Indi.vX Little Owl (Athene brama): A clownish and 
amusing bird. \^ery noisy and makes a nocturnal pandemonium. Owl (Strix uralensis) : This fine bird has a length 
of 23 inches. It is a native of Arctic regions; common in 
Lapland and Ural Mountains. Also parts of Austria and North 
of vSweden. Rarely seen in other parts of the world. 

Preys chieflv on birds and small animals, which towards 
the close of day it may be seen looking out for. among the 
fcrests of the desolate regions in which it lives. 

12 Notes on Sonic Ou'ls and llawks. 

Nests in holes in trees, lays 4 to 5 eggs. 

American Sparrow Hawk (Falco sparvensis): 
pretty species may be seen hovering almost motionless in 
mid-air, then suddenly swooping to ground. Seeks its prey 
over fields and meadows. 

Builds no nest ; deposits its eggs in natural cavities of high 
trees, often in deserted holes of woodpeckers, and in crevices in 
rocks and buildings, sometimes in a deserted magpie's nest. 

Cavities usually contain no lining; eggs 4 to 5 in numb;'r. 
laid in April or early part of May. 

Male : Top of head slaty-blue; several black patches on 
side of head and nape ; back rufous, with black spots ; tail rufous 
white tipped with a broad black band below it; underparts 
white or buff, sometimes spotted with black. Length to to 11 

Common in N. America in general. 

Perched on a high dead limb or other point of vantage. 
ii" eagerly scans the field below for grasshoppers, mice, sparrows 
and the like. When prey is sighted it launches itself into the 
air, hovers over its victim, then drops like a stone, seizes it in 
its talons and flies back to its perch to feast. It is amusing to 
watch it handle a grasshopper, very much as a squirrel might 
eat a nut if he had only two legs. On becoming dissatisfied 
with its hunting grounds, it will fly off over the fields gracefullv, 
swiftly, now pausing on quivering wings to reconnoitre, now on 
again, suddenly arresting flight to pounce on its tiny prey. Its 
flight is not protracted nor soaring: never so hurried, so swift, 
or so fierce as the small hawks; it is none the less active, and its 
charming hovering posture gives its flight a special grace. 
Kill-ee. kill-ee. kill-ee it calls as it flies above the grass. Lets 
feathered prey alone until grasshoppers and field mice can't 
be got. 

Remains paired for life. 

Rkd-siioitt.dered Buzzard (Buteo horealis): This fine 
species, 18 to 20 inches in length, is also known as the 
Chicken-hawk." and is very common in X. America. 

It pre}s upon mice, insects, moles, and small birds. 
Sailing in wide circles overhead, the Red-shouldered is a 

r.iRD Notes. 

I'huh, h,/ W. Sli,n-r linihl. 

Algerian C'iiaffinch on Nest. 

The Nesting of the Algerian Chaffinch. 13 

picture of repose in motion. Rising, falling in long undula- 
tions, floating, balancing far above the earth, now stationary 
on motionless wings, and again with a superb swoop, a very 
meteor for speed. Serenely pursues its way, ignoring the 
indignities of the crow that may not reach the dizzy heights to 
which it soars. While nesting. April to August, helpless fledg- 
lings give them little opportunity for these leisurely sails, but 
they are birds of freedom indeed towards the end of August. 
and in September " Kee you. kee you " they scream as they 
sail — a cry the Blue Jay has learned to imitate to perfection. 
Easy to approach when gorged. Leaves food when approached 
instead of carrying it off like the other hawks. If cornered or 
wounded will fight to the last on the back, defending themselves 
with both bills and talons. Spends most of its life perching, 
usually on some dead limb, where it watches for mice and moles 
creeping through the meadow, etc. It is not shy. and when 
perched can be easily approached and watched as it descends 
like a thunderbolt to strike its prey. 

Eggs. 2 to 4 in number, white with rough granulated 
shells, often irregularly marked with shades of cinnamon, 

They remain paired for life. Their downy young are 
helpless, and do not leave the nest until fully able to fly. 

The Nesting of the Algerian Chaffinch 

Fringtlla spodiogenes. 

By W. Shore Baily. 

Rather more than a year ago I bought a pair of Algerian 
Chaffinches from a London dealer. The cock was a nice bird, 
but the hen was in rough condition and minus one eye. so while 
turning the cock into an outdoor aviary I decided to keep the 
hen indors until the warm weather set in. The cock started 
singing early in February, and both its song and call-note were 
noticeably different from those of the English birds outside the 
aviary, who very freely replied to its vocal efforts. 

The birds themselves differ very little in plumage from 

14 The Ncsti)ig of the Algerian Chaffinch. 

T. coelebs, but are rather larger and have a good deal more 
white on the wings. About the end of March 1 turned the 
hen, which had greatly improved in condition, into the aviary 
with the cock, but shortly after this I picked up the latter, dead. 
As 1 was unable to get another male, for these birds seem to 
be very rarely imported, I trapped one of our own birds and 
introduced it to the hen. For a time they took very little 
notice of each other, but in May I noticed the cock chasing the 
hen, and singing to her. Shortly afterwards the hen was seen 
carrying feathers and other nesting materials, and for some 
weeks she spent a great deal of time in trying to construct a nest. 
Her efforts were ciuite unsuccessful, as before she could get the 
foundation properly constructed the whole thing would collapse. 
This happened time and again, and it was evident that the 
material available for her was unsuitable. At last I supplied 
her with some cotton wool, and with this she succeeded in 
l)uilding quite a neat nest, rather larger than that of the common 
Chaflfinch, and, of course, quite different in appearance. In 
this she laid three eggs, somewhat similar in colour and mark- 
ings to those of our bird. She sat very steadily, but the eggs 
proved infertile. I removed them in the hope that she would 
have a second nest, but she made no attempt to do so, so 1 must 
hope for better luck next year. 

Writing of the Algerian Chaffinch in Birds of Tunisia, 
Mr. Whittaker says: — 

" Tin's liird never appears to have strayed across the Straits of 
(iiljraltar, or to liave been found in Spain, and the species has every right 
to be considered as jjecuh'ar to North-west Africa. In its habits generally 
/•". sf^dilioi^oics resembles our Kuro])ean Chaffinch, and I cannot say that I 
bave noticed much difference in il.s song, although its notes may, perhaps. 
be a little harsher, and not so cleai' as those of F. coclebs. To be able to 
judge properly, however, one should hear individuals of the two species 
singing together, or one almost immediately after the other. In any case. 
however, the bright call notes of the Algerian Chaffinch, and its cheery 
short song, fall as pleasantly on the car in the North African woodlands as 
does the familiar note of its pAiropean congener at home, and they form no 
slight contribution to the wealth of bird music to be heard in some of those 
districts during the spring and early summer months." 

" This Chaffinch thrives well in confinement, and examples of it may 
often be seen in cages in Tunis and other towns of the Regency. Seeds of 
various kinds seem to be the principle food of the species, but insects also 




The Nesting of the Algerian Chaffinch. 15 

largely enter into its diet. The nesting season of /". spodiogciics in Southern 
and Central Tunisia commences soon after the middle of March, and is con- 
tinued well into May. In the north of the Regency it is somewhat later. 
In the olive-groves of the Gafsa oasis I have found many nests during the 
first fortnight of April, some with eggs, others with fledglings in them. 
The nests are placed as a rule in the fork of a bough at a height of eight 
to sixteen feet from the ground, and resemble those of our European 
Chaffinch, in being cup-shaped and neatly and compactly built, but they arc 
somewhat larger, and composed externally of dry bents and grasses of a 
greyish colour, which harmonises better with the grey boughs and foliage of 
the olive-tree. Interwoven into the nest are pieces of wool and cotton 
threads, and occasionally also a l)it of blue cotton stufif, probably picked up 
near some Arab tent; the interior is neatly lined with hair and feathers. 
The eggs, usually rather larger than those of the common Chaffinch, and 
generally four in number, are of a dull pale bluish or greenish colour, sparsely 
clouded and spotted with vinous and russett markings. They vary a good 
deal in size and shape, but their average measurements are -M.50 x 15.50 mm." 


THE PROSPECT : This is all we could desire, and the 
future outlook is rosy, if we are only prepared to take the 
trouble to grasp and use our opportunities. 

We regret we cannot congratulate our members ui)on this 
issue — again too much has been left for the Editor's pen to hil — 
and the result is and must remain so, that lark of variety, which, 
we think, all desire to see. 

Our members do not seem to have yet grasped the fact 
that, during the war, we lost most of our regular and valued 
contributors, or are somewhat indifferent or slack about the 
matter. Your Editor cannot, and it is unreasonable to expect 
it, write several articles month by month, and if members will 
not take the trouble to write articles on the doings of birds in 
their own aviaries, rare arrivals, which they see or hear of, and 
other topics of aviculture — we still have a good membership, 
but comparatively few wrote anything for the Journal last year, 
and there should be ample unrecorded matter to carry us over 
till the coming season should supply us with fresh facts and 
episodes — one thing we must make quite clear : your Editor 
cannot, and zvill not. be always whining for copy, neither can he 

1 6 Editorial. 

be always writing" so bnlkily as in the past, and // the members 
zvill not supply copy, the failure is theirs and not your Editor's. 
VVe have placed the issue clearly before you — the future is yours 
to make or mar. 

If members do not supply more copy than in the [)ast 
there can only be one result, viz : issues of Bird i\OTKs small in 
bulk and equally so in variety. 

While upon this topic we will refer once more to the 
L'orrespondence section — this is not largely used, yet interest 
and profit sliould result if the opposite were the result. h^or 
instance, how important are insectile mixtures to the successful 
keeping" of soft-bills and the successful rearing" of their young- - 
What interest and profit there would result from a discussion 
upon this topic — we are not a society of traders and have no 
business secrets to conserve — it only needs one or two members 
to give their methods and results, and others to follow on; to 
start what would be some of most, if not the most, practical 
and important avicultural copy Bird Notes has ever published. 
And there are numerous other similar topics that might be so 
dealt with — we have only to remember that we have not, neither 
are we called upon, to prove that iiiy iiii.vture is the only right 
or successful one, but to glean valuable knowledge and data, 
which should not only be mutual gain, but prove conducive to 
the happiness and comfort of the birds we confine ; to put all 
fear of acrimonius discussion to flight (if such we indulged iv, 
the Editor's blue pencil would most certainly erase it), and a 
pleasing, interesting and practical feature be commenced in our 

We do not desire to repeat what we have said in our 
Retrospect — we note that there is a desire for the resumption of 
coloured plates; WE WILL HAVE THEM AS SOON AS 

Again there is the need for new members to make good 
war losses, etc. ; this is a matter in which all can help, \vill they ? 

As we opened so we close — the future is ours to make or 
mar. If we grasp our opportunities, and each individual 
member does his, or her, part according to their ability, then 
1922 will be the most successful in our history. 

Editorial. 17 

FOREIGX BIRD EXHIBITIXG : The war practically 
put a stop to the exhibition of foreign birds, at any rate so far 
as London was concerned, and then the prohibition of their 
import temporarily caused the supply to run low, and even now, 
more than three years after the signing of the armistice, foreign 
bird exhibiting has not as yet got into its stride, though we 
opine that next autumn things will be pretty near normal again, 
and. we hope, F.B.C. will fully resume its normal place therein. 

We have been unable to get up to recent London Shows 
and report them in our Journal, including the recent Olympia 
Show, perhaps some member who attended will send us notes 
regarding the latter. 

We have a few notes sent us and a catalogue of the 
Scottish National Shoiv held, we think, on January ist. There 
were six classes in the Foreign Section, viz : 

Common Waxbills, Finches, Mannikins, etc. 

Budgerigars and Lovebirds. 

A.D.\'\ Seed Eaters not larger than Cardinals. 

Cockatoos, Parrots or Parrakeets. 

A.S. Tanagers, Sugarbirds, etc. 

A.S. not comprised in the above. 

These drew together some 47 entries, comprising some 
beautiful and interesting species, but mostly those well known 
to aviculture if not to the show bench. 

The Class for Common Waxbills, etc. does not call for 
comment. It only drew six entrants. 

I, Gallacher, St. Helena Waxbill ; 2. 3, Brotherstone, Diamond Sparrow and 
St. Helenas ; 4, 5, H. L. F. Pullar, Mannikins and Napoleon Weaver. 

Budgerigars and Weavers (11): 
I. V. H. C. & C, H. L. F. Pullar. Blue Budgerigars (F.B.C. medal), Olive 
and Apple-green Budgerigars: 2, 4. 5, Miss Peddie Waddell, Green 
Budgerigars, Peach-faced Lovebirds, and Yellow Budgerigars ; 3, Broth- 
erstone, Peach-faced Lovebirds. 

A.O.V. Seed Eaters (14): 

I. 3, 4, H. L. F. Pullar, Virginian Cardinal, Green Cardinal, and Pin-tail 
Parrot Finches ; 2, 5, Laurie, Violet-eared Waxbills, and Paradise Whydah, 

i8 Correspondence. 

Cockatoos, Parrots, etc. (lo) : 

I. Ad.inis, Riisi'lla Parrakccl ; J, 4, 5, H. L. F. Pullar, Prince Lucian Conurcs, 
I'.lack-hea'kd, and Wliitc-carcd Conures ; 3, Erskine, Crimson-wing 

Tana.i^ers, etc. (3) : 

I, Montag:ue, Ycllow-wino-cd Suq^arlMrd ; 2, H. L. F. Pullar, Superb Tanager ; 
3. Arnott, Yellow-vented Bulbul. 

A.O.V. (3): 

1, 3, Arnott, Wandering Tree-pic, and Black-headed Sibia ; 2, H. L. F. Pullar, 
(Ireat Mexican Grosbeak. 

We are informed that the exhibits were all put down in 
good condition, well staged, and formed a great attraction to the 
visiting public. 

It will be seen that members of F.B.C. were well to the 
fore, both as to entries and successes. 

Our members should inform tlieir various club secretaries 
that Mr. S. Williams, Oakleigh. 110 Riverway, Palmer's Green, 
London, N., 13, is now the Exhibitional Secretary for F.B.C. 



Sir, — The following incident, though not strictly avicultural, may he 

of sufficient interest to serve as " copy!" 

A few months ago I noticed my pair of Indian Ring-necked Parrakeets. 
apparently startled by something. Hying swift and low across the fields in 
front of the house, and a moment later was surprised to see the wedge-shaped 
form of a peregrine falcon — a rare bird in this flat and civilized region — passing 
over at a considerable height. Although one cannot help feeling a certain 
sentimental affection for this fine bird of prey, I must admit that her appear- 
ance did not fill me with unmixed joy, as I reflected on the probable fate 
of my Crimson-wing and other slower flying Parrakeets, should she happen 
to meet with them in the open, when hungry. However, time passed by 

Correspondence. 19 

and 1 saw no more of her. so I concliuk-il tlial she was on migration 
However, this afternoon (Fehruary 3rd) I again made licr acquaintance. 
My wife called my attention to a bird chasing a peewit, and putting my 
glasses on it, I found it was my old friend. The peewit she was after eluded 
her, but a moment later she dropped, head downwards, on to something on 
the ground, which proved to be another peewit, which, with singidar lack 
of caution, had continued feeding on the plough. There was a brief Strugs; L-. 
terminating, as I thought, in the death of the unhappy plover, which its ca])tci- 
started to pluck. Being anxious to see where the falcon wou'd carry her 
quarry, 1 entered tlie field, but the moment my head appeared above the hedge, 
two-hundred yards away, the peregrine dropped the peewit, who, far from 
being dead, made ofif with all possible despatch, no doubt a wiser an.d mere 
cautious bird. 

The falcon Mew straight away over the tdwn, and once more I heartily 
wished I was seeing the last of her — but was I ? Time will show ! 
llavant: February 3, 1922. (The Marquis of) TAX'ISTOCK. 


Sir,— I have some Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia caslaiiutis] bred in my 
aviary. The second brood were hatched on October 7th, one of which prom- 
ises to be very dark, as there are many black feathers showing. 

I have also reared two Avadavats {Sporacgiutliiis amaiidava), and 1 
wonder whether these have often been bred so far north as Edinburgh ? 

Cordon Bleus and Cuban Finches nested, but did not hatch out any 
yc ung. 

Edinburgh : December 19, 1921. j CURRIE 

Sir,— I always feel, and I expect there are many others that have 
similar thoughts, that members of F.B.C. ought to be able to get to know 
other members, and so get bird-talks occasionally. Would it be possible to 
put m any kind of informal notice in Bird Notes to the effect that I, for 
one. would be delighted to have a visit from anv member who mighi be 
m this district, and would care to call. 

This is only a mere suggestion. 

Church Croft, Weston Park, Thames Ditton : January 16, 1922. 

SiH,— I left home for England on December 21st, and it may interest 
you to hear that a hen canary was sitting on eggs, in a nest she had made 

20 Post Mortem Reports. 

in an ivy bush out of doors. Zebra Finches are also nesting- in a thick bush. 
(I'ally water Park, Co. Down). 

T have not bought any birds since the war broke out, so my variety 
is now quite small; but, on my return, I am taking- back with me a fair 
number of waxbills, mannikins, weavers, whydahs, and other Ploceine finches, 
also some buntings, larks, waxwings and troupials. 

You will be pleased to hear that the Egrets and Pond Herons are 
doing well ; the former fly beautifully, but, I am afraid they will have to be 
pinioned and wander at large out of doors, as, though they are in the far 
division of the aviary, the smell of fish is most ol)jectionable, and spo'ls the 
pleasure of going down there. 
London: December 30, 1921. (Lady) N. L. F. DUNLEATH. 


Post Mortem Reports. 

Vide rules on page n. of cover. 

Cordon Bleu : A. H. Barnes. — Pneumonia. 

ViOLET-E.ARED Waxbill : Mrs. Calvocoressi. — Pneumonia. 

Paradise Whydah : R. E. Simpson. — Pneumonia. 

Pennant Parrakeet ; H. Whitley. — Enteritis. 

Australian Crested Dove : H. Whitley.— Nephritis (Inflammation of 

CiRL Bunting : Capt. Reeve. — Congestion of lungs and enteritis. 
Budgerigar : Miss Foster. — Abscess of lung. 

Hon. Pathologist. 


— THE — 

My Aviaries and Birds, 

By Capt. J. S. Reeve, F.Z.S.. M.B.O.U. 

Your Editorial admonition in January issue of B.N , 
combined with a free evening, has compelled me to attempt an 

My aviaries, except for an alteration to which I will refer 
later, are as they were when last described in this Journal; 
therefore I am not giving" any details of these. 

In pre-war days I went in principally for foreign finches, 
weavers and waxbills. I was obliged to get rid of the greater 
part of these while away soldiering, and the only survivor was 
a cock Red-headed Weaver {Quclca erythrops), which came 
from Hamlyn in 1906. and survived his return here by over a 
year, dying in November 1920, being then fully fifteen years old; 
he was out of doors all the year round practically the whole 

Since the war I have gone in for a few Softbills, Parra- 
keets, and the rarer British species. uf those not still in my 
aviaries I may mention a pair of Cirl Buntings (Emberisa 
cirlus), of whose nesting I contributed a few notes last year; a 
Black-necked Grackle (which I ultimately sold to the New York 
Zoo) was an amusing customer who did not know what fear 
was. but he was never in the best of health ; a pair of Crossbills, 
which w'ould soon have destroyed a large holly bush in my 
large aviary, not to mention rambler roses, all of the which thev 
barked and frayed the twigs ; a pair of Woodlarks were verv 
engaging, and the song of the male was very sweet and distinc- 
tive, but they did not long survive ! 

The present occupants of my aviaries are as follows : 

House Aviary : This was refitted a year ago, and I put 

^2 AJ y Ai'iarics and Birds. 

in a radiator and liot-vvater service, added glass doors so as 
to enclose birds into the inner portion diirini^- the winter month.;: 
the temperatnre this winter has varied between 50 and 60 
dei^rees F. 1 also wired in a small ])iece as winter cpiarters iov 
the smaller species. 

In the main portion are : — - 

I pair Triangular Spotted Pi.qeoiis (CoJitiuha pliaconota). 

Glossy Starling {iMUiprotoniis citalybeus). 

c? Shama (Cittocinchi iiiacriira). 

r^ Archbishnj) TuiVAffev (Tainii^ra oriiata). 

I pair Red rumped Parrakects {Pscplioliis liaoimhnuitus). 

I ])air Blue-winged (Psittacula passeruia). 

I ])air Prince I.ucian Conures (Pyrrlnini luciani). 

T ])air Blossom-lieaded Parrakeets (Falaenniis cyanocephaJa). 

1 pair Spot-billed Toucanettes (Selenidera maculirostris). 

The Triani^'nlar Spotted Pigeons have done exceptionallv 
well with me, proving quite prolific. I bought a pair from the 
London Zoo in March 1920, and the following is their record : 

2 young left the nest May 30, 1920. 

2 young left the nest July 17/22, iq20. 

2 young left the nest Sejitembcr iS/20, ^q20. 

2 young left the nest Ai)nl 28/29, 1921. 

T voung left the nest June 23, 1921. 

- <^S'S:S Pi-^t under Stock Doves July 2, 1921, and -rice I'crsa. 

2 young Stock Doves left the nest August 4/7, i92r. 

2 yiung Tri.-s]).')tteds left the nest October 4/12, 102:. 

2 young Tri.-siif)tteds left the nest December 21/29, 1921. 

2 eggs in nest I'ebruarv, 1922, which I ihink arc addled. 

1 cannot say I have had much success with the Tanagers 
for the bulk of them did not survive long with me, in fact 
never properly recovering from the hardships of iiuportatif)n. 
though looking well when T got them from the dealer. The 
cock Archbishop Tanager (twice a widower"! is a beautv, who. 
after a winter indoors, moulted out into glorious plumage in the 
outdoor aviary last autumn; he is now in full song; Shan\'i 
will not let him feed if he can help it. but his Lordship, the 
Archbishop, seizes a piece of apple, banana or grape, fli'^s off 
to a branch with it and devours it in coiufort; he is ever keen 
to get out of doors; as also are the parrakeets. '1 iie .Shnm.-^ 
is a favourite, T have had him three years and he is a fi'^f^ 

My pair of Red-rump Parrakeets have done well, have 

My Ai'iarics and Birds. 23 

fully reared quite a few youni; birds, and can now well be called 
a breedini; pair. The other species have yet to show what they 
can do in the way of reproducing their kind. With the excep- 
tion of the Blossom-heads (these are young- birds and not yet 
fully developed) all the parrakeets are in fine condition and T 
am hoping for results. 

Tlie .Spot-billed Toucanettes are really delightful birds: 
ihev calcli a great deal better than 1 can throw, indeed they never 
miss a reasonable chance! If handing them a grape with a 
glove or tinger'stall on, or anything unusual they will examine 
the latter before t.aking the grape; both are in perfect plumage 
now. though the cock is never so lively as his spouse, and 
appears to " have a liver." often being dull and " bunchy " for 
days at a time; perhaps he really has a liver, for he is as fat as 
he well can be; they like a mealworm, though I seldom give 
them one, and when I do Mr. Shania will have it out of their 
beak, if he sees it. before they can toss it up and dispose of it. 
They will play with a dead mouse and, I believe, have swallowed 
a small one [my Suljihur-breasted Toucan used to catch mice, as 
the blood-spattered perches amply demonstrated, and his lack of 
appetite indicated the same when I went down in early mornings 
to feed — no uncommon occurrence either. — Ed.]. Drapes and 
banana are the favourite fruits, tnough they eat a lot of apple 
pecking it off the solid fruit. I can distinguish no difference 
in the call of the sexes, but since the cold weather the male 
has hardlv uttered it. she every day. The call is made with a 
profound bow and then again with the head right up. and so on 
alternately, perhaps four or five times. T only hope they will 
survive till the summer, as thev very often examine nesting 

Tn the Small species section T have : 

T pair African White-eyes (Zosferops I'irens). 

4 Cordon P>lciis (iistrilda pJioenicnt'is). 

I Ye1lo\v-l)HIc(l Cardinal (Paroaria capitatu) — recent widower. 

T pair Yellow -winged Su,Q-arhirds (Cocrehu c\Hi)'ca ' 

9 Black-bael-ed 7ana"er (Calliste inelavonota). 

The African White-eyes spent last summer in the outdoor 
nviary. but made no attempt at nesting. 

The Yellow-winged Sugarbirds. which T got from our 
T^.'h'tnr, are .i '>r,ind pair, the cock is a perfect gem. May thev 
only survive to go out in May! 

24 My Aviaries and Birds. 

The hen Black-backed Tanager (cock, whose skin 1 hav", 
was a gors^eous specimen j is the sole survivor out of live which 
I bottght from liamlyn last July — a tale of woe which I will 
not enlarge upon. 

Small Terrace Aviary : This only now contains three 
Triangular Spotted Pigeons, two of which (very tine ones) were 
very kindly given to me by I^ord Lilford, to change my blood. 
Besides my old breeding pair I have three young ones in the 
Plouse Aviary, and 1 am now putting up a small lean-to tempor- 
ary aviary for some of these birds, from which I intend to let 
them out (to roam at liberty) by degrees, commencing in the 
month of April, when the wild Wood-pigeon shooting in this 
neighbourhood is over — there are larger flocks this year, it may 
be noted in passing ! 1 see no reason why the African Speckled 
Pigeon should not be natm-alised ; they are very hardy and nest 
in exactly the same manner as the Stock Dove — indeed last 
summer, by changing over the eggs, I got a young Speckled 
Pigeon reared by a wild Stock Dove, and a beautiful pair of 
the latter, hatched and reared by my Speckleds in the aviary ! 

It may be of interest to state that the young may be 
separated from their parents when three weeks to a month old 
indeed if they are left mtich longer their parents persecute them 
relentlessly and peck them raw, especially if they have gone to 
nest again ! 

In the Large Terrace Aviary I have : 

pair Red-billed Weavers (Qiielea quelea). 

pair Bearded Tits (Partis cristatus). 

pair Siskins (Chrysomitris spinus). 

pair Twites {Linota favirostris). 

pair Bramblintjs (Friiii^illa montifringilla). 

cock Snow P>untingf {Plectrnphenax nivalis). 

There have been many losses in this aviary during the 
autumn and winter, and the stock is much reduced. A pair of 
Scaly-crowned Finches {Sf'oro pipes squaniiirous) disappeared 
before Christmas, and I have not yet found them dead or alive! 

The Bearded Tits nested twice, four infertile eggs on each 
occasion. Cirl i Bimtings also nested and hatched out but 
failed to rear; this pair are now dead. 

It may interest members to know that five Waxwing? 
were seen in this parish (Leadenham. Lines.) in November 

The Desolation of Wartime. 25 

feeding on the hips of the wild rose, and I have heard of others 
on or nearer the coast. Some have been advertised for sale, 
and I rather regret not having bought a pair, never having kept 
them. Any experience members may have had with them 
would be interesting, at least to me ! 

So much, Mr. Editor, for my attempt, which, I fear, does 
not contain anytliing very interesting, but it may relieve you 
from having to write one article. May I suggest your next be 
" Diseases of Birds, their Symptoms and Cure." ? 

[Such an article must come from the pen of one of our 
Veterinary or Medical members perhaps one of them will 
respond to, not only Capt. Reeve's suggestion, but to a 
universal need. — Ed.] 

The Desolation of Wartime in Lady Dunleath's 
Aviaries and their Re-opening. 

By The Lady Dunleath. 

During the War I was obliged to hand my aviary and all 
my birds to others to look after, as I had no time myself to 
attend to them ; consequently they gradually died off — 
Cranes and other large birds, water birds as well as the small 

I did not begin to get any more birds until May 1921, 
when I brought from Paris four little Waxbills (of which one 
died); from Pan I brought four Goldfinches (one escaped); from 
London four Black-headed Nuns, two pairs of Waxbills, one 
pair of Masked Doves (the cock dove, which was a great beauty, 
was killed by accident), one pair of Crossbills, some Budgeri- 
gars, one pair of Red-headed Finches, one pair of Pekin Robins, 
one pair of Zebra Finches, and one pair of Blue-breast ?.d 
Waxbills. I was unlucky with these, as eleven died between 
July and October. 

On January nth I brought back with me from London 
two pairs of Black-headed Nuns, two pairfe of Bishops in colour, 
one pair of Silverbills, two pairs of Ribbon Finches, one 
pair of Fire Finches, one pair each of Whydahs, Snow 
Buntings, Shore Larks, and Baya Cowbirds. The cock 

26 The Desolation of Wartime. 

Snow Buntiii!^' died the day after 1 came home, but all the 
others are in tne outdoor aviary and look very well indeed. 
Before putting- them into the aviary I kept them for ten days in 
large cages in a room — a cock Redpoll died, also a pair of 
Reed Buntings, which I brought back all in splendid condHion 
and plumage; the result of the post mortem was pneumonia, and 
I was advised to disinfect the cages. I had my aviary-cottage 
all cleaned and disinfected with Jeyes' Fluid, and then put ail 
the new birds into the middle division of the cottage, shut tliem 
in for three days, and opened the door into the Inrgc flight the 
first hne day, and 1 have not lost a single bird. 

I got ten pairs of Avadavats from liamlyn on January 
15: they came altogether in a box by themselves, and were in 
perfect condition, except three little hens which died. I am 
keeping them in ;i large cage until I can turn them out into the 
aviary, and they are like rubies, very beautiful, and sing all 
day — ^there is no fire in the room, and the window is open all 
day; two incubators which 1 am working kee]) it warm enough. 

I have one canary sitting on three eggs out of doors: 
she built in an absolutely bare fuschia l)ush, so 1 \n\[ l)ranches 
over and round the nest and a piece of zinc as a roof and cov 
cred it with branches and she seems to be quite comfortable-- 
whether she will hatch and rear her young ones remains to be 
seen. I have another canary sitting on four eggs inside tli- 
Cfjttage, and one has made a lovely little nest in a deep bask t 
which was hanging on a nail, and has one egg. The Red- 
headed iMuches have built inside the cottage and have laid one 

I*"rom Feliruary i to February 9 wc had not even a 
glimpse of the sun. and the east wind from the sea was verv 
bit'er. My aviary is only warmed by one Oui^lex lam]), hanging- 
ui» in a net wire cage, in the first division. Vvhere the canaries 
.-)iid waxbills are; it is lighted at 6 p.m. and i)ut out at 8 a.m. 
'i"!ie window, which draws across, is left oi)en rl)out six inclics to 
let the birds in number 1 division fly in at night and out earlv 
in the morning. I hang a wooden tray (3ft. square and 3ins. 
deep) by a single wire from the roof, and put all the food on it ; 
this frustrates the mice — two troughs with nine holes in each 
for seed (these troughs sa\e an enormous amount of seed), 
and two little dishes of soft food, an apple cut in half; the seed 

Tlic iJi'solatioii of Wart'unc. 27 

I give is canary, Indian millet, and rape; the soft food 1 make 
and keep in a tin — bread dried and browned in oven and 
pounded up, sjionge cake crumbled fine, crushed hemp and 
pounded cuttlefish; I mix this, as required, with grated carrot 
N^hich makes it the right consistency. 

I attend t j the birds myself, and have concrete baths, 3ft. 
by 4ft. in each divisioi o">Uside; if they freeze, which is very 
seldom here, I pu : water and dishes inside the cottage; the 
baths are cleaned on' about once a month, and rain keeps them 
clean and fresh. 

I have a few guiiiea pigs in each division, and they keep 
the grass quite short — they are Abyssinian. 

(Jne day late in (October I found the cock C'rossbill (the 
hen was dead) struggling on the ground under some bushes; 
hi;: head seemed to b? ([uite smashed in and bleeding. I thought 
it was a hopeless case, but I brought him in and kept him very 
quiet in the dark, put a few drops of milk and brandy down his 
throat, and fed him on broad and milk; he got better but was 
;M-alysed; tlici lie gradually began tj eat seed and to help 
himself along \\\\\\ his beak and then to climb up the side of his 
cage, and about a fortnight ago I let him out in the aviary with 
the new birds, which were shut in. I put his food on the 
ground and some l)ranches on the ground and now he can fly 
quite well, and when I opened the door flew out with the others. 
I felt very proud of my patient — he is such a delightful bird, 
and I cannot imagine how he was hurt.. 

Can anyone tell me if ( ioldfinches are likely to nest in 
an aviary and if so what kind of tree would they require?* 
They are now nice and tame. My pair of Bullfinches reared two 
broods in the aviary, and the hen used to eat mealworms out 
of my hand while sitting on her nest, but I fancy that Gold- 
tinches are wilder b" raturc — we hav'^ none at all in this district; 
we have seen ? few pairs of Bullfinches wdiich are rather 
destructive to the fnn't buds, Imt which, to our gardener's, I absolutely forl)id him to destroy. T find if ther^ i^' 
the least hole in the, wire, as sonietime^ happeri,s, iwiW birds 
invariably find their way in— Qiaflfinches, Green Linnets, Tits 

* Yes, tivjy like an apple or other siinitar fruit tree, but arc quite ready to 
take ihc " next 1)est thin"-." — Ed. 

-'8 fiarly Stray Notes. 

and Robins — This is an advantage, as it warns me of the liole, 
and I always catch them and let them go. 

I hope in the futnre to be able to give a further accc unt 
of my birds 


Early Stray Notes. 
By VV. Shore Baily. 

St. Valentine's day is past and over, and many of our 
English birds have mated up and are now in full song. In the 
aviaries some of the exotic occupants have also begun to think 
about future housekeeping operations. My two cock Scarlet- 
headed Marsh-birds {Lcisics guaiaiic}isis) have been singing 
since January, and the Military Starlings (l rupialis militaris) 
in the aviary with them have also started, but in a much lower 
and more subdued key than that in which they indulged when 
first turned out in September. Both these species have, in 
addition to sundry Sparrow-like chirps, quite good songs of 
their own, equal, in fact, to those of some of the foreign 
thrushes, and superior to the efforts of any of the other Starlings 
that I have kept. 

My Scarlet-headed Marsh-birds were in the juvenile 
plumage when I got them and had black heads ; they have now 
assumed rich yellow heads, and would not be taken to be the 
same birds as their parents. Two others that I have had 
indoors all winter, as they were not in good condition, are still 
in the mottled black and yellow stage of colour. I am hoping 
that these will prove to be hens, so that I n'.ay have a chance 
of breeding the variety. No doubt the yellow colour on these 
birds will turn to scarlet as they get older. Another bird thn 
has been in full song for some time is my African Ground 
Thrush (Geocichla liisibslrupa). The song is not very loud, 
nor is it so sweet as that of our English bird. 1 have two of 
these birds — I hope a pair, but as they were always quarrelling 
I had to se])arate them. It is strange that with all the Turdidac 
this fighting between the sexes and each other seems to be a 
common characteristic. T had a couple of hen Ring Ouzels in 
a very large aviaiy, but in spite of the space thev were alwavs 
quarrelling, and as one kept the other away from the feeding 


I— I 



Early Stray Xotcs. 29 

dishes I had to separate them. The one left now spends mucli 
of its time fighting" with a hen Mistle Thrush, and they have 
royal battles, but the worst of it is they do not confine their 
attacks to their own species or each other, but do not hesitate 
to Hy at such large birds as Satyra Pheasants, which, as well 
as the waders, they easily drive away from the feeding dishes. 
My African Olivaceous Thrush, which was singing very nicely 
in November, much to the astonishment of the common 
thrushes round about, which used to come and sit on the top 
of the aviary to listen to him. is now silent, and I think that he 
has got a touch of liver; the Bobolinks have been singing ver\ 
nicely the last few days. I am hoping to get nests from all 
these birds this coming season, and, as I believe none of them 
have yet been bred in this country, I hope to have something to 
write about for publication in " B.N." 

With regard to the season now past. I think that I have 
given our readers a fairly good account of most of the happen- 
ings in my aviaries, and I wish that other members would follow 
my example, when the labour and anxieties. of our Editor would 
be considerably lightened. There were, however, one or two 
other episodes that may interest. Amongst these was the 
rearing of a Common Quail. T had had the parent birds for 
two seasons in one of my medium-sized aviaries, where they 
made no attempt at nesting. Last season I turned them into 
my large Waders' aviary, where they promptly lost themselves 
in the thick cover. Early in the spring I heard the cock callin'^ 
a good deal, but we did not see them for several months, and 
had, in fact, given them up for dead, when one day, whilst 
looking for a finch's nest, I flushed the hen and one young one 
about half-grown. T don't know^ whether more were hatched, 
but we never saw them, nor did a diligent search reveal the 
eggshells or nest. The young Ouail is now indistinguishabi ^ 
from its parents, and has wintered out without any shelter 
whatever. In a near-by aviary a cock common quail with a hen 
African quail did not nest, but I am inclined to think that this 
was to some extent due to the interference of my little Tem- 
minck's Courser. This charming little bird made violent 
]ove first to the South African hen, and afterwards, when the 
cock Egyptian was turned down, to the latter; it was extremelv 
amusing to watch these birds take mealworms from the bill of 


Earlv Stray Notes. 

tlie little Plover. The (Jiiail would always come at his call. 
l)iU thev did not always i-et the worm, as a little, self-cauLiht 




hen Blachcan became quite expert at suatchini;" the worms from 
the beak of the Plover; the latter would take these from my 
hands and would keep the ^'ame up as long' as T cared to hand 
them out. I am afraid that I wasted much time in this partic 
ular aviary. 

Earix Stray Notes. 


Amongst other birds that nested was my Mistle Thrush. 
It built a typical nest and laid four eggs, which were, of course, 
infertile, as 1 had no male. Another English bird to nest was 
a Brambling; here again full success was not obtained. Ir 
made rather a neat nest in a thorn bush and laid four pretty 



Phuto hi/ 
Nest and. Egi,'s of Brumhle I'incli. 

eggs. One pair of my Snow Buntings built a nest but no eggs 
were laid; I am hoping for better luck with them this season. 
Bad luck pursued my Californian Quail; about twenty chicks 

32 Bud i^crigars " I'rcnch Moult.'' 

were hatched in two l)i-ood.s. but none were fully reared, and 1 
rather think that a change of blood is necessary. No luck 
was met with amont^st the Pheasants, which are kept in the 
aviaries with the small birds, the only youni^ reared being' two 
Satyras, one Cabots. and one Crossoptilon. 'J'he Waterfowl 
were very little better, six Upland ("reese and 16 Chili Wigeon 
being the only ones reard, so we have not greatly increased 
the inhabitants of the Boyers House aviaries in 1921. 

— — ^^ 

Budgerigars, " French Moult," and Continental 
Methods of Breeding. 

By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

This article (largely a compilation) is inspired mainly by -> 
letter received from Mr. J. W. Marsden, and a translation (parts 
of which I am quoting herein) from L'Oiscait. I will first 
quote extracts from Mr. Marsden's letter: 

" You know that for a long time now I have been sure that 
" inbreeding is not the cause of ' French Mouk " — a French avicuUurisl, 
" F. Merel, thinks it is the lack of animal food, and I am also of this 
" opinion." 

" 1 am building three new aviaries for budgerigars, so hope to 
" get some good colours next year. I find an aviar)-- six or eight feet 
" square amply large enough for three or four pairs; with me they do 
" better than in larger ones and pedigrees are much more easily kept. 
" I have Green blue-bred birds now, which, I am as certain as one can be 
" of anything on earth, will breed Blues. I find, as a rule, that Blues 
" bred from a pair of blue-bred Greens are a better colour than those bred 
" direct from Blues." 

Last year I put a cross of Olive in my Apple-Greens, and this 
" year the young are a better colour. I have bred a few pairs of Olives 
" this year (1921) for the first time." 

T have inbred budgerigars as much as most people, and I have 
yet to find any ill effects from inbreeding, so far as T can trace. Two 
years ago I procured two young Blue hens from France, and the young 
from tiiesc T was careful to pair to my own pure strain, and have never 
had any badly feathered young; but last year I had two or three, and 
two of these were from a French hen mated to one of my own strain, 
" and these were in the second ; the first and third nests produced all 
" slroii'^- and well-feathered birds." 1.W.M. 

1 have not done much Budgerigar breeding of late years 

Budgerigars " h'rcnch Moult." 33 

but my experience is tiial by judicious inbreeding" one can 
materially improse one's stock, but only rtrong, vigoro. s 
specimens must be selected as breeding stock. 

Some years ago I saw a crowd of Budgerigars in a 
roomy aviary, and I must say I never saw a more degenerate 
looking lot, but no cases of r'rench Moult " were visible, an J 
their owner assured me that he only had isolated cases of partly 
feathered birds and such were killed off at once. The birds 
were of small size, decidedly lacking in colour and vim, and, 
though well-covered with plumage, they were not tightly 
feathered, and generally they lacked the gloss of health we an 
like to see. In the course of a long conversation with their 
owner T ascertained that he started with two pairs, which lie 
bought from an aviary: they bred the first year well, and he 
retained the parent birds and several pairs of their young, 
allowing them to pair promiscuously, and that for several years 
he had so continued, with the result aforestated. 

No one would start a strain of poultry or rabbits so! 
They would go to the headquarters of the breed they wished 
to go in for and secure pedigree stock for a start, and then by 
careful selection and /n-breeding aim at improving same. 

Some will say, but you can't secure Budgerigars so for a 
start, and the cases are not parallel. Be that as it may; I, never- 
theless, see the analogy — one thing we may be sure of, we shall 
waste time and money if we simply buy two pairs of birds, and 
do not even take the trouble to ascertain whether they are related 
or not, as was the case in the instance I have quoted. Anyhow, 
if one cannot go to an aviary and see what the stock is like 
before they purchase, one can procure odd birds here and there, 
all from different sources, accepting none but large, strong 
and perfectly feathered birds, and then if the budding breeder 
uses common sense, and carefully selects his pairs, there can be 
considerable inbreeding without detriment, nay to the improve- 
ment of stock; but I repeat in conclusion that only birds which 
are perfect in every respect, both as to health, colour, and 
feather, should be allowed to breed. 

The mating of brother and sister, unless their progenv 
are selected and paired of¥ with unrelated mates, can only lead 
to degeneracy in all its varied forms, . 

34 Bnd^enf^ars " French Moult.''' 

I sliall now (iiiote V . Alcrel's article in L.'Oiscaii almost 
/'// cxtcnso : 

" The l')U(l<^t'ri^;ir, \\lu)se soft and harmonious Iwitlerinfj in no 
wav ri-scmhlos, vor\ fortunali'l\-. its larj^cr congeners .... its 
general form resembles the Swallow, except the tail, which si)reads out 
f.anwise like the I'heasants .... The r.n(l}.iei"i<4ar, like all Austra- 
lian birds, is vei\- hardy and acclimatises easily in Central ICurope. The 
best and most sou<.;hl for are tliosc wliich arc liorn' in France of really 
imported l)irds, but these are rather rare subjects. The reproduction of 
imported ])arrakeets is not so easy to ol)tain as one would tln'nk 
our winter corresponds to their summer, and imported birds bes.;in to 
breed in the coldest months of the year: this must be avoided at all costs, 
for they would thus exhaust themselves uselessly. The imported ])arra- 
kcet, which one has succeeded in acclimatisinjT, must therefore not be 
allowed in the aviary until the s])rino\ and durinj^- the wilUer all 
inclination to breed must be prevented by keepint^ them caged uj), and 
even bv separating the sexes." 

" Let us suppose then that the amateur is in ]iosscssion of some good 
acclimatised pairs, or issues of imported birds, and that the spring- In-". 
arrived, the first thing to do is to instal them. The best exposure is that 
of the East. The birds have thus the first rays of the .sun to warm them- 
selves from the torpor of the night, and they are sheltered from the 
midday heat. For ten to twelve i)airs .a ])lace of 6| square yards is 
Tiecessary. The ]ilace being chosen, by yireference against ;i well c.\]^ose;l 
wall, the soil will be dug up on .ill the surface which the aviary will 
occu])y, to a.bout tl.e depth of ;i ft.ot , in the bottom, well-levelled, lay 
wire netting, of a sufficiently fine mesh to exclude mice, which ^-oil and 
waste the food, from gaining ;in entr.ance through the soil : tlu-n will 
lie l)uilt U]), on this netting, the sni.all walls, which must form the base 
to receive the framing of tlie installation, that is to say, the complete 
shelter, the half slielter, .and the open flight. 

" The complete shelter is a shed, or rather cu])board, place<1 against 
the wall 6^ft. wide, 35ft. deep, aiid 7^ft. high. The, which is 
mo\cable in order it may be t.aken ;iway in summer, has ;i iloor in 
the middle, .and two sm.all glazed openings to lighten the interior. .Above 
the door, ;ill the length of tlie front, are holes, liJin. dia.. .above these 
holes, forming ;i set of sheKes, will be nailed a small shelf for the"birtls 
to rest upon, this will be their b.alcony. The half-shelter is constituted 
by the roof, which iirojects ;i y.ird , the sides, inst'ad of being of pl.ank. 
as in the complete shelter, are of wire netting. The butlgerig^ar often 
having the deplorable habit of sleeping hung on to the netting, it will 
be advisable to nail two nettings on to the posts formings the frame. 
which must be .it least jins. thick. The first, of the same small mcsii 
as the one buried in the soil : the second of a larger mesh on tlie outside. 
These nettings thus being se]i;ir;ite(l b\ the thickness of the posts, will 
l)revent cats de\ouriiig the claws of imprudenl birds. In order to cor: 
])lete the installation, it will suffice to contrive a rather low door in t' c 

Budi^crigars " French Moult." 35 

end of tlie open tlioht : tlitii to i>u' c-arlli hack in tliis part, and sand in tin- 
others. In the open flight, wiiich will be the Intdgerigars' garden, one 
will plant some Thuijas, but as they arc very fond of these shrnbs. "t 
will be necessary to replace them every year." 

" 7"herc now remains but to fix the perches and the logs. 'I lin'=e 
'which are to be found at the dealers' shops arc often unsuitable. hi 

■ order to be acceptable to t'lK- budgerigar tlie log must inspire confiden<:e, 
' and it is bv its shape, size, and the way in which the entrance hole is 
' placed that it will give the l)ird the sense of security. The logs mist 
'have the following inside dimensions: depth i lins., dia. 4ins. The 

■ entrance hole of i^in. dia. will be made 2ins. froiu the top and 8ins. from 
' the bottom. The top part will be closed by a lid attached to the log 
' In- a nail, in such a way that it can be turned. This lid must not close 
' hermetically, m order to allow the moisture tc escape, which comes from 
' the perspiring voung Experience has shown me that l..c 

■ pairs hardly ever change their nests and that two logs to a pair is a useless 
' expense .... the hens lay again before the departure of the young, 
' which caused the latter to begin the incubation of the eggs before the 
' clutch was complete. This explains why there are in the nests scarcely 
' fledged birds, when sometimes the older ones commence to leave, which 
' only takes place when they are as big as their parents. The log.s. are 
' placed under the complete shelter, and some under the half-shelter at a 
' convenient height to be taken down for examination and cleaning after 
' c:ich sitting, which is indispensable. The examination of the nests has 
' no disadvantage : the budgerigar never abandons its family, and this 

■ ])crmits an eye to be kept on the broods, to take away and replace the 
' hens which die on their eggs. This last is verv imi)ortant, as it is nee- 
" essary to wat'. h very cart full}- that tliere are as many hens as cocks, in 
' order that harmony may reign between all the broods. The aviarv 
' finished, furnished, and the cold weather passed, it onlv remains to lel 
' the budgerigars in. an<l to consider their diet with a view to a good 
' re])roduction." 

The budgerigar is fed on millet, canarv grass, and pimpernal, but 

on the usual fare, ca]/tivity helping, there ar-- some anaemic specimens 

and generations of degenerates. First of all. large wing and tail 

' feathers are missing with the young, or ;ire cut off bv their parents. 

'' probablv in order to suck the blood; then l)it bv bit complete baldness 

sets in. Tn this case, nothing remains but to kill them, which is no 

easy thing. T have noticed that the more degeneracv was accentuated, 

" the more numerous were tlie young. Tt must be believed that in this 

" species the prolific faculties are in inverse ratio to the phvsical quality 

" of the subjects." 

To obtain good results it is necessary, therefore, not to be content 
" with giving them millet and pinipernel. as. .f the budgerigar is content 
■' in capitivitv with seed, it is not the case in freedom. The larger species 
" of parrakeets are omnivorous, and in their own country cause considcr.-ihl*^ 
" damage. Tn nesting time certain large parrakeets (Nestors) do not 
" hesitate, in fact, to alight on flocks of sheep, and clinging firmly to the 

36 Budgerigars " French Moult." 

Heoce of ihcir victims, sliikc willi llicir tcniljlc Ijcaks llic heads of Uil'sc 
animals until tlicy have made a sufficiently large hole to completely cm])ly 
the skull. Small parrakeets, like the lludgerigar, prolit by this, come 
and cat the remainder. I have noticed the fact in my aviaries. I have 
many times seen budgerigars clinging to the hacks of Colins of California, 
and seeking to stave in the head ; but as the Colin is ;i very active l)ird, 
the instabibility c:iuses the budgerigars to lose their means of action, and 
the small gallinaceous birds get rid of them easily enough. The IJudger- 
igar, therefore, needs an anmial diet ; but what? Sheep's brains naturally 
presents itself to our minds, but besides it being necessary to serve it 
very fresh in order to get them to deign to taste it, it is ;i dear food, 
which quickly goes bad, and is not without danger. .'\fter many trials 
and experinients I have been led to suppose it is the phosphoric acid of the 
brain which is the indispensable food to the parrakeet ; and the surprising 
results which 1 have obtained in offering them a nitrogenated paste, in 
which phosjihate of chalk rendered assimilable entered in a certain pro- 
portion, liave already proved to me that I not mistaken. By 
furnishing the Budgerigar, in addition to the ordinary seed, the tonic 
elements of which I have just spoken, one will obtain from it all that 
would be desired from February to November, the broods will follow 
one another in the logs without interruption, and one will have the 
satisfaction, while observing the very interesting habits of this bird, to 
have the young ones as numerous and vigorous as if they had been borne 
in freedom." 

" The undulated parrakeet, once acclimatised and well nouri.shcd, 
is rarely ill. It is congestion, caused by too great heat, which, if one 
does not take care, makes the most victims. As this bird only bathes 
by placing itself in the rain, it is necessary during the summer when 
rainy days are rare, to furnish it from time to time with its priveleged 
bath, either by means of a jet of water, or with a watering-can jirovidcd 
with a rose. Some individuals, and more particularly the badly nourished 
hens, which allow themselves to niblile the wings and claws of their young, 
are sometimes attacked by complete blindness. I have not been able to 
diagnose this complaint, but T have found the remedy for it. When a 
bird is found in this condition, eyelids closed, cheeks unfeathered, it 
suffices to daub round the eyelids with tincture of iodine, taking care to 
put some on the suture which joins them together, and to place the 
invalid in the infirmary." 

" At the end of two or three applications scabs form, which droji 
off, the eyelids open again, and the eye soon recovers its normal condition. 
The hens also perish in laying time for want of care when, a few davs 
after pairing, a hen is seen sitting with her back up. there are nine 
chances in ten that the discomfort is caused by the stoppage of the egg. 
After being assured of it. it suffices to moisten with oil the affected part, 
and to hold the invalid over steam for a few minutes, then to place her 
in a small cage. At the end of two or three hours the egg will be 
found the object of the misfortune." 

lUulgcrigars " h'rcHch Moult." 37 

'■ The liud^crii^'.ir lias mnv minicfous varieties, (if v\liicli ihe most 
" prevalent arc the Yellow and the ISliie." 

I have L;iven the al>ove interesting notes very fuHy, as 
they contain niucli of inlet e:;t to B.i\. readers. Judging 
from reports it would appear that degenerates are much more 
l)revalent in French aviaries thati in our own. 1 liave always 
made a practice in my aviaries of supplying during tne breeding 
season seeding and flowering grass in unlimited quantities, also 
broken biscuits, oats, and insectile mixture, and I have never 
Itad a single case of bVench moult occur, and I used to breed a 
good rnany at one time. Again I never allowed one pair If 
have more than three broods per season, and never under any 
circumstances paired up other thati absolutely perfect birds in 
every respect. 

English aviculturists advocate two logs or husks to each 
pnir of birds, myself as strongly as any. but it is tiot for the 
reason Mons. F. Merel states, viz: to supply tb-:^m with ;i 
change of nest, for it is ,'i well knowti fact tbat Budgerigars, 
once they have settled on a nest and brought off a brood, 
.'dmost invariably retain that nest for the season. The reason 
for my advocacy of two nests for each pair is to gnr them room 
for choice at the beginning of the season. T found again and 
again that where room for choice did not exist, two or more 
pairs of birds fixed upon the same nest and neither would give 
way. the result being delay and damaged birds, if not worse. 
With extra nests this difficulty was much lessened, if not entirely 
removed; at least that has been my experience. 

Another correspondent in L'Oiseau gives some interesting 
P. Paillard, of Bordeaux, writes as follows : 

■' Some ycTrs ag-o (I let Mons. Fontiina know of it .it the time) for :i 
" reason which would be too long- to here, liy inadvertence i 
" Calopsitta parrakeet egg- was put into a budgerigar's nest. Now, what 
" was my astonishment one day to hear the verv characteristic call of .-i 
'■ Calopsitta roming frr m a box which contained only budgerigars ! On 
verilication I found ;i nest of eight budgerigars and one Calopsitta. Tn 
sjiite of its importance it was perfectly reared." 

Wishing- to assure myself wlietlicr this rearing was a chance occur- 
rence, T put in two other budgerigar's nests a Calopsitta egg; the result 
■ was the same." 

" The following year I continued the experiment, by putting into 
" the nests, not eggs, but young: .success was equally complete." 

38 HiKli^crii^iirs " /'rnicli Moult.'" 

" I have often niailc (lirj'crcnt exprrinicnls uilli the eggs of small 
'■ parrakeels, like rosricollis for instance, and liave always met witli the 
" same willingness on the |)art of the budgerigar." 

'■ Oiiile lecenlix. the only pair of C.dopsittiis llial I ])0sscss lost 
" two out tif their three \(<inig, as the result of an accident, and not wishing 
" to let the ]iair lU'vote llu-msel\es to the rearing of one sole ofifspring, I 
■■ put tlu' latter, whirli inusi have lieen ten days" old. into a nest of hudg- 
" erigars which h.ih just completed the rearing of .a hrootl, ))Ut of vvliich 
" one still remained in the nest, rdthough ready to ff)llo\v his hretiircn. 
■■ Now, ahout a week .igo, I witlidrcw from llie nost tiiis Calop.sitta, which 
' Hies (|uil • well, and which the loo sni.i'l hole of the nest ])rcventcd from 
'leaving. This hiial is in splendid health, .and its ado))tcd parents come 

■ .and hi-ing it food on its pt'rch din.'Ctl\- h calls for it." 

" These v.arious experiiuents tlemonstr.att- clearly that the I' 
" acce])ts the rearing of hirds of luuch Larger hm'kl its own." 

" In view of the easy success tli t 1 have .always obtained, I would 
' not hitle from xnu tliat if 1 had in n\\- aviar\- the eggs of ]i;irrakects 
" of ;i much larger size than those of a Calopsitta, I w'oukl not have 
■■ lusitaled a tuornent to .•■itcm])t 'he experiment, which T estimate to be able, 
'■ should occasion call for it, to render great service to the breeder." 

' T\uss had already reported the fact of I'udgerigars acting as l'"oster 
" Parents. It is remarkable Ihnlgerigars have been able to rear the 
'■ young of much l.argef s]>ecies, of which, moreover, the sojourn in the 

■ nest is nnich more prolonged. It would be a good thing if .''mi'curs 
" attemjited the experiment, in ordi-r to ascertain if the success of rcarhig 
" other parrakects by lUidgerig.ars is rerdb a thing of general order, which. 
" if such be the case, sh.ould prf)ve of the greatest service in the rearing of 
" r,are p.arr.akeets." 

[Personally, T have had no experience of the P>U(lt:;"eri,i;ar 
as a Foster Parent, btit our member Mr. J. W. Marsden writes 
nnon this tojiic as follows : 

" Some years .ago I had .a ]).air of I'.l.ack-faced Lovebirds in m\- 

" budgerigar ;iviar\- ; they had one young one in ,a husk, and when it was 

just nicely feathered one morning it was not in the husk, its jiarents 

" seeming very much upi-et. .and I could not lind it anywhere, however, 

three davs l.alei- 1 fotmd i( in the next husk with four young budgerigars, 

.all just ready to come oul : 'h ■ budgerigars must have fed it with 

■■ their own \oungsters." 

T ha\e taken liberties with the forej^oing" translations in 
'iijnor (letnils; for instance, instead of Undulated Parrakeet, I 
have used the commoner name Bnd.Q'erii^ar throueiiottt. and 
have EngMishised phrases .qenerallv, but so far as T rm aware I 
have not contorted the writers meanino- anywhere. Possiblv 
some of om- readers will crive their views and experience upon 
the points raised. 

J-^ reeding Rcsidts lor njJi. 39 

breeding Results for 1921. 

By Capt. Ci. E. Rattigan, F.Z.S. 

Although 1 cajinot claim to have bred any rarities, I am 
on the whole, very well pleased with the results obtained in my 
aviaries last season. Practically every i)air of birds in my 
aviaries contributed something' to the increase of the avian 
population, except one species, viz: I)ufrksnk's Waxbili.s 
(Fstrclda diifrcsin). This species failed to get as far as hatching" 
out young. I am not even sure that the Dufresne's laid, but T 
Ijclieve they did, as the hen spent longish periods in the nest — 
a domed structure ImiK in an old i\y stumj), and the cock, who 
was a frequent visitor, occasionally stayed in the nest for some 
considerable time. After about a week, however, 
Dufresne's were ejected from their home, after a gallant but 
fruitless resistance, by the ( iolden-breasted VVaxbills. and so 
ended my hojies of being the first to breed these charming" little 
birds in captivity. 

A few more attempts at nesting were made, but nothing" 
came of them. Their last effort in this direction was the attemot 
to convert a half-finished Red-billed Weaver's nest to their own 
uses, but this adventure had a tragic sequel. The Weaver, to 
whom the incomplete nest originally belonged, was by no 
means pleased to see the new tenants, although he was at this 
time busily engaged on a new dwelling" in quite another part of 
t'.ie aviary . Several times it surprised the little Waxbills, busily 
engaged on the construction of their new home, and fiercely 
attacked them. At the same time the poor little fellows, since 
the affair wicli the (i old-breasts, had incurred the mahgnant 
hatred of these fierce little pirates, who never ceased to fall 
furiously u])on them whenever opportunity offered. It was 
with real sorrow and a hea^'y heart that a few mornings later I 
picked up both the little Dufresne's lying dead beneath their 
new home. So far as I could see they were quite uninjured 
and had not been long dead, for their bodies were still warm; 
but, though no injury was observable, I strongly suspect the 
wretched Wea\ cr. a l)l()w from whose bill would probably prove 
cpiite sufficient to end tlie lives of such frail little creatures. 
These little Waxbills are, in my opinion, most fascinating" little 

40 l-l reeding Rcsulls for 1021. 

l^eople. and, to l)orro\v an expression from onr lulilor, are 
always iiv the picture."" l'nliai)pily they are very delicate 
when first imported, and need a lot of care and attention for 
the first few months; even tiicn they are l)y no ncans hardy, 
and a prolonged wet spell at any time of the year wor.lcl pi -.iljabl , 
kill them if in an outside aviary. 

I fear 1 have rather allowed my ]^en to run a\\a\- with 
me when writins;" of this species, but. next to the \i let-cared 
Waxbill. this is my fax'ourite amoni.,''st all the ^^mall seed-eatini;' 
finches, which have so far cunie my way, so 1 must cra\c :;ome 
induli^ence from the reader. 

I will now append a list ol birds succc^;sl"uby ;uul fully 
reared by me this season. All in this list h.'iv: cither been sold 
or are actually livini;' in my a\iiries at the pre;icnl r.'cnrnt. 
LIST Ol- I'.IKDS l•■l■lJ,^■ R1':AKI<:D 1\ igji. 

I''i-o!ii J pairs Quail Finclies {Ony;osl^i::d p(ily::o)ia) 

l'"rom 2 pairs Green Cardinals (Gnbcnia'nx cri.siala) 2 

From i pair Rod-crestedCardin.'ils (l\vo'.iria cucullata) 5 

l-'rom I pair Yellow-billed Cardinals (/'. aipittita) 3 

l'"roni 2 pairs White Java Sparrows {Midiia oryzh'nra) 

l'"roin I pair Gold-breastt-d Waxhill.s {.Sporaci^iiitliits siibfiai'iis) ! 

From I pair Red-headed Finches (Aiiniduni crythniccplnild) 4 

From 2 pairs Rufous-backed Mannikins {Spcniicstcs )iii^rlccps) 4 

From 4 pairs Zebra F'inclics (Tacniopyi-id cashniotis) '"i 

From I pair Saffron Finches {Sycalis flui'coia) 2 

From I pair Red-headed x Cntlhroal l'"inchcs (. b;;(;(//»(7 (■r\'////'(»rc/>/((;/(; :( 

.1 . fas data) 1 _', 

I'rom 2 pairs Green l'.udt;cri,yars i Mcli>p.\iltaci<s iiinliilaliis) n 

I'rom 2 ])airs Blue Bred Green r.U(l.ticri,L;ars I Mclopsif/nciis iiiidiiiafiis) ... 

i''i'om 1 pair Californian Ou.ail {Lopliorfy.v callfoniica) 15 

Total number of liiitls reared from _'3 pails 8j 

'i'he pair of VVhiik Java Si'akkows wliicli I li.ul in one of 
my outside aviaries laid no less tlian tweiUy-six Ci^j^s. ])o sibly 
more, during' the season. Anyway. 1 came across that rmnber 
when dismantling the aviary after removing the birds to winter 
quarters. As far as I can make out. their mode of i)rocedure to lay a clutch, usually fcur. I think, incubate steadily for 
.ib;)u1 ;i week, take a coui)le of days off, then lay another clutch 
and so on all through the season. Only two birds were 
actuallv hatched, which were successfullv reared, and fine. 

Hrccdiiii^ Results /or i(j2i. 41 

strong- young hirds they were when 1 parted with them. One 
of these young hirds was rather prettily marked, being i)ure 
w hite save for the top of the head, neck and saddle, which were 
of a beautiful silvery grey. The second youngster was, oddly 
enough, almost a pure grey like the wild birds: both jjarents are 
pure white withotit l)lemish. 

ijUi)(;i;Ri(;.\KS : These were most disappointing, esi)eciallv 
the Blue-breds. and ^'ellows: one of the latter mated with a 
( ireen cock in spite of all my efforts to i)re\ent it. and this pair 
])roduced five \oung, which were ftdly reared, and, ot cotu'se 
all greens! The legitimate mates of these two birds ajiparcntly 
sidked instead of making the best of a bad job and settling 
down together: they fruitlessly, though ])ersistently endeav- 
oured to win back their faithless si)ouses. Being imsuccessful 
in this, one or possibly both of the injured parties invaded the 
second nest of the faithless ones and destroyed (actually tore 
to pieces) a Irrovd of four tine yotmg birds, which were just or; 
the eve of leaxing their nursery. 

(Jf all the species of birds bred this season, by far tiie most 
troublesome and difticult to rear were the "S'iilldw-billfjd 
Cardinal.s. After lea\ing the nest I found that egg-food, 
which up to this time appears to suit them very well, would not 
do at all and imariably gave the birds very severe bowel trouble 
from which they succumbed in a few da_\'s. ( )ne had either to 
l)rovide them with a most generous su])ply of live focjd, and 
mealworms would not suffice by themselves, or the birds made 
no progress, and soon died off. To obtain food of this nature 
entails considerable time and labour, as I know to my cost, . > 
unless an aviculturist is favourably situated for obtaining live 
food and can spare the necessary time and labom- in collecting 
such elusive quarry, I should not reconunend their trying to 
breed this si)ecies: though in other resi)ects it is one of the most 
attractixe of the inuxjrted snecies of Cardinals. 

4- V7/f i'licai ThuDuou. 

The Great Tinamou. 

( Ukynckotus rufescens.) 

By VV. Siiork Bailv. 

The " I'erdiz graiule "" or (jreal I'artiidgc is one of the 
hirgest of the South American s^anie birds, and if one rules out 
the Curassows, (iuans and Waterfowl it is certainly at the top 
for size. It is not by any means a bad sporting; bird, as it lies 
well, and when flushed has a stronj^' and rapid flight. As a 
table bird it is not to be despised, being about the size of a hen 

The sexes are alike, and, although I have had my pair 
of birds under close observation for the last twehe months 1 
am still unable to sex them. 

They are interesting birds in an a\iary, as their habits are 
so different from those of most of tlie other lairds one usually 
keeps. They are solitary birds, and si)end a good deal of their 
time hiding in clumps of grass and other co\er, usually as far 
away from each other as it is possible to get. Tlieir neutral 
colour makes it dif^cult to see them, even when crouched in 
very short cover, and 1 have, on more than one occasion, almost 
stepped on one of them. When this hap]:)ens they rise 
straight up with a tremendous wliirr. louder. I think, than that 
of a cock pheasant flushed under similar circinnstances. 

Early in the spring one of them, presumably the cock, 
commenced to sing, if song it can be called, and shortly after- 
wards 1 found that the hen had scraped out a hollow in a clumj) 
of grass, and had laid four eggs. It appears from Hudson's 
book that the cock sits, and. as from the time of commencement 
of incubation the male's song had ceased, this is probably 
correct. 1 allowed the bird to sit for a couple of weeks, when 
on testing the eggs T foimd them to be infertile. I'robably ;i 
spell of easterly winds about the time the hen w.'is laying- had 
something to do with this. .\s soon as the eggs were removed 
the cock again started singing, and the hen was soon again 
sitting in the same clump of grass. .After allowing the bird 
to sit for a week or two, 1 removed the eggs, which this time 
were Ave in number, to a broody hen, and. whil^' I was away 
for a few days' holidav, three chicks were brought off. Unfor- 

llic (ircat Tiuatnuii. 


tunately 1 <lid not make a note of the exact time of incubation. 
The chicks vary much in size. Intt were all very stroni;- and 
active from the start. When about a fortni.i^ht old I turned 

l.\ W . Shore lUiilv. 

Rufous Tinaniou Iiicul)alin^. 

them loose in one of my aviaries with the hen. To my 
astonishment they promptly deserted her, each one taking' up 
its quarters in a different part of the aviary, only comin_g' 
toi^ether when feedin,L;" times came rotmd. They now bej^an 
to show i^reat pu.gnacity, attacking" each other without the 
slightest provocation. Strange to say the bird attacked made 
little attemi)t at defence, contenting itself by making a similar 
attack, when it could do so at all. tmexpectedly. 1 fed them 
on mixed biscuit meal, mealworms, and gentles; also with what 
seed fell from the small birds' tables. They grew and feathered 
very fast, but were still covered with long hair like filaments. 
^vhich gave them a very curious appearance. Although at three 
weeks old they were well able to fly, they seldom did so. con- 
tenting themselves with running and skulking in the long grass 
and other cover, At five weeks old there was still the same 


The iircat Tiiuii 

c<)iii|iarali\ c (litTercnce in size l)et\vccn the llirt-e Ijirds, the 
lar,i;est beiiij;' (|iiitc twice the size ol the ^rnalle^t. and llie third 
l)ir(l bein!L>" midway between the two. I (h)n'i know wh:'tlier this 
had anvtln'nij' to do witli sex. but it niav ha\v> l)een so. as thev 

/>v I!'. Shore />'.;// V 

^'(JU11^ l\llfoU> Tili.-dlKMl. 

ah looked equalh' liealtlu' at iliis time, and I had every exj^tec- 
t'l'i jn of fully i earing; tlieiii I'nfortimately a chani.;"e of 
weather came soon after this and 1 lost the medium-sized bird 
from septic pnetmionia : al.-ont three weeks later I lost the small 
one from the same disease, and the survivor also succumbed a 
few weeks later. 1:)einL;' at ihe time nearly as lari^e as its parents 
Such are the vicissitudes of a\icultnre! ! 

In the meantim.' the old birds had ;i.L;ain ,n(Mie to nest, 
b U. as it was some tin-? before 1 conld tind it in th? then rather 
d'/'use imderj^rowth. I decided to let them alone. < hi the J4th 
/viti^itst they hatched off two vouul;" ones from five ei^.^'s. These 
V. ere strong' runners at a dav old. and adepts at takiui^' cover: 
a ; the weather was fine and the nii.ihts warm I h:;d hopes of 
r -arinq- them, bttt it was not to be. for a week later ihey liad 
c'iiappeared and T never found their bodies. 

Bird Notes. 

Phntn hy \V. Shore Balh/. 
Youiiu Eufous Tinainon. 

Ph,,h) hfi W. Shore Bailij. 
Youni-' Rufous Tinamon. 

Correspondence. 45 

\\ ritin:^' in Arge)iti)!e Ornithologx Hudson says: — 
■ This species is solitary in its habits, conceals itself very closely 
' in the fjrass, and flies with the greatest reluctance. I doubt if there 's 
' any bird with such a n-sounding flight as the Tinamou : the whirr of its 
' wings can onlv be compared to the rattling of a vehicle uriven at great 
' speed over a s'rong road. From the moment it rises unlM it alights 
' again there is no cessation in the ra])id vibration of its wings : but 
' like a ball thrown b\- the h.ind. the liird flies away with extraordinary 
' violence until the impelling force is sjjent, when it slopes gradually 
' towards the earth, the distance it is able to accomplish at a flight being 
' from 800 to '.500 vards. This flight it can repeat when driven up again, 
' as many as three times, after which the bird can rise no more." 

" The call of the Large Partridge is heard in fine weather at all 

' seasons of the year, especially near sunset, and is uttered while the bird 

' sits concealed in the grass, manv individuals answering each other : for 

' although 1 call it a solitar\- bird, it being a rare thing to see even two 

together, many 1)irds ,'ire usually found living near each other. The 

song or call is composed of five or six notes of various length, with a 

mellow flute-like sound, and so expressive that it is perhaps the sweetest 

music heard on the pampas.'' 

'■ The eggs are usually five in number; nearly round, highlv polished, 
and of a dark reddish-purple, or wine-colour: but this beautnul tint in a 
short time changes to a dull leaden hue. The nest is a mere scrape, 
insufiiciently lined with a few grass leaves. The voung birds appear to 
leave the mother (or f;ither, for it is probable that the male hatches the 
eggs) at a verv early period. When still verv small, thev are found 
living, like the adults, a solitary life, with their faculties, includ- 
ing those of flight, and the melodious voice, in a high state of perfection." 




Sir, — Readers of Bjrd Notes do not alway realise how very mucli 
thev themselves contribute to the value of its contents, and how much toe 
Hon. Editor depends upon them for copy, but alas in vain. News and 
information concerning their I'irds and Aviaries and all the incidental 
activities and events which are so vitally interesting, such as : rare arrivals, 
nest boxes, food, are all more or less a common bond between us, and none 
need fear that they are giving trouble, or that their news is of no importance — 
all news is of use to someone. It is impossible to keep members fully 
informed of the affairs of our little world if they themselves keep the titbits 
t.'ght in their own domain, and neglect to communicate them through our 
pages to others. All keen members like to know what is occurring in the 
aviaries of others, therefore consider for one moment and keep the ball rolling. 

Publicity is the breath of our cause ; let us one and ;ill show our maga- 

46 Correspondence. 

zine to anyoiK- keen on birds, l)e they keen on En<jlisli or I'oreig'n, unci !)>■ 
this means obtain new members. How many societies which have shows do 
not even know of our existence: I trow a jjfoodly few; interest tlieni. and 
ol)tain our sujiport at their sliows and a class or classes for our members, 
and we will do the rest. 

It has been freely stated at various times that members would be glail 
to show others their aviaries : let all who are keen on the followinp^, drop me 
a line. ( )ne jM'oposes to sul)-di\ide our meml)ers into four classes: North. 
East, South antl West : afterwartls to make up small parties to visit aviaries 
on given dates suitable to the members who are to be visiied. Let us have a 
show of our own, each meinber to contribute to the fund necessary, to provide 
prizes, etc. The show to be ojH-n to all, whether members or not. If found 
convenient we might have a meeting, for a concert or dinner. Those 
sending in their names please state who would be willing to act as Hon. 
Secretary for their own particular district. If agreeable to one or all of 
the above suggestions, and any further suggestion will be received with thanks. 

Finally we want all members to do their share in increasing the 
interest of tlie club by doing all in their power as above stated ; otherwise the 
prizes for the best article of the year will be withdrawn at the end of me 
present year, as we regret to say that it has met with hardly any '•espouse. 

(Major) A. M. SXAPE, 
Manchester, 14:2:22. Hoti. Sec. 


Sir, — The new race of Hlue-bonnet Parrakeets was discovered between 
Perth and South Australia and West of Naretha, where apparently it is quite 
common, and is kept as a cage bird. 

It resembles the common form in size md general markings, but the 
blue on the forehead is a oaler, lirighter shade, and the red ]iatch on the bellv 
is entirely wanting, tlie whole are;i being pale lemon-yellow. There mav 
be traces of red under the l.iil, and the wing-patch is a kind of pinkish shade, 
neither olive as in .raiitliorrlioiis. nor red as in hoematorrhous. 

Havant, 10:2:22. (The Marquis of) TAVISTOCK. 


Siu, — I heartily agree with Mrs. Read's letter, and should be delighted 
at any time for any member to come and look at my biitls. 1 fear, however. 
I am in a com|)arativelv out of the wav locality, and also that 1 have not 
nuich worth showing, but any member is welcome to see what I have. 

Eeadenham House, Lincoln. 17:2:22. (Ca])t.) L S. RF.EX'I''. 

Bird Notes. 

J'lioto hy II'. Shore l^aily. 

Azure Jays. 

"^11 5\lgbts !J\es«rv<i6. 

^rtarcb. 1922. 


- THE — 

Some Blue Jays. 

Bv W. Shore Bailv. 

America is the 
home of the Blue 
Jay. Just how 
m any species 
North and Sou'.h 
America can boast 
I do not know, 
but the number 
must be large. T 
have met with 
three species my- 
self out there — the 
Eastern Blue Jay 
(C\a)wcitta cris- 
tata) , the Blue- 
fronted Jay (C . 
stcUcri frontalis), 
and the Coast Jay 
(C. stcllcri carhoii- 
acca). All these 
birds have a good deal of blue about their plumage; in fact, 
blue seems to be their prevailing" colour. Even our English 
Jay has the brilliant blue wing-coverts, so much in demand bv 
our Salmon fishers. The habits are very similar in each species ; 
very inquisitive, and arrant thieves. They are nearly always 
to be met with in suital)le localities, and I Have frequently seen 
tliem in the American city parks. 

On ranches, at any rate where poultry are kept, they are 
shy, as their egg-stealing habits make them very unpopular. 

Phnto by W 
Pileated J.\y. 

Shore Bailx 


Sot}ie Blue Javs. 

They all make good pets, and do well in confinement, 
being easily catered for, as they are practically omnivorous. 

By far the most beautiful member of this family is, to 
my mind, the Azure Jay {Cyanocorax caeriilcus), a native of the 
\rgentine. This is a large bird, nearly twice the size of the 
F.uropean species. With the exception of the head and throat, 
which are black, the whole of the plumage is a brilliant azure 
blue, both sexes being alike. Very few of iiie so-called Birds 
of Paradise can excel this bird in beauty. This is the only one 
of the Jays, with which T am acquainted, that has any song; most 




^^^^^^^^^^^^^MK' ^ '. 



JS^ ^^1 



^^^^^^^Bp '^' ' 



Photo bx II . Shore Baih'. 

Mexican I Hue jav. 

of them are harsh and noisy screamers. Both my birds have a 
well-sustained song, pitched in a low tone, closely resembling 
the warblings of our starling, and not unlike that of the 
Budgerigar. They also have other and harslier calls, uttered 
when alarmed or otherwise excited. Both birds feed each 
other and are affectionate, but 1 am not yet certain that they are 
a true pair. Time alone will show. 

Some Blue Jays. 49 

Another pair J have, from Central America, are only 
about half the size. The colotir areas are the same, except 
lower parts, which are black, l)nt the l)lue is mttch paler. The}' 
were sold to me as Yucatan Jays, but Dr. Amsler tells me that 
these have yellow leg^s. and, as mine are blackish, f take it they 
must be referred to some other species. 

Another bird I was offered recently was of a uniform 
scjoty blue, but as the price asked was hig-h, and it was not a 
pretty bird. T did not take it. This may have been Xanthura 

One other Jay in my collection is the Pileated Jay (Cyan- 
ocorax chrysops). This is a pretty bird, with a great deal of 
white about it, and much about the size of our English Jay 
It has a damaged wing and cannot tiy, but this disability does not 
seem to worry it greatly, as it is extremely active in climbing 
about the bushes and perches of its aviary. 

Writing of the Azure Jay in the Ibis. Mr. J. Graham Kerr 
says: " Very common in the hardwood forests, and sometimes 
strag'g'ling" into the open. Tt has been described as being 
extremely shy, but T found this to be the case only with the 
scattered individuals one sees outside the limits of the forest. 
Within the forest, where it is generally found in company with 
C. chrysops. it even exceeds its companion in boldness and 
curiosity. It is always the first to catch sight of a stranger 
within the forest, hopping about in the branches all round him, 
peering at him curiously and all the while raising an alarm with 
harsh cries (caa-caa-caa). The natural boldness of the bird w^as 
nell shown by the behaviour of one shot in the wing by Col. 
Ralcedo, and given to me. The wing was shattered at the 
carpal joint, so I snipped off the entire manus, and dusted 
iodoform over the wound, to stop the bleeding. The bird 
remained for several hours very weak from shock and loss of 
blood, but next morning was again quite lively. It hopped 
about with the utmost confidence, ate and drank out of my hand, 
and finally had the presumption to jump upon my knee, and 
begin to tear pieces of flesh out of a bird which I was dissecting 
at the time. When out in the open, on tne other hand, this 
species is exceedingly wary and difficult to approach." 

50 Some Notes on Crimson-wing Parrakects. 

Some Notes on Crimson-win^,' Parraheets. 

( Ptistes erythropterus.) 

By iHE Marquis of Tavistock. 

1 have kept tliis very beautiful Australian parrakeet for 
many years and under different conditions, but have not yet 
induced it to breed successfully. 

My early ventures in Crimson-winq-s were not encour- 
as;in,n". They are extremely sensitive to septic fever infection 
and 1 had the misfortune, when living at my old home i -. 
Bedfordshire, to introduce the disease into my collection in a 
very virulent form. Every Crimson-wing- caught it and died. 
and, for quite a number of years afterwards, odd cases occurred 
among birds particularly liable to tiie germs and Crimson-wings 
did not flourish. Finally, in 1914 I decided to try the birds at 
liberty, and I released three good pairs with cut wings, in 
grass enclosure. In time they moulted and made their exit, 
staying well, and promising to be a success. But, during the 
winter T was told they had developed a passion for entering 
chimneys, of which nothing would cure them, and in the end 
every one of the six met an untimely fate. 

After so disastrous an experiment I gave up all idea of 
having Crimson-wings at liberty and contented myself with 
keeping one or two in my aviaries. They did not breed, as T 
had bad luck witii my hens, and the one which lived longest was 
a very ancietit bird, who seemed to have been caged for many 
years before I had her. 

In I lie summer of 1920 I bought a pair from one of our 
members, who informed me that they would not agree. When 
tliey were turned into an aviary, together, the cock at once 
attacked the hen, but, being in breeding condition, she ignored 
the amiable way in which he pulled out her feathers, and soon 
afterwards they were observed mating. After that they got on 
quite well together, and the hen laid several eggs, but show.^ 1 
no inclination to sit. Some of the eggs T put under a Yellow- 
bellied Parrakeet (Platyccrciis favivcntris), but they proved 
infertile. Last year the pair did nothing and when they began 
to moult, T moved them from the Isle of Wight to my aviaries 
near Havant. Besides the pair, I had two adult cocks, one tame 
and one wild; in the autumn I received another adult cock 

Same Notes on Cnnison-iK.nng Parrakcets. 51 

and two young" hens. une of the latter died, and me survivor 
was kept in a cage during the winter. In October, after some 
hesitation. 1 decided to try the cock of the pair at Hberty, 
intending to catch him up at once should he show any weakness 
for chimneys. In the aviary he was nervous and unsteady, but 
1 hoped that, like many birds which are wild in an aviary, he 
would become tamer when he found he could always get awav. 
In this he justified my expectations. L boosing a line afternoon 
without much wind, 1 drove him gently out and retired to a 
distance to watch iiis behaviour. lie flew into a small tree 

near the aviary, where he was soon joined by a cock iving, who 
was interested in him, as a relative, but showed no desire to 
molest him. After a few minutes he went into some taller 
trees and evidently enjoying his liberty, flew from one to 
another, followed by the King, maKing a half circuit of the 
garden. After a time I felt a little uneasy, as his flights became 
longer and tended to take him further from home. However, 
just when I was beginning" to think that he meant straying, his 
mate began to call loudly from the aviary in the meadow: he 
answered, and a moment later came swinging" overhead, and 
was soon back at tlie place where ne had started; 1 knew, then, 
that all was well. 'J'he hen Crimson-wing's concern at the 
departure of her mate was much greater than I expected, 
considering" that the only attention he ever paid her was to 
chase her about, scolding" her and trying to bite her. It did 
nnt seem a ha])py married life, but hen Crimson-wings seem to 
belong to that peculiar division of the female sex whicn prefers .l 
husband who beats you to the monotony of tne unmarried state. 
The cock Crimson-wing, also, for a while showed a certain 
jealous concern for his wife, spending a lot of time on the top 
of the aviary imnting off cock Barrabands and a cock Black-tail 
who seemed disposed to take an interest in the grass widow. 
The Black-tail, indeed, fell deeply in love witii her, and would 
hardly leave her the w'hole of the winter, somewhat to my 
annoyance, for instead of delighting me with frequent exhibi 
tions of his glorious flight, as he had been in the habit of doing, 
he sat stolidly by her all day and all night and gave me much 
trouble and anxiety in devising means of protecting him from 
the inclemency of the weather and the attacks of nocturnal 


Some Notes on Crimson-wing Farrakeets. 

The flight of the Crimson-wing" has been compared by 
Ciould to that of the Peewit — a not inept comparison, akhougn 
the parrakeet lacks the pecuHar rounded wing of the plover. 
Like the Barraband, the Crimson-wing may be said to possess 
two flights — a dove-like one, which is used when the bird is 
passing from tree to tree, and a graceful swing that is employed 
when he is well up and bent on travelling some distance ; the 
latter is very pleasing to watch, quite apart from the bird's 
glorious plumage, which makes him the most charming additio i 
that it is possible to imagine to the rather sombre tints of a 
winter garden. 

The Crimson-wing at liberty soon made himself at home 
and quickly achieved the mastery over all the other parrakeets, 
except the iving. He was by no means daunted by the superi jr 
size and huge beaks of the Great-bills and they soon learned to 
give him a wide berth. Fortunately, also, he showed no 
inclination to explore the chimneys and encouraged by his good 
behaviour, I released another cock. This bird had already 
given us some indication of the pugnacious disposition whic'i 
is the one serious drawback to the species. Soon after his 
arrival he had been turned into an aviary with a pair of Black 
Cockatoos, but he bullied them so much that it was found 
necessary to remove and cage him. I released him when the 
King and the other cock Crimson-wing were close by. He fell 
upon them at once and put them to flight, introduced himself to 
the hen Crimson-wing by a volley of personal abuse and a clear 
intimation that he would like to bite her. and then settled down 
to enjoy his freedom. Most of the time ne associated with i 
pair of Indian Ring-necks, who did not relish his company at 
all, but were unable to get rid of him. 

I next turned my attention to cocks No. 3 and No. 4. 
No. 3 was a very tame bird, who won a prize at a local show. 
As he was so steady and had so many companions of his own 
kmd about, I did not trouble to keep him shut u]) to get used 
to the place, but turned him straight out (jn arrival. No. 4, 
by the way, was occupying an aviary at the time. No. 3 walked 
out of his cage quietly enough and began picking about the 
grass. Then he caught sight of an Alexandrine Parrakeet in 
an aviary near by. and flew on to the top to tell her how much 
he would like to fight her. A moment later No. 2 flew down 

Some Notes on Crimson-wing Parrakeets. 53 

on to the aviary. " The very thing I've waited for years!" 
cried No. 3 and Hke a parched traveller in the desert, hurryinj^ 
to a spring, he rushed joyfully to join battle with his companion. 
For a few moments there was a good old row, but No. 3 soon 
discovered that he had more than met his match and was glad 
to retreat minus a few feathers. Next day he attacked No. .^ 
in the aviary and got bitten in the foot. This rather disgusted 
him with the place and he strayed about a mile away, where he 
was caught and returned to me by the owner of the cottage he 
entered when he became hungry. By this time I saw that my 
vision of four Crimson-wings at liberty could not be realized. 
The place was not large enough for such bad-tempered birds. 
I feared that the Ring-necks, one of which was a lutino, would 
desert if so continually pestered by No. 2, so I reluctantly caught 
him up and sold No. 4. No. i and No. 3 have done much to 
modify my opinion that Crimson-wings are hopeless birds at 
liberty. Neither has strayed, nor gone down a chimney, and 
while I cannot say tnat their behaviour to the 13 other parrakeets 
at liberty has been exemplary, they have at least refrained from 
conspicuous misdemeanours. From the point of view of 
ornament, I cannot speak too highly of them, and I have got 
more pleasure in watching them during their five months of 
liberty, than they could give me during a lifetime in the aviary. 
The two cocks occasionally associate together, but on the whole 
they are not on very friendly terms, and are more often apart ; 
frequently No. i is with the King, and ^.o. 3 with the hen. 
Soon after they were released they went on one or two rather 
long expeditions together and were seen two or three miles 
from home, but of late they have seldom left the garden. 
During part of the winter, when I had Barrabands at liberty, T 
used to shut up as many birds as possible at nignt, as a protection 
against Brown Owls, which nave a disastrous fondness for 
Polytelis Parrakeets. The tame Crimson-wing always roosted 
in the aviary, but No. i, together with an Alexandrine and a 
Blue-bonnet, was smart enough to hnd his way out again 
through the inward-pointing funnel of wire-netting which 
puzzled less resourceful birds into believing tney were prisoners 
for the nignt. 

In February I used, on fine days, to put a newly imported 
hen Barraband out in a cage on the verandaii. i\o. i. whose 

54 The Awful .'leakvorm. 

own mate had been, by this time, more or less appropriated bv 
No. 3, took to visitini4' her and paying her his addresses, allowing 
me to approach within a few yards, and my small son within :\ 
few feet, while he was so engaged. The display seemed to 
consist in fetching quantities of leaves, and pieces of green stuff, 
and chewing them up in the lady's presence. Directly one 
morsel was dropped, he was off to fetch another. On davs 
when he did not see much of the Barraband, he would spend his 
time courting the hen (ireat-bill, who regarded him with fear 
and dislike, and was by no means impressed by his advances. 
It would seem, therefore, that a cock Crimson-wing will mate 
with almost any female parrot or parrakeet of about his own 
size, or larger, and is by no means particular in his choice of i 

Since- wrilinj;- the above I have caui^ht up the two Ijirds for the l)reed'ny 
season. I nia\- add tliai tlie scene of the experiment was not a large country 
demesne, hut a liouse and grounds of moderate size on ciie outskirts of a 
town and hounded, on one side, l)y a Itusy inihHc road. Tlie sup]:)]y of cats 
is a very Hljeral one. 

The Awful Mealworm. 

By H. L. Sich. 

As the time is arriving wlien some of us will want 
insecti\orous food for our birds I think the following will be 
useful. I found it in inid Aiiijiials in Caf^tk'ity by A. I). 
Bartlett. the late superintendeiit of the Zoological Society's 
^'.ardens. lie states that he tried, year after year, to rear 
nippers from the nest by feeding them on the usual soft food, 
scraped beef, hard-boiled eggs, ants' eggs, Uies, spiders, beetles. 
.'Kptatic snails, shrimps, salmon spawn, antl many other mixtures, 
but all failed, until his assistant suggested scalding the meal- 

" It was soon apparent that in this condition the meal- 

" worms could be digested .... from tliat moment I 

" liad btit little trouble. The l)irds fed greedily upon the 

half-boiled mealworms, and I soon fotmd them readv to 

" leave tne nest." 

I have not tried it myself, but it might save a l)rood of 
young (Juail or other birds if Vwv ants' eggs fail, or prove 

iVl\ VcUozu-wingi'd SngarhircL't. 


My Yellow-winged Sugarbirds. 

By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., M.B O.U. 

1 have not any 
of this species in 
my aviaries at 
the moment bin 
have had several 
pairs in the 
course of my 
avicnhural ex- 
perience, but 
have never had 
the hick to suc- 
ceed in breeding' 
this exquisite 
species; but, be- 
fore giving my 
personal experi- 
ence will make 
a few general 
remarks about 

Photo by C. E. Lozc. 

Yellow-winfjed Sugarbird. 

these bejewelled mites of tne feathered-world. 

The genus Cocrcha wafts to us remembrances of gorgeous 
colour, dainty form, and graceful movement. They range over 
South America from Cuba to Mexico, to Southern Brazil and 
Bolivia. These Blue Creepers of the tropics of America rival 
the Humming Birds in all their fajry-like attributes — neither pen 
nor brush can portray their grace and beauty. 

r^-om traveller-natwralists' records we glean that they are 
low ranging ])ir(ls, are found on the outskirts of forests, and the 
trees of open wooded districts; here they are perpetually search- 
ing the crevices, bark, etc., for insects; fruit is also taken. 

Tlie /->:it. Mus. Cat. \'ol. xi.. gives four s])ecies. viz • 
cyaiicd. cacntlcd. liiciihi. and iiifida. Init in these notes we shall 
only (leal willi one- -the ^'ellow-\\ inged Sugai bird {Cocrchi 

[")i:,scKn'Ti(i.\ : Mtilc. The priin-ij^al Ixxlx colour is rich, velvety 
puipK'- l)KiL' ; lores, e-\ c-rcgion, wiiiys, and tail black; cap (crown of tlie 
bead) pale lurcpioise-blue, with a slit^'bt t^reenisli tinye : inner webs of wing- 

56 My y clloW'ivingcd Sngarbirds. 

feathers and underside of wings yellow ; bill (long and curved) black ; feet 
ruddy flesh-colour. Total length 4^ inches; tail ig inches. 

PcDialc. Differs from the male. Above green with centres of 
feathers darker ; wings and tail blackish and dyed with green ; eye-streak 
whitish ; under wing-coverts and inner webs of wing feathers pale yellow ; 
under surface pale yellowish-green, faintly stria-ted ; bill horn-colour ; feet 
brownish flesh-colour. 

Many years ago 1 wrote that Sngarbirds agree well 
together, so they may within the limits of a cage, but later 
experience has taught me that the reverse is the case, so far as 
aviary-life is concerned. 

Now to return to our topic — " My Yellow-winged Sugar- 
birds " — I have not kept them as cage birds, except for brief 
periods during the winter months, so I shall leave this aspect 
for some fellow member to fill in. 

First I will deal with one particular pair which I possessed 
for the three years preceding the war in my Mitcham aviary. 
This pair I enjoyed and had more interest from than any others 
which I have possessed before or since. I forget now from what 
source they came, but those two cocks and the one hen will 
never pass from my recollection while memory lasts. They 
came to me in autumn, were caged for two weeks in a green- 
house, where they captured many small fiies, which unw^arily en- 
tered their enclosure attracted by the ripe banana, which formed 
part of the Yellow-wings' menu. Then I transferred them to one 
of the lobby flights, attached to the main aviary, having glass 
at front, side and part of top; here they passed the winter — the 
only heat they got was from a small Beatrice oil stove, which 
was only alight on frosty nights, and during severe spells day 
and night. As the area of tne lobby was 12ft. by loft. the 
temperature ruled low, and their milk-syrup-sop was frozen 
whenever there was a keen frost; nevertheless they did well, and 
the following April saw males and female in full colour and 
perfect condition. Early in May I opened tne lobby door an-.l 
drove them into the main aviary, which had a ground area of 
about 300 superficial feet and was 15ft. liigh. 

Here they throve, and, though they took some syrup and 
fruit, lived mainly on midges, blight and other small insects. 
They hac' around them in the aviary over one hundred com- 
panions, ranging in size from a thrush to a gold-breasted 
waxbill, and mcluding a few doves and quail. At this period I 

My Yellozv-winged Stigarbirds. 


was tied to business all the week, so the main periods of 
enjoyment and observation of the birds were Saturday afternoons 
and Sundays. Nearly every fine Sunday morning found me on 
a lounge chair in front of the aviary to observe and enjoy — a 
small table at my side, upon which lay notebook, pencil and 
smokes. What a memory those Sunday mornings are ! I am 
not going to tell the whole yarn concerning them, for just now 
we are only concerned with Cocrcba cyanca. 

How shall I describe them ? What shall I write and what 
shall I leave unsaid ? Truly a difificult question ! 

First a word as to size. Total length 4^ inches does not 
seem to imply a wee bird, yet the Yellow-wings are wee fairy- 
like mites — ^the measurements given in a bird catalogue are from 
skins and taken from tip of beak to tip of tail, so that the actual 
body of the bird is little more than two inches long — often, 
owing to their dainty, graceful contour, tney did not appear 
larger than the wee Zebra Waxbill when viewed together in the 

"S'cllow-wiiio; Sugarbird and Zebra Finches. 

The aviary being 15ft. high allowed plenty of scope for 
tree and plant life, and hazel, hawthorn, elder, etc., reached the 
top, with the topmost twigs growing through the roof-netting 
of flight. Upon these the Yellow-wings proved their right to 
l)e called " Blue Creepers " for no yellow shows until the wings 
are expanded — up and down the stems and branches they 
travelled searching unweariedly for every insect to be found, 
exactly the same as does the English Tree Creeper, and they 

58 My )i' cllozi.'-zoini^cd Sitgarbirdx. 

found many. Can my readers inia.i;ine wliat they looked like 
while s(j occni)ied ? I really can't de.scril)e it — their refnls^ent 
plumage glittering' like scales in the sun, the turquoise crown 
coming every now and again into view with startling clearness; 
then there would be a nuttering of wings, and most of the blue 
would be temporarily obscured by a display of sulpUur-yellow. 
Then down to the little pool iney came for a splash and refreshei 
after their exertions — would that 1 could describe tnem at the 
pond side (the i^ond was 4ft. by 3ft.). how wee and slim they 
looked, and how their colours flashed as they drank, then more 
so as they si)lashe(l about in the shallow water at pond side ; then 
away to some shady twig to preen and dry themselves. But they 
did not rest long, for now they are on the wing— moving flashing 
jewels — satisfying their appetite with midges, etc.. snapping 
lieaks and moving throats, demonstrating how adept tliey are in 
cai)turing their minute prey. 

After a few weeks 1 noticed that one male was solitary 
and that the other was definitely paired up with the female — at 
this stage they did not (juarrel. but the trio were no longer seen 
altogether at the same time, and the bachelor did much skulking 
and was not often in the picture. Then the mated pair began 
collecting rubbish together — grass, fine roc (lets, moss, cotton, 
string, and strips of paper — and a nest was commenced. It was 
something" like a weaver's nest, but smaller, more elliptical, fiat- 
sided, with an entrance hole at the top of one of the tw"0 flat 
sides (surely I ought to write front!); in spite of iiie mixed 
character of the building materials, it was a neat and pleasing 
construction. I meant to have a i)hoto of uiat nest when it was 
really completed, but I waited too long, for when the finishing 
touches were being put to it the bachelor Sugarbird came most 
decidedly into the picture. Filled with fury he attacked the nest 
and tore and tore — in a couple of days nothing but a wTeck 
remained — I have never seen a small bird so destructive, yet he 
did not attack the builders, but such was me effect of the fitry 
with which he attacked the nest that none molested him. but let 
him alone to his fell work in the centre of the elder bush— 
nor did the builders of the nest seek to hinder him; they mav 
have done so in the beginning, but the w ork of destruction was 
far advanced before 1 was aware of it. T set to work to catch 
iij) the otld male - no light task in so large a jjlace- in the e\u\ f 


My Yellow-winged Sugarbirds. 59 

trapped (as I thought) him. and put him into the lobby fli.ght 
ai^ain — alas ! 1 caught the wrong one, as I found the hen 
would have nothing to do with the one left in the aviary ; aftei 
the lapse of two days I succeeded in trapping the other male, 
put him in " durance vile," and returned the other to the aviary, 
when he was at once joined by his mate, but the nest was not 
rei)aired. nor was another one attempted, and though the 
same two birds spent two more summers in the aviary they 
never attempted to build another nest — that is the nearest 1 have 
ever come to breeding Coereha cyanca. 

In 1916 the Mitcham aviaries were dismantled, and the 
Sugarbirds, with many others, passed into other hands. 

Sugarbirds cannot be classed as hardy, and must come 
indoors from November to April inclusive. Aloreover. they 
need watching during really inclement spells in the summer, and 
if showing real discomfort must be caught and taken indoors, 
and put out again when the bad period nas passed. Of course, 
the aviculturist has to learn to discriminate between " being 
hipped " and real discomfort — humans and even sparrows suffer 
badly from tlie former during long spells of cold, summer rains, 
and take no hurt therefrom — Sugarbirds' long silky plumage 
gets soaked, unless tney take shelter, during continuous rain 
and they lose the power of flight for the time being, which, how 
ever, a few gleams of sunshine soon restore. Fortunately they 
have the instinct either to remain in the shelter, or seek the thick 
interior of some cupressus bush while the rain lasts, and a rapid 
fly to and fro to the shelter for food does no harm. Certainly 
after wet those who keep Sugarbirds out of doors should 
ascertain that all is well or they may needlessly lose them; in 
this condition they can be picked up with the hand — all that is 
needed is putting them into a cage, hanging in the shelter, till 
dry, when the cage door can be left open for the bird to depart at 
will. Appropos of this — some years ago the late (. a ir. ' 
Kennedy and I spent a few days with Mr. H. Willford. In on; 
of his aviaries were about a score of C . cyanca disporting them- 
iv.l.ves amid a tangle of bush and herbage, all males 
if I remember aright, and what a sight they were; 
the vv'eather was hot and fine, but while we were looking 
on a sudden and very heavy summer storm caused us to seek 
cover in a near-by shelter — soon the storm passed, and the sun 

6o My Yellow-winged Sugarbirds. 

shone again, and we began looking about again; half the Sugar 
l)irds seemed to have disappeared, but a search revealed them 
lielpless in tne grass; of course the hot sun soon put them right, 
and they were quickly on the wing again; but. had the rain 
continued, many of them would have died unless help had come 
to their aid; such is the beginning of many cases of summer 

Last year another pair adorned my aviary, and, of course, 
the tropical weather just suited them, and they were delightful — 
they were a devoted couple, quite " Darby and Joan " style — 
they never ailed the whole season. How one could rhapsodise 
of their exquisite beauty and deportment, but I am holding 
myself in with a tight rein ! But I will allow myself a few terse 
phrases. Now sitting at leisure on a spray of cupressus, 
holding sweet converse, indulging in little loving "" embraces," 
and quietly preening each other's plumage; then on the wing, 
fluttering like butterflies, in the midst of a cloud of midges, when 
snapping beaks showed what havoc they were working. How 
brilliant were the flashes of colour one got every now and again. 
Then a short period of rest, and anon they w^ere creeping. 
creeper-like, round and round, up and down, searching the bark 
of the standards supporting the roof of aviary flight, and they 
did not search in vain ; but enough : I have prosed on to an 
unseemly length, and must perforce close with a few remarks as 
to their diet. 

Diet : For birds in a cage as in the aviary, the main 
dietary is syrup-sop — milk, honey, a little unseasoned meat 
extract and half-inch cubes of sponge cake — and fruit. I also 
supply insectile mixture, of which they take a little, mealworms 
very sparingly, but any small spiders, flies, and any otUer insects 
one can capture can be given freely. In the aviary they, of 
course, have access to all the above foods, but, as far as mv 
observation goes, they only take the syrup-sop and fruit, 
capturing all the insect food they require for themselves. 

Who will be the first to breed this charming species ? 
Mr. E. J. Brook has, I think, up to the present, come the nearest 
to success, but no young birds were reared. 

Notes on a Few I'Vell-htown Species. 6i 

Notes on a Few Well-hnown Species. 

By Edward J. Boosev. 

First of all I feel I owe an apology to the readers of this 
article, who will think to themselves — as I am sure a great many 
will — " What on earth does this fellow want to write an article 
about such very common birds for?" 

I agree entirely, but I hold a certain official of the 
Foreign Bird Club responsible for the outrage in suggesting 
that I should do so. 

At the same time T feel tliat in the long run it may do 
good in making other members, who possess really valuable 
and much more interesting birds than mine tnink. " Well if he 
writes an article, having only kept such ordinary birds, why 
shouldn't /?" — Resuic, perhaps, more " copy:" 

It is only during the last eighteen months that I have 
been able to take up foreign bird keeping at all seriouslv. 
Before that I was undergoing that rather misnamed process 
" Education," at a private school, at a public school, and finalK' 
abroad. -Louring all that time I kept birds off and on, but only 
the more common kinds, because, as I was away for eight or 
n'ne months of the year, it seemed useless to buy anything at all 

My first birds were kept in a crystal palace aviary in the 
nursery when I was eight years old. 

They consisted of a varied selection of Waxbills, Avada- 
vats generally predominating, and a pair of Pekin Robins. 
They always seemed to be in excellent health, which, although 
they led such a dull existence, usually seems to be the case with 
Waxbills kept in a cage indoors. 

Later on I worried my father so persistently for an 
outdoor aviary, that in the end he built me one, mainly, T think, 
in self-defence ! 

My idea of an aviary in those days was a small brick house, 
heated by hot water pipes. The hot pipes seemed to me then 
all-important for birds which lived in a hotter climate than our 
own. Accordingly, a small brick house was erected joining 
a peach-house, and the hot pipes were brought through the 
v/all into my aviary. In this I kept Waxbills, various Manni- 
kins, Java Sparrows, Pekin Robins, Paradise Whydahs, Melba 
Finches, Cutthroats, Zebra Finches, and Red-headed Finches, 

6:2 Notts on a Few W ell-known Species. 

and. once in a moment of almost reckless daring, 1 bougin i 
pair of Red-faced Lovebirds, whicli, however, did not live lonj^. 

1 very soon t;ot rid of the i\ed-lie;ui. ., iiiicnes (Amadina 
crythrocephala) because they bullied everything within reacn 
never giving any other bird a moment's peace. 

The Cutthroats {Aniadiua fasciata) bullied the other birds 
somewhat, and, when they got tired of doing that, they btiilt a 
slovenly nest and hatched several young ones, which were 
mostly thrown out of the nest by their villainous parents, when 
about three days old. 

A pair of Avadavats (Sporaegintlius amandava) success- 
ftilly reared their yotmg ones in a nest in a German canary 
cage, till they were a week or ten days old. when they shared 
the same fate as the yotmg Ctitthroats — I know now that 1 
ought to have given them more live food. 

The hen Alelba h'inch (I'yfdia iiiclha) always seemed to 
me a delicate bird, though cocks lived for years, i ney remindea 
me, I remember, very much of Black-cheeked \\ axbuis in their 
habits and disposition, always sktilking in low bushes, and 
seeming to like to remain near the ground. 

Zebra Finches {Taoiiopygin castauotis) were the first 
birds to rear young successfully in my aviary, and 1 shall never 
forget my immense feeling" of satisfaction when I first saw the 
young ones flying about — T felt that it really was rather an 
achievement — I am glad I did not know then ihat tne difficult}- 
is rather to prevent Zebra Finches breeding, than to induce 
them to do so! Zebra Finches and (iuinea Pigs have this in 
common, that, where two or three are gathered together, there, 
with as little delay as possible, will appear two or three more. 

I have got at the present time five pairs of Zebras, which 
I shall put up for breeding about the beginning of .\pril, an 1 
which I generally depend upon to pay for the rest of my birds" 
r>|)keep for the season. 

Usually the cocks are separated from the hens about 
C^ctober, because I have found that winter-breeding is, on thr 
whole, unsatisfactory, as one loses several hens from egg- 
binding for every nest of young successfully reared. 

Tlie cocks which are in the aviary at the present moment 
spend most of their time in strutting about and singing their 
absurd song for the edification of the hens, which are in a large 
cage out of sight, but within hearing distance. 

Notes on a Fezi.' ll'cll-knozoi Species. 63 

Last vear 1 boug'ht some Red-billed {(Juelea qiielea), 
Taha [Pxroiiiehuia iaha), and (irenadier Weavers {P. oryx), 
which I turned into an empty aviary. 

The Tahas were iminterestin^- birds and never attempted 
to breed; the Red-bills did a g-ood deal of unmethodical l)uilding-, 
that is to say they tied bits of hay and fibre round whatever 
branch they happened to l^e nearest to at the moment, and then 
promi)tlv fori^ot about it. But the cock (.Irenadier was a most 
interesting^- bird; he built a nest, with much cl:attering- and win.n- 
tlap]')in,!.;-. very much the shape of a ve.^etable marrow, with a 
projectiui;- porch, completely concealiui^- the entrance-hole, 
which was at the side, towards the upper end. The nest was 
quite thin at the bottom, and one could see the eggs through it: 
the top was thickly matted, and, I should think, almost 

The hen laid two eggs and sat for a week, when the 
cock decided that the nest wanted a new bottom; and when his 
wife's back was turned for a minute, he quickly w'renched off 
the bottom, dropped both eggs to the ground and repaired the 

The hen, however, refused to consider laying again, and 
T can't say I blame her! 

The only attraction of Cockateels (Calopsittacus novac- 
hoJJandiae) seems, to me, to be the ease witii which they can be 
bred, otherwise I have always found them hysterical, uncon- 
trolled birds. I have often seen a perfectly peaceful aviary of 
birds rendered panic-stricken by one foolish cockateel. It will 
suddenly dash wildly from end to end of the aviary, crest erect, 
screaming loudly, and all for no apparent reason. Of course, 
by the time it has finished, the aviary is full of panting birds, 
all completely unnerved. 

Some time ago I saw^ a miserable, shivering, unclothed 
bird in a dealers', which on close inspection proved to be a 
naked Pennant Parrakeet (Platyccrcus clcgans). I bought it 
for 30s. to see if proper treatment, fresh air. Parish's chemical 
food and magnesia would succeed in clothing the wretched thing 
a bit better. That w^as last July; by ( )ctober it was in perfect 
feather, and had a half-grown tail, and I thought myself luckv 
to have got a hen Pennant for 30s. The only thing about it 
was, it always seemed rather an odd bird ; its movements were 

6.4 Nuics ON a Fezc U'ell-kiiotvii Species. 

jerky, and it insisted upon sleeping, hanging from the roof of 
its cage. However, as it seemed otherwise quite fit, I bought 
\ good cock for it, and turned them both into a karge unuse 1 
;hicken-house, witli an outside run, about kist October. Tlie 
cock refused to show the hen the respect due to her as his wife, 
and treated her as a ratlier tiresome lunatic-at-Large ! 

There they lived until tlie end of January, when the hen 
died suddenly of a fit (that, I think, explains the 30s.). Rut 
I should be interested to know the explanation of this : One 
morning in November I found the iien minus her tail; every 
feather was bitten off to tiie root and lying on the ground, and, 
from that day till the day she died, although the rest of her body 
was perfectly feathered, she never let a single tail feather grow. 

I am now on the look out for a good hen, as the cock 
is an extremely line bird and will feed out of my hand, and T 
intend to try breeding them. 

I have also got a pair of Redrumps (Fscphoius haema- 
toiiotus), which are incubating and due to natch ofT in about a 
week's time. The cock is bntish bred, the hen imported. 

The cock was very ill in Ts^ovember with, I think, enteritis, 
anyway I didn't think he would live; however, he was cured by 
glycerine mixed with a very little salicylic acid, and, by being- 
kept in a warm room, he is now in great form and takes his 
wife down to have a bath immediately she leaves the nest, but 
as far as I can see he never does any sitting himself. In the 
same aviary are a small flock of Budgerigars (McJopsittacus 
uiidulatus), which have begun breeding, but which are shortly 
going into an aA'iary by themselves. 

Also, in a large cage a pair of Diamond Sparrows 
{Sti\i^anoplcHra i^nttiata): and indoors a hen Senegal Parrot 
[Pococcpholus sc)ic gains), which is extraordinarily tame and a 
reallv excellent talker. She is >->ntirely devoid of fear, as I got 
her about six years ago as a nestling, and had to be fed on 
boiled maize. I will not go into further details about her, 
because I always think a minute account of someone else's pet 
])arrot is so boring for other people! 

That, I think, completes my list at present. I try to keep 
as much to hardy Australian birds as possible, because if, as I 
do, one has to go to London every day, one really only sees 
much of them on Saturdays and Sundays, and it is nardly wortu 
while keeping delicate soft food eaters. 

Corrcspoiidciicc. 65 



5iR, — I have really not had enough opportunity of obscrv-ng my Sula 
Island King (Aprosjiiictiis stilaciisis) to send a good note on her. since she 
has always had to be kept at Binstead. I. of W. 

I do not think anything is known of the species ni a wild state. 

M\- bird ( ', ) is about one-third smaller than the eommon Knig 
(.1. cyuiiof^y^^iits) : head, neck, and breast dark reci ; shoulders and wings 
green; rump, flights, tail, antl jjart of the nape l)lue. liill blackish, and 
proportionately larger than that of the common King. bnape more like 
that of a ryrrliiilopsis than an A prosiiiictiis. The bird seems quite hard\- 
and has spent the last two winters out of doors. Last summer she laid 
two eggs and incubated them, but they proved infertile. Her mate is a 
Red Shining Parrakect with whom she is on very friendly terms. 

Havant, Eebruary 16, 1922. (The Marquis of) TAVISTOCK. 


Sir, — I have succeeded in breeding Passerine Parrotlets {Psittacula 
f>as.Keri)ia) at libcrt}- this year for the first time. 

it would be r.ather intei"esting to make a complete record of all the 
foreign Ijirds that have been bred in this country at liberty and full-winged — 
qi'ite as interestng, I think, as a record of those that have been bred in 
aviaries. Each form of aviculture has its peculiar advantages, features and 

Havant, October 21, 1921. (The Marquis of) TAVISTOCK. 

[We much regret that the above, slipped between other papers, has 
only just come to light. Firstly : As fully a detailed account as possible 
of this episode would l)e of great interest, if such can be sent in. Secondly : 
We quite agree as to the record, but, unfortunately, at the present time 
the Editor has neither the health nor the time to compile such a record. If 
any member can undertake same we shall be greatly obliged, and only too 
pleased to give it space in this Journal, which we certainly desire should 
represent every phase of aviculture — at present the Editor feels he must devote 
what energy he can to bring Bird Notes out at its proper date. — En.] 


Sir,— I was able to rejoin the F".B.C. in 1921, much to my delight, after 
Iiaving had to give up bird-keeping during the war, with the sole exce])tio'.i 
of a favourite Grey Parrot. 

In September 1920 a Brjizilian friend sent me a Blue-fronted .\mazon 
{Clirysotis aestiva). a ]iair of Cactus Conures (Ccniurus cacloruni), ;ind two 
Pope Cardinals [Paroaria lan'ata). I had to keep them all in cages during 
the winter. 

Lhifortunately one of the conures died (cerebral hemorrhage) at the 
end of about three months. I should much liKe to get another, to mate 
with the one I have left, if I could determine its sex. I should then put 
the pair into a good-sized outdoor aviary in May. 

66 Correspondence. 

As lor the Amazon, il i.s a si)lciulid spcciincii, and in peTfccl lu-allli, l)Ut 
has shown no signs of being a talker. 

I.ast May I put llic Pope Cardinals into a sniaii outdoor avian — in 
lune T had the misfortune to lose one through enteritis. Luckily I 
able to secure another from Mr. Rogers, of Liverpool, and there seemed 
some prospect of a nest being built, as they were so busy carrying various 
nesting material about, but nothing happened. They have survived the 
winter, and are very ht, so one has hopes for this season. 

I was now most anxious to make an attempt at breeding some .sj^ecies 
of parrakeet (my special fancyj in my largest aviary, which was originally 
built at Cambridge, then taken to Bury, Hunts., and from thence here 
(Surrey). I wrote to the Marquis of Tavistock for Stanley I'arrakeets, bu< 
none were for sale just then. 

In the meantime I secured a pair of brotogcrys — one the All (ireen, 
and the other a White-winged — charming little birds, but very uninteresting 
in an aviary. 

Much to my delight in June I heard from the Marquis of Tavistock 
that 1 could have either a breeding pair of Stanleys, or a pair of young 
Barnards. I chose the Stanleys; they were beautiful birds, and all went we'i 
for about a fortnight, when, to my horror, one mornuig I was greeted wit!; 
the news that a rat had eaten the cock bird — my feelings were too acute for 
words ! It was the first rat I had ever had in an aviary — it was afterwards 
trapped, and paid the penalty of its crime, which was some small consolation. 
However, in September last I was able to secure another cock Stanley from 
the same source, a young one. which is now in adult plumage — the pair now 
have an outdoor aviary, with shed, covered and open tiights. to themselves, 
and I await results ! Having only one parrakeet aviary I had to cage the 
Brotogcrys, which seem admirably adapted to cage-life and quite happv. 

Then, I wanted something to keep with the Pope Cardinals : as their 
aviary was too large to be sacrificed to one pair of birds. I decided upon a 
pair of Indian Mynahs — these I got from our lulitor — they were magnificent 
specimens, and had been out of doors through the winter of 1920. For ;> 
month or two all went well, then one morning a corpse lay upon the ground — 
there was no apparent outward cause for the disaster — the post mortem report 
was cerebral hemorrhage. More ill-luck followed, for about a fortnight 
later I saw the other Mynah looking very " puffed up " — the next, .alas! b.e 
ceased to breathe — post mortem report " Congestion of the lungs. The 
awful weather, cold rain followed by a frost, was too much for it, as it has 
been for many birds this past winter, owing, I believe, to their havin"- become 
softened " by the preceding tropical summer. 

My next move was to exchange the Brotogcrys for some of mv 
favourite Green Budgerigars. These are now living in perfect harmony with 
the Cardinals, and I propose, as soon as I can come across a suitable pair, 
adding a pair of Cockateels. 

Now this little account of birds is brouglil up-to-date. For it the 
h'.ditor's appeal for copy is responsible. 

Thames Ditton, March 9. 1922. MARGARFT RE.AD. 

C orrcsf'oiiclcncc. 67 


SiK, — I do not know whether it will interest readers of " B.N." lo 
know that mv Biuljjerigars are very fond of French lettuce, whether it is 
ihev have seen several liritish finches 1 have eating it, and have taken a 
Hking to it, I do not know, but they certainly do eat, and appear to enjoy it. 
It seems to me to fill a want in their diet at a season of the year when 
their natural greenfood. seeding grass, etc., is not procurable. 

A noticeable effect on my Btidgerigars, after having lettuce for a 
short period, is that they seem much more vigorous, tighter in feather, and 
arc now " dancing fit." 

Not having read of lettuce being given to Mclopslttaciis undu.'atiis, and 
having given same from an experimental point of view, I tnought it might 
interest aviculturists who keep these popular birds. 

Better still, 1 should like the opinion of other members on lettuce 
as a food for Budgerigars. 

Perhaps our Editor's opinion will be more valued tnan that of a very 
raw amateur. 

West Hartlepool. March 14. igj2. W.. R. BEARBY. 

r French or frame lettuce is not a new food for Budgerigars. Both a: 
the press and practice it was advocateu and used in jjre-war times — but il 
was ccstiy during tne war and fairly so since the armistice, so it has fallen 
in'o disuse a little. One word of warning concerning it we would repeat, 
viz : that unless the leaves are very young the central fleshy stem should be 
removed from each leaf, as budgerigars have died from eating same. Also 
that some individuals refuse it. Further, the Editor has been giving his 
budgerigars seeding and flowering grass the whole of this year, as practicallv 
throughout the year some tufts are to be found containing a few seed and 
flower heads, and, if dug up with a little soil, and kept in a room, from which 
frost is excluded, for twenty-four hours it is then quite safe to supply to th<: 
birds, whatever the weather may be outside. — Ed.] 


Sir, — Mon. Merel's theory in regard to French moult not being due 
to in-breeding ; would seem to be supported by the fact that it often occurs 
in young wild-caught Hooded Parrakeets, and more rarely in the case of 
other species. 

At present I have a young imported Yellow-bellied Parrakeet who is, 
I fear, going to develoj) into a case of the complaint. He arrived with full 
wings and tail, but has now moulted all his primaries and long tail-feathers, 
and shows no sign of renewing them, while he has also ceased producing 
new body feathers. He remains bright and active and feeds well. 

Strange to say, unknown among wild birds. Red-rump Parrakeets have 
been temporarily almost wiped out in certain districts of Australia by a perfect 
epidemic of " French moult," an observer stating that he found the birds 
running about the ground " like mice," perfectly well, but unable to fly. 
Havant, March 16, 19J2. (The Marques of) TAVISTOCK. 

Sir, — I was very much interested in your article on Budgerigars in the 

68 Correspondence. 

last issue of Bird Notks ; especially in what you say about inbreeding. I 
wonder if it would make any difference u the birds are kept in a large wilder- 
ness aviary, almost as if they were at liijerty. I believe it is the rule with 
wild birds for brothers to mate with sisters : and this must have gone on for 
many generations ; and yet the wild bird does not seem to get weaker in 
constitution. I have a fairly large aviary of canaries, out of doors. I put 
out two i)airs in it in 191J: now there are about lift\- ; I have never introduced 
any fresh blood, and yet every year the young seem as healthy as ever. 
Now they build nests as good as any wild linnet, and are as vigorous and 
strong as any wild bird about the garden. There is not the least deterioration 
even though many of them are crested. In cages one knows that inbreeding 
must be avoided, especially with crested birds, but it does not apj)ear to 
make an)- difference in a large aviary. I am wonder'ng if Budgerigars were 
kept in a large aviary if in-breeding would be as injurious as u appears to l)e 
Sturminster Newton. March 16, 1922. R. E. P. GOKRlNGK. 

[My opinion is (I am open to correction) that it is the exception and 
not the rule for brother and sister to mate together in a state of liberty ; their 
general habits almost preclude this. 

Most, if not all, the Psittacidae pair for life in their wild state, but 
with many other Families this is not the case, and many have a fresh mate 
every season. 

I have made man\' experiments in the jjast with Budgerigars and some 
passerine species, and have found that never of their ozvn choice zvill brother 
dud sister mate; and, from t!ie basis of that experience- I doubt if Mr. 
(iorringe's canaries so mated. 

Put two pairs of the same species into an aviary, ring the progenx 
of the respective pairs with different coloured rings, and, I think 
(writing from the results of my own experiments), it will be found that onl . 
under compulsion do brother and sister mate. 

Again and again it has turned out that when a single pair of Zebra 
h'inches (Taeniopygia castonotis) is j^ut into an av'ary. all their progeny 
retained, but no new stock introduced, that in a comp;iratively few years 
every Zebra Finch will have died out. 

My experience teaches me that regulated judicious in-breeding improves 
stock, but that, unregulated promiscous in-breeding has the reserve effect. 
I shall, however, welcome the exjjcrience of other members. — W. T. ; 


Sir, — As I see you put a note in November I5ird Notes about my 
Black-caps' eggs, I may say she sat well as usual, but I believe the egg got 
chilled owing to workmen in the aviar\- disturbing the hen ; anyway, the 
egg failed to hatch though it contained a perfectly formed chick. Thus 
(iurii. 1921 this p-'''r of birds laid foiu" eggs, two of which got broken, one 
conta ned a dead ciiick as above, and one hatched out, and the young bir 1 
is now seven months old. The hen is now very busy carrying every splinter 
of w. id she can find into the nest, and evidently is about to lav again. 

Their seven months' old baby is a lovely strong bird, perfectly feathered, 
btit does not yet possess the brilliant red plumage of his parents. He can 

Editorial. 69 

talk, and allows himself to be handled without fear; mimics everything fit 
licars, and certainly promises to l)e as j^iftcd a bird as his paren<:>;. He 'S 
not vet full {,'-rown and is not quite so bulky as his i)areius. He is not only 
a fjifted, but a beautiful and interesting- youn{;^ster. 

i'.ristol. February 20. 19-. (Mrs.) MARCi.M^i'rr r.LIR( iF.SS. F.Z.S. 

P.S.--1 should like to add that I <|uite aj^rec with Mrs. Koad's letter 
about visiting- other members' aviaries. f am only too pleased to sIkj^v 
mine anv time, bv appointment. 1 think >uch visits and ])irdly talks most 
interestins^- to all bir<l-lover>. — 

Till' \\A.\\VI.\(; (AMPELIS uAKhCLCS). 

SiK. — In re])ly to Capt. Reeve's question re Waxwintjs : I kept several 
fjefore the war, and had hopes of breeding them ; these, however, were frus 
trated by some interfering Zebra h'inchcs, and though 1 caught them up. the 
VVaxwings lost interest and made no further effort. 

They are, in my opinion, delightful aviary birds, always sleek, spick 
and span, harmless to the smallest Waxbill, absolutely indifferent to weather 
vicissitudes, and very handsome. They are confiding birds, and verv 
affectionate to each other; they keep up a continual soft trilling twitter not 
loud enough to become annoying. 

Their only faults are greediness and a disposition to lcthar,Lr\', w'-"' 
lead to over-fatness and ultimately to fits, but if care be taken of them and 
they are not allowed too many mealworms, they live well in a fair-sized 
garden aviary. My birds had a soft-bill mixture enriched with grocers' 
currants soaked and cut in half, two or three inealworms, and in the summer, 
live ants' eggs, of which they were very fond. 

Mr. St. Quintin very nearly succeeded in breeding Waxwings, and 
wrote an account of them in one of the early volumes of TIte Avicnltiiral 

Fyndhurst. March _'3rd, iq2J. (Miss) E. F. CHAWNER 


Nksting Xotk.s : The Alarqui.s of Tavistock informs us . 

" I have an early Ring-neck Parrakeets' nest at liberty. The hen ,5 

■' a rather poor-coloured lutino. The cock unfortunately seems to have 

soine skin parasite on the face, as he has bare areas which he rubs a good 

deal. Probably he had the disease when he came, as I only bought 

him in CJctober as a freshly imported bird. They ina\ rear healthv 

" young, but, I fear, the probability is against it." 

The Lady Diinleath, writing on March 8tn. informs ns 
tliat the three young canaries hatched out of doors (vide Feb- 
ruary Bird Xotks, page 26) are well feathered and doing well. 
A later note (March 20) states that all three young birds are on 
^he wing and flying strongly. 

~o Lditurial. 

Raki-; Birds: Mrs. Burgess iiit\>nns us tliai ^lie h,i ■ 
latfl}' acduired a true pair of I'urple-breasted Lories (Lorii. 
liypDcnocliroiis), which she beliexes to l)e new to a\iculture. and 
we think that such is the case. She lias also received one (or 
more) ^'ellow-streaked Lory {(.'lialcof'sittdctis sciniillaii:::). 
which she also thinks is new to aviculture, but this is not so, as 
the London Zoo and private aviculturists possessed this specie^ 
in pre-war times, and it has appeared on the show-bench on 
several occasions, but it has never been numerous on the 
market. It is a beautiful species, and a monochrome figure of 
it api)eared in Bird Notes 1909, page 271, in connection witli 
notes on the L.C.B.A. Show, when this species made its secon 1 
bow to the public. 

Zoo Notes : The additions during Jainiary numbered 
S2, of which we note the following species : 

2 Australian Flowerpeckers {Dicaeum liirundciiacaeiim). 

1 Magnificent Bird of Paradise (Dipliyllodcs hunstcni). 
12 Lilac-crowned Fruit-Pigeons {Ftilopits coromilatus). 

2 Orange-bellied Fruit-Pigeons {P. iozonus). 

3 Magnificent Fruit-Pigeons {Megaloprepla ))Higiiipc<i}. 

2 Nutmeg Fruit-Pigeons {Myristicivora bicolor) 
16 Bar-shouldered Doves (Geopelia liumeralis). 

II Australian Green-winged Doves (Chaleophaps chrysochlora). 
I Nicobar Pigeon {Caloenas mcobarica). 
*ii Plumbeous Quails {Synaeciis plumbeus). 
I Australian Rail (Hypotaenidia brachypiis). 

* Nezv to the Collection. 

All the above are on deposit. Of the permanent additions 
we note but two species : 

T i)air Ross's Snow Geese (Llien rossi). 

1 Farl's Weka Rail {Ocydro)Jius carii). 

The additions during February numbered 93. These 
include y;^ Indian species placed on deposit, consisting of: 

3 Dial Birds (Copsyclius saularis). 

37 Dwarf Turtle Doves (Onopclia Inuiiilis). 
II Tigrine Turtle Doves {Spilopclia tigriua). 

2 Collared Turtle Doves (Turtur farrago). 

16 Indian Palm Doves (Stcgiiiatopclia cavibaycnsis). 

4 Demoiselle Cranes {.iiitliropoidcs rirgo). 

Among the purchases and gifts are the following inter- 
esting species, but nothing new to the coUcci'wn : 
2 Lavard's Bulbuls (Pycnonotiis layardi). 
I Yellow Hangnest {Cassicus pcrsicus). 




:aii :aigbts taes^rvcd. 

T^prll. 1922. 


— THE — 





By W. Shore Baily 



< )f mese haufl- 
some birds there 
appear to be five 
species, three of 
which inhabit In- 
dia, and the others 

The most free'y 
imported and at 
the same time the 
most beautiful is 
the Crimson Tra- 
i^opan {I'ragopan 
satyra). The male 
is a magnificent 
creature ; its gen- 
eral body colour 
being crimson, 
covered with large 
white spots. In 
the 1d r e e d i n g 
season it lias 

photo ir. Slioi 
Young- C;il:>ot's Tragopan. 
(( )ne moiitlT old). 

an extraordinary display, developing at this time a pair of 
greenish-blue horns about two inches long, and a brilliant blue 
gular flap, about the size of the palm of a man's hand. The 
first time I saw this display the bird was in a thick hedge, and 
a)l I could see at first was a blue patch, which shone like an 

jj Troi^opaus. 

electric lanii). I lia\e many times since seen me bird displayini;" 
in the oi)en. and a truly wonderful sight it is. The display is 
often accompanied by the bird's crow or call, a very loud and 
harsh note, and entirely unlike that of any of uie other pheasants. 

Unforttmately I have never been able to g"et a photo of 
the Satyra's frontal display, although I am able to send one of 
it when showing off sideways as it were without the inflation cA 
the gular flap and horns. 

These birds are very hardy and make capital aviary birds, 
but they require good-sized aviaries, so it is not every avicultur- 
ist who can keep them. ihe hen lays four or five buff eg'gs 
about the size of a pullet's. These are sometimes marked with 
a zone of salmon-coloured spots at the larger end. The chicks 
are pretty little things and are born with their flight feathers 
fully developed, so they can more or less fly a day or so after 
leaving the egg. I have not found them very difficult to rear, 
provided a good supply of insect food can be supplied. They 
grow fairly rapidly, although not nearly so fast as young 
Crossoptilons, whose growth is simply phenomenal, but the 
young males do not attain their full plumage their first season, 
as is the case with most of the other pheasants. 

Another very handsome Tragopan is Cabot's (Tragopan 
caboti). This bird comes from S.E. China, and is not so freely 
imported as T. satyra. It is buff instead of crimson, the spots 
also being buff. The hens and immature birds are very like 
those of T. satyra, and might easily be mistaken for them. 
The eggs, three or four in number, are smaller than the Crimson 
Tragopan's, and are buff, lightly speckled with pink. 

Writing" of the Crimson Tragopan, Mr. Mume gives the 
following excellent account : - 

'■ In the sutnmcr tliey arc to be fouiul at elevation of from 8,000 to 
" 10,000 feet, always in thick cover, by preference in patches of the slender 
" reed-like ringal bamboo in the neighbourhood of water. Although alwavs 
" on hills near to, or bordering on the snow, they are never seen amongst 
" it {except i^erhaps in winter), and seem to shun it as much as the Blood 
" Pheasant delights in it. lC\en the Moinial will be seen high above the 
" forest, well U]) on grassy slopes fringed with and dotted about with 
" patches of snow. But the Tragopan is essentially a forest bird, rarclv. 
" if ever, wandering up towards the snow, or into the open, and, although 
" frequenting perhaps rather their outskirts than their deeper recesses, 

Bird Notes. 

Photo by \V . Shore Baily. 
Crimson Tragopaii. ( c? ). 




Shama, the Hcsf S(>)ig-hir(l . 73 

hardly ever voluntarily quits the shelter of tlie woods rmd their dense 

'■ I'^xccpt by ehance, when you may come U]ion a male sunniiii;' 
himself or preening his feathers on some projecting;' rock or hare trunk 
of a f.allen tree, these birds are never to he seen, unless hy :\Ui of three 
or four good dogs, who will speedily rouse them up, or of a trained 
shikari, who will call them out by cleverly imitating their loud l)leating 
cry. If you ever catch a glimpse of them it is but for a second ; they 
drop like stones from their perch, and dart away with incredible swiftness, 
.alwavs running, never, so far as I have seen, rising unless you accidental'v 
almost walk on to them, or h.ive dogs with xou. To judge from those 
I have examined, they feed much on insects, young green shoots ■ f 
bamboos, and on some onion-like bulbs, but Mr. Hodgson notes that 
those he examined had fed on wild fruits, rhododendron seeds, and <v 
some cases entirely on aromatic leaves, bastard cinnamon, daphne, etc. 

" At the end of April, and very likely earlier, the males are heard 
continually calling. When one is heard calling in any moderate-siz-^d 
patch of Jungle, you make for the nearest adjoining cover, and work 
your way sufificiently near to the outside to get a view of the intervening- 
space. Then you squat, and your man begins calling. Very soon h.e 
is answered, too often by some wretch of a bird behind you, who*^)ersisvs 
in ferreting you out, gets scent of you. and goes ofif with a series of 
alarm notes that frightens every other bird within a mile. But if you 
are in luck and all goes well, the right bird and the right bird only answers, 
and answers nearer and nearer, till just as your dusky comrade, forgetting 
in his excitement his wonted respect, pinches your leg, you see a head 
emerge for a second from the liases of the ringal stems opposite ; again 
and again the head comes out with more and more of the neck turned 
rapidly right and left, and then out darts the would-be combatant tow^ards 
you ; the gun goes off, everything is hidden for a moment in the smoke, 
hanging on the damp morning air, and then — well there is no trace ot 
the Tragopan. I protest that this is an exact account of the onlv good 
chance I ever had at one of these birds on the calling lay."" 

Shama. the Best Song-bird. 

By J. W. Porter. 

Nothing" influences me so much in nature as her music, 
the singing of her birds. The Nightingale has through the 
ages been lauded both in prose and poem, and rightly so, for 
in a state of freedom the music of this glorious bird stands out 
much as does the first violin in an orchestra or the soloist 
in some choir of human voices. People may claim that this 

74 SluiDia. the Rest Song-bird. 

distinction is gained mainly l)y reason of its song being poured 
out in the stillness of the night when all other bird music is 
hushed, and they claim that if the Skylark and Blackcap pos- 
sessed this habit they too would be similarly praised. To these 
people I would say, go and listen to the Persian Nightingale. 
This bird sings a great deal more than our Western bird bv 
day and possesses a much more powerful song if slightly less 
sweet voice; but the song is almost identical. To hear this 
bird's beatitiful notes ringing clear and resonant above all the 
other sounds of wild life impresses one to such an extent that 
he is not likely to listen to, and much less to be influenced by 
the claims made for other bird music with which he is familiar. 
A far more simple test is to keep a Nightingale, Skylark and 
Blackcap and judge from the exhibition in one's own bird-room ; 
here again the Nightingale's excellence is very evident, even 
though no captive Western Nightingale ever sings in captivity 
as he does in freedom. He is a bird of the wild and not of 
the cage. 

It is hard for me to appreciate when, considering" the 
number of people who keep captive birds, the large sums which 
pass yearly through the bird dealers' hands, the enormous vari- 
ety of birds imported from ah parts of the earth, and of the 
time and trouble expended by their keepers, why it is that this 
greatest possession of our pets — a gift possessed only by birds 
and humans — is so little considered. The working-man fancier 
with his caged Thrush, Skylark or Linnet is the true bird-lover, 
for he keeps a bird, as did the people of the East centuries before 
these Western countries were inhabited, for the pleasure it gives 
him of listening to its song, and not for its grotesqueness and 
garish plumage. We see in the canary the trend of this habit. 
This bird was originally bred for song and kei)t for song onlv, 
even though some people may perhaps have been attracted by its 
colour, and even this colour did not satisfy, as wntness the pro- 
duction of the colour-fed birds — a pernicious fancy and deterrent 
to health. Vanished is the little " London Fancy canary, i 
bird who could sing, and in his place we have unshapely bodies 
for show purposes, or machine-rendered songs mechanical and 
monotonous. Even to-day we have a group of people talking 
of a canary with nightingale's notes, woodlark's notes, and 
blackcap's notes, yet these same people miglu just as well seek 

Sliaiiia, the /Scst Sung-bird. 75 

for the " Philosopher's Stone." If they only considered a 
little more deeply and scientilically a subject on which in other 
directions they will si)end hours of thougiit and labour and 
money too, they would be well advised, for it is a physical 
impossibility, just as much impossibility in fact as an attempt 
to imitate the notes of the violin with a tromljone or cornet. 
To those searching for the perfect songbird in captivity success 
will never come until they turn their attention to the softbill 
I am one of the seekers, and though perfection can only come 
with years of training and selection I am sure tiiat it can be found 
in the Indian Shama. 

If a search were made throughout the world to find hi 
embryo a wonderful human voice which would by training reach 
the nearest point to perfection the searchers would naturally 
have to judge entirely by the range of the imperfect voice and 
the number of notes it could compass naturally and without 
effort. 'liiey would naturally also desire that the temperament 
of the selected should be a suitable one to undergo tiie training 
and change of environment. 

A comparison between tne song of the Nightingale and 
the Shama always seems to me to suggest in fact that of a trained 
and untrained human voice. I have often listened to the Shama 
singing in its wild state — a kind of low sweet warble, to be broken 
at intervals v\/ith those glorious liquid notes found ordy in the 
song of these two birds. 

Unfortunately the Shamas brought to this country are 
seldom good song specimens. They have passed through tlie 
hands of the dealers, and in course of transit have learned o 
imitate the notes of various other birds with which they have 
been crowded. For instance the twittering of a Budgerigar 
when once heard by a Shama is never forgotten and w-ill always, 
sooner or later, be produced. Nearly every Shama which has 
not been carefully trained and isolated has acquired notes of the 
various Bulbuls, and these, too, when once learned will alwavs 
form part of his repertory. 

It must be remembered that a Shama hand-reared from 
the nest and carefully trained to sing from the finger more or 
less at direction is always a very expensive bird. The price 

76 Suinc Notes of My Birds. 

required in India for a really tame and trained singing Shama 
will often be more than we pay for a bird from a dealer in this 

This being the case, would it not be possible for those 
l>ird lovers here who have breeding aviaries to concentrate on 
producing and stabilising this bird instead of giving so much 
thought and time to the breeding and rearing of birds like the 
Budgerigar? Surely the Shama is a more pleasing production 
than yellow and blue budgerigars. I appreciate the great diffi- 
culty of obtaining hen Shamas; but if a number of people were 
determined to obtain these birds they could easily enough be goi 
over. It has always appeared to me that there must be a 
financial reason either here or in India which accounted for the 
scarcity of the females. It is not a rare bird in India; it accli- 
matises very quickly and is healthy and easy to keep. With ;i 
number of young hand-reared Shamas in this country at first 
hand w-ith people willing to spend time and patience on their 
education the whole question as to which is ciie world's greatest 
songbird would quickly be answered. I would guarantee that :i 
nestling Shama kept wholly in the company of the most perfect 
singing Nightingale would in course of time sing that very same 
song, not for a few brief periods of the year, but for the whole 
season. What would add greater charm, too. perhaps to the 
song when rendered in our homes would be the fact that it would 
l3e toned down, for the Shama is no " shrill shouter of song." 
Tf we wished it, how easily too we might add to such a song say 
that of the Blackcap, the Woodlark or the Barred Warbler. 

Some Notes of My Birds. 

By Margaret Burgess. F.Z.S. 

UvAEAN Parrakeets (N ytjipliicus iti'occnsis) : In 

September 1921 I see I was asked how I fed my Uvaean Parra- 
keet. It was not a newly imported specimen when it came 
into my possession. This bird has never ailed with me, and. 
except at moulting time, is always a picture of glossy plumage 
and perfect health. It is fed on all kinds of seeds — canarv. 

Some Notes of My Birds. yy 

hemp (very little), millet, and parrot seed mixture — monkey 
nuts it simply loves, has bread and milk daily, fruit — apple, 
grapes are greedily eaten. One day I noticed it scratching 
among the litter on aviary floor, as do poultry, and I closely 
watched it and saw it fmd mealworms, which had crawled in 
from the adjoining" aviary. It now eats as many mealworms as 
I care to give it, and watches and calls at once on seeing the 
mealworm-box; the mealworm is sucked completely dry. but 
the skin is never eaten. I believe it would really live on these 
insects alone if I would allow it — it gets and eats about twenty 
daily. Another bird which has a weakness for mealworms i> 
the Rock Pepler Parrakeet {Polytelis meJanura), of whicii 
species I have two specimens, but only one of them takes the 
mealworms and he eats them greedily, and is just as keen for 
them as the Uvaean. Possibly this live-food is what the Uvaean 
needs to keep it in health. Have any of our members us.^d 
them before for this species ? My bird bathes freely. 

As regards mealworms; all my Broadtails like them an 1 
delight in hunting among the ground litter for them ; one of my 
Hawk-headed Parrots also is fond of them; but this bird holds 
it in its claws the same as a nut and eats the whole of it. I find 
lots of Budgerigars like insectile mixture, and I give them a 
little daily, mixing it with hot water, and they seem to enjoy it 
especially the young ones. 

Satix Bower-kird (I'tilonuyhyuchus violaccns). My 
specimen is becoming very interesting. I received it in Decem- 
ber 1920 when it was quite a young bird in juvenile plumage; 
some, who saw it. said it was a female. Very slowly, the last 
few months, it has been changing colour, and now the back is 
becoming glossy black, and the spots on the breast are running 
LOgether; the eyes are blue now when light is behind them. 1 
once read it took .aree years for a young male to i-each adult 
plumage, and judging from my bird this is evidently correct, 
and I shall note when the change is complete — my bird must now 
be approaching three }*ears old. He is a most beautiful bird 
and within the last few months is becoming quite tame; 
previously it would not even come to the ground while anyone 
was watching. It is perfectly friendly with the other occupants 
of the aviary, of which the following is a list : 
3 Glossy Starlings i Spot-billed Toucanette 

78 Some Notes of My Birds. 

I Hill Mynah i Canton Alockini^-bird 

1 Cat Bird (Aiist.) 2 Harbets 

2 Hangnests i i'ileated Jay 

Peace did not always reign in this aviary; it used tt 
contain an African Pied Starling, so 1 sold the offender, and 
peaceftil harmony now reigns supreme. 

Vasa Parrot {Coracopsis fcisa), and Bare-eyed 
Cockatoo (Cacatua gyjiniopis). We are having great fun 
just now watching the love making of these two birds. The 
Vasa is a hen, such a sweet silly old thing; 1 have been told 
Vasas are dull birds; my bird is certainly not so; she is a great 
talker, keen flyer, never still, and always in mischief. She is 
now in perfect plumage, very glossy, with a mealy appearance 
over her feathers. I call her a handsome bird, a great change 
and contrast in colour compared with the l^'illiant greens, etc., 
of the other parrots. She has a box, which she delights to get 
the Bare-eye to come down and play with her around it ; they 
have a rag doll which is greatly loved, also the Roseate Cockatoo 
(Cacatua roscicapiUa), when allowed, delights to join in the fun. 
The Vasa says " Come on Paul, do! come on!" Poor Paul 
gets no peace until the Vasa gets right under his wings, and 
Paul (the Bare-eye) feeds her. Is it possible, I wonder, for 
them to really mate ? 

Nesting Notes: I believe my ived-collared Lorikec'S 
(TricJioglossiis nibritorqiies) liave eggs, as the hen ai)pears to 
be sitting. 

Blue and Blue-bred Budgerigars are laying: ditto Zebra 
Finches (Taenia pygia castonotis). 

I have paired Rosella Parrakeets (riatycerciis exii)iiits). 
but the cock bird is unfaithful and is madly in love with a hen 
Barnard's (BanianfiKS bar)iardi), who welcomes his advances; 
tliese feed each other. I hardly know what to do, as the Rosella 
\\u\ not look at his mate. [You nnist either let them follow 
their own sweet will, or remove the hen Barnard's out of sight 
and hearing of the Rosella. — Ed.] 

^ly Bell Bird (Manorhina iiielaiiopiirys) was dancing and 
displaying this morning (March 27); it quit" put up a crest and 

Diary of a J'oyagc from Karachi to Marseilles. 79 

bowed, then sharply turned with a quick strike on the one bell- 
note; I have never seen this done before. It is wonderful how 
he can continue the sound of the bell-notes, many times in 
succession, with mouth wide open, and in one breath the sound 
proceeds from his throat. 

Diary of a Voyage from Karachi to Marseilles, 1920 

By Hugh Whistler, F.Z.S. 

The following- rough account of birds noticed during the 
course of a sea voyage from India does not lay claim to any 
scientific or literary pretensions. It has always been my custom 
while at sea to keep a note of all birds which come under 
observation, and it occurs to me that possibly some of our 
members, whom circumstances do not allow to travel, may be 
interested to get a rough idea of what birds can be seen from the 
deck of a liner passing along one of the ordinary sea routes. 

Where possible I have indicated the position of the ship 

at noon, and the number of miles travelled in the preceding 24 


May 17TH. Embarked on the City of London at Kiamari 
(Karachi) about noon. Hempriche's Gull {Larus 
hcmprichi) in full breeding plumage was very common in 
the harbour. A few Kites (Milviis govinda) were also 
round the ships. 

About 4 p.m. a stream of birds, apparently Phalacro- 
corax javanicus, in V's and lines was passing across the 

M.AY i8th. 22° GO X 68° 45' E. 206 miles. No birds seen, 
though land was occasionally in sight. It is possible 
that depth of water rather than distance from land 
accounts for the presence or absence of birds. 

May [9TH. Reached Bombay about noon and lay out in the 
harbour, leaving again about 6 p.m. The most common 
bird seen was the Kite (Milvus govinda). Ihe only 
Gulls seen were a single bird in full breeding plumage, 
apparently Larus brunneicephalus, and a party of about 

8o Diary of a Voyage f)'o)ii Karachi to Marseilles. 

a dozen seen in the distance which were a])parently not in 
full plunia.s^e, and which I could not identify. Two or 
three Swifts {CypselHS affinis) passed the ship. 

May 20TI1. i/° 54' X 69° 10' E. 218 miles. A single Tropic 
l)ird, probably Phacthon indicus, was flyinsj;' for some 
time parallel with the ship. Once it stooped but unsuc- 
cessfully at a flying" fish exactly after the manner of a 
Falcon, and later on it fell from a height into the water 
with a splash like a tern. No land seen. 

M.^Y JisT. 16° 52' X 64° 11' E. 292 miles. Two large 
1)rownish looking Shearwaters passed across the bows of 
the ship !)efore breakfast. These might have been the 
Green-billed Shearwater {Fufjiims chlororhynchus). A 
single Shearwater was seen after sunset. 

AIay 22ND. 15° 42' N. X 50" 07' E. 300 miles. A large white 
bird seen in the distance early was probably a Gannet. 
A fevv Shearwaters were seen during the day. and 
appeared to be mostly small of a uniform brown colour, 
though one Ijird had whitish underparts which renders it 
likely to have been Puffinns pcrsicns. 

May 23RD. 14° 44' N. x 54° 18' E. 285 miles. Two Masked 
Gannets {Suia cyaiiops) appeared about 7 a.m., and for a 
time flew just o\er the forecastle of the ship, keeping 
close together. The black rectrices and remiges. con- 
trasting with the pure white of the remainder of the 
plumage, and the livid bill and facial skin were sufficient 
to identify the birds beyond doubt. 

A few Shearwaters of the dusky type were seen through- 
out the day. About 4 p.m. a distant floc.v of white birds, 
probably Terns, were seen busily fishing over a small 
patch of water. 

May 24111. 1 was somewhat astonished to see a party of two 
or three small Black Petrels with white about the tail, 
as it is new to my experience to meet Petrels in the 
Arabian Sea. From a study of distributions it is probable 
that they were the Fork-tailed Storm Petrel (Occauo- 
droiiia leiicorrhoa). .\ few Shearwaters, mostly of the 

Diary of a Voyage front Karachi to Marseilles. 8i 

dusky type, but one witli whitish underparts were seen 
throug-hout the day. It was impossible to identify .i 
couple of Terns which flew past the ship. 

May 25111. 12° 25' X. X 44° 13' E. 312 miles. We passed 
Aden about 8 a.m., and Perim about 4 p.m.. but put into 
neither harbour. A few white birds seen in the distance 
were apparently Terns. .Several Hempriche's Sooty 
(kills (Lams hcmf^richi) were seen about noon, and at 
Perim they became numerous, following the ship until 
dusk ; with them was an adult Black-backed Gull, presum- 
ably Lants affi)iis. A party of two or three Petrels, of 
the same species as those seen yesterday, were noted 
between Aden and Perim. A single Tropic bird 
(Phaethon) was seen in the distance. 

May 26th. 16° 20' X. x 41° 14' E. 313 miles. Several Brown 
Boobies {Sula Icucogastcr) were observed in the early 
morning while we were in the vicinity of some rocky 
islands. A single Tern w'as also noted. 

May 27TH. A single Tern seen in the far distance was the only 
bird observed during the day. 

May 28th. 25° 05' X. x 35° 47' E. 314 miles. A Dove of 
some species was seen in the vicinity of the Daedalus 
lighthouse, which is built on a long shoal visible at low- 
water out in the middle of the Red Sea. 

May 29TH. 29° 21' X. X 32° 39' E. 309 miles. X'o birds were 
seen during the day with the exception of a single whitish 
Gull, until we reached Suez about 2 p.m. Here even 
there was practically no bird life in the harbour, a few 
Gulls only being seen, and those at a distance. Two 
species appeared to be represented, Black-backed Gulls 
and Lams Icucophthahnus. 

May 301H. We reached Portsaid at about 7 a.m., the greater 
portion of the Canal, wdiich is alw^ays of great interest to 
the naturalist, being traversed by night. There were a 
few Black-backed Gulls about the harbour, and for a little 
way outside it. The Common Swallow (Hirundo rustica) 
was seen about 10 a.m. 

May 31.ST. 33° 34' X"^. X 27° 03' E. 300 miles. Xo observations. 

82 Noics on J limbic and Other Wild Life. 

Junk isr. The only sea Ijirds noted (.lurin;^' the day were a 
couple of Herrini:;- (jiills, hut it was imj)ossible to identify 
them properly. A Turtle Dove about 10-30 a.m., and a 
Tree Pipit about 6 p.m. were seen, stragglers on 

JuxK 2XD. ^S° 11' X. X 15° 36' E. 316 mles. A most interesting- 
day, for we entered the Straits of Messina about 11 a.m.. 
and passed Stromboli about 3-30 p.m. In the Straits the 
land lay so close on either side, and was so clear in the 
bright sunshine that with tield glasses one could see the 
towns and countryside most clearly, and even trace 
remains of the great disaster of a few^ years back. 
Stromboli was smoking, and one wondered at the courage 
of the inhabitants of the small villages which perch in 
precarious position on the small buttresses of land which 
jut out at the base of the giant cone which rises straight 
out of the sea. A few Shearwaters and many adult 
Herring Gulls appeared about the neighbourhood of the 
land, but the only migrant seen was a small bird which 
appeared to be one of the Yellow Buntings. 

June 3RD. We approached Sardinia about noon, when Herring 
("lulls were following in the wake of the ship. In the 
Straits of Bonifacio there were some species of Shear- 
water with brown upper parts and a white undersurface. 
A House Martin (ChcVidou urhica) visited the ship in the 

Junk 4TH. The City of London reached Marseilles in the early 
mornini^-, and I abandoned the study of birds in favour 
of the desperate rush which is the lot of those wno would 
essay the overland route ! 

^ _ 

Notes on Jungle and other Wild Life. 

By Dr. Casky A. Wood, M.B.O.U. 

ri'lic t'(jllo\Miiii- was fDiwardcd to inc. acconi|)naicd by a short letter, as 
follows : " Dr. Casey Wood, now in Soutli America, lias asked me to send 
" \ou tlie enclosed copy of a letter which he has written for a few relatives 

Notes on JtDiglc and Other IVild Life. 83 

" and personal friends, and which there has been no opportunity to revise cr 
" correct. Please do not return it, but dispose of it in any way you choose. — 
" Cora Raymond (Secretary)." We have decided to publish it in extenso 
as received, as while the whole of it does not refer to birds, yet it is all 
descriptive of wild-life in all the varied faunas of the tropical jungle, how to 
leacli, transit details, etc., and will, we opine, prove of practical interest to 
all serious aviculturists, and will impart some insight as to the natural 
setting of many of the si)ccics which adorn our aviaries. — Ed. B.N.] 
Dear Folks, — 

Last year, when E. and I spent the winter on the 
mainland of South America, I wrote a short and unconnected 
account of our experiences, for the amusement of a few friends. 
These random sketches were intended to be a sort of Christmas 
greeting, and were indeed ready for the typist before the hohday 
season, but it takes so mucli time to reach one's correspondents 
from the Tropics that it was ahiiost Easter before the letters 
were delivered 

I suppose this is the proper place to confess that E. and 
the writer hope to complete their itinerary, which has so far 
been something like this — California, Chicago. Montreal, New 
York, London, Montreal, Halifax, Barbados, and Demerara, 
during 1921 — by adding" Trinidad. Venezuela, Curacoa, Haiti, 
New York and Washington. London, Montreal, and Chicago, 
finally reaching California some time towards the end of 1922. 
Sounds like a circus route or a Cook's Tour — doesn't it? — btrt 
it is really much simpler and more commonplace than either ! 

If I had not been asked so frequently my motives for 
visiting once more the Spanish Main, I would not now bore you 
with them. (By the way, 1 did not know until I had read, quite 
recently. Lord F. Hamilton's attractive book. Here, There 
and Ez'crywliere, that " Main " has nothing to do with a body 
of water, but is an abbreviation of " Mainland," meaning 
thereby the former possessions of the Spaniards in South 

Ijuprimis, I am desirous some time in the future to 
complete certain work I have been carrying on about the Eyes 
and Eyesight of Birds. After all, if we wish to study eyesight 
in its numerous manifestations (human vision included) or hope 
to penetrate the mystery of how we see, it is to bird life that we 
must apply. That I may intelligently continue these studies 

84 Nuics on Jungle and Other Jllld Life. 

it is vitally important that I know something- of Ornithology in 
general, and of the related departments of Natural History — no 
mean task. i)i course, only those who have been fortunate 
enough to have given a whole lifetime to such pursuits ever 
really become accomplished zoologists ; but the half-loaf is better 
than none. On the other hand, I have always liked, and to 
some extent dabbled in. the natural sciences; and with this slight 
foundation for more extensive studies trust that during a dili- 
gent pursuit for. say. five or six years, of ornithology in its 
literary and other aspects I may pick up sufficient information to 
justify a review, by no means final, of that highly specialised 
sense, avian vision, and perhaps acquire a working knowledge of 
the apparatus that apparently brings it about in a few of the 
fifteen thousand species that now populate the bird world. As 
a result of these inquiries, I may add one or two facts to those 
already accepted. Then, later, other and better equipped 
observers will furnish their quota, so that we may know at last 
something about a subject of which at the present writing little 
is really known. Furthermore, an increase of our knowledge 
of eyesight in bird families will with certainty help to an under- 
standing of the same function in Man. 

So, that's that; but there are other reasons why we 
consider the Tropics no mean place in which to spend the winter, 
among them the fact there are available so many British Colonial 
possessions, with their charming circles of well-read, highly 
educated and widely travelled officials. For example, during 
the very first week of our two months' residence in Barbados, 
the U.S. Consul. Major J. J. C. Watson, went out of his official 
way to arrange a luncheon at the Bridgetown Club that I might 
meet those zoologists of the Island who would most likely be of 
use to me in my bird investigations and. about the same time, 
F and I were " put up " at the two principal clubs. So we 
were able to see not a little of the charming social life of the 

Although we. as Americans witliout official status, had 
some hesitation about writing our names in the visitors' book 
at Government House, and did not. as a matter of fact, observe 
that or the other convention of a first call, yet in spite of what 
some peoole might regard as a " gaucherie," were invited there, 

A'otcs on Jungle and Other Wild Life. 85 

to several informal functions, and had a chance of becominL;' 
acquainted with a number of de'i.L^htful people. The (Governor 
and his very popular wife long" ago adopted the thoughtful 
custom of inviting" to their family Christmas dinner all those 
homeless unfortunates who. like ouselves, " had nowhere to 
go." Our host very appropriately called us his " Waifs and 
Strays." And we had a mighty good time — we castaways. 
After dinner we joined in the children's games, danced the 
Lancers, had a final round of blind-man's-buff, and topped off 
with something E. and I had not taken part in for years — Sir 
Koger de Coverley ! It would have made you feel young again 
if you could have watched the dignitaries of Church and State 
])laying" " hunt the slipper." 

I am well aware that for these privileges I was indebted 
to no merit of mine, but only to the innate kindliness of Sir 
Charles and Lady O'Brien. Possibly, also, an old-time friend 
between Lady O'Brien's sister and my w'ife had something to 
do with it. At any rate. Sir Charles O'Brien, who is one of a 
long line of Colonial Governors and Empire builders, not only 
makes, so every Barbadian tells me, an ideal administrator, but 
is in all other respects very much of a gentleman — and what 
more remains to be said ? E. and I will not soon forget 
Barbados and her hospitable people. 

Moreover, we do not seem apprehensive of those more 
or less mythical dangers popularly attributed to tropical jungle 
life. In virtue of that state of mind we intend to brave (?) 
these dangers and discomforts. First of all. we expect to make 
an excursion fifty miles up the Essequibo River to a place 
surrounded by the illimitable Guiana forest, where we shall be 
exposed to about the same troubles and accidents that accom- 
pany a foray into the wilds of Maine or Michigan, and that ends 
in a stay in some summer hotel on the shores of an inland lake. 
Certainly, there are more sand-flies and mosquitos in the 
last-named locality than on the banks of the Mazuruni ; and more 
snakes; and fewer birds and just as many flowers. Then there 
is Kaietur Falls, but as these are accessible only to such women 
as Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt. Mrs. Lestrade and Mrs. Clementi. 
but that's anticipating a part of this narrative ! 

The visit of a feathered straggler to a ship at sea is such a 

■^fi Notes on .Jungle and Other Wild Life. 

common experience that it is hardly worth mentioning were it 
not for the questions of bird psychology that such incidents often 
involve. (Jn our way from Halifax to Bermuda and when 
some four hundred miles from the nearest land, a Logger-head 
Shrike flew on board. Accompanying us, from the Nova 
Scotian coast, were two acceptable forms of Butcher Bird food — 
a couple of EngHsh Sparrow^s and several crates of cabbages 
(with their usual families of cabbage-worms) securely roped to 
uprights on the forward deck. The Shrike (what a beautifully 
set-up and fearless brigand was he ! ) first dined off the sparrows 
and then, after a day or two, gave his attention to the cabbages. 
He must have improved the vegetables greatly, and I could not 
resist the temptation to advise the consignee at Port namilton 
that he should advertise arrival of a special lot of "bird-picked " 

The Shrike remained with us for several days. It seemed 
to some of us that he stayed until the cabbage grubs were 
exhausted, and then, despising the dangers — if there were any 
for him — of the waste of waters, flew away. My friend. Dr. 
Chas. Richmond, of Washington, a widely known authority on 
the subject, believes that birds have no conception of a moving- 
ship as such, but regard it as part of the land; and he writes me 
that probably this Lanius acted just as any accidental visitor 
would on any isolated rock in the Atlantic, and was not bothered 
to ask why the food supply was sufificient when on other islets 
he had found it exceedingly scarce. 

Another bird especially attracted by ships is known to 
sailors as the Boatswain Bird. We were fortunate in having 
or.e \\\ih us on this trip — appropriately introduced to me by the 
functionary whose name he bore. The Tropic Bird — to give 
him his correct designation — has the two middle feathers of his 
tail so arranged (and projecting) that they are said to resemble 
a marline-spike, and so to suggest the officer just mentioned. 
The verv beautiful individual that came aboard the Cliaudiere 
was Phacthon (because his whole life is spent in following the 
chariot of the simDAmericanus. At least that was his name 
the last time I looked him up; and we have frequent re-christen- 
ings in systematic ornithology. He had webbed feet, some 
black markings on the face and wings, but his general colouring 

Notes on Jungle and Other Wild Life. 87 

was a lovely satiny white. After he had been duly admired and 
allowed lo rest awhile, he returned to his favourite task of 
attending' the horses of the siui-(lod. 

In the harbour at Grenada we saw, quite close at hand, 
numerous Frigate or Man-of-\Var birds (Fregata aqitila). 
Farther north we had observed individuals flying high in the 
air, but at St. (George's there w^as ample opportunity to study 
these magnificent birds at close range, for they often flew quite 
close to our steamer. The Frigate Bird is found near the 
equator all over the globe, and both sexes have the same colour- 
ation above — a chocolate brown with a metallic sheen that 
appears shiny black to the distant observer. The female has 
w'hite beneath, and her outstretched legs are plainly pink, while 
her mate's are black. The body is relatively small, w^hile the 
wings, as large and widespread as a swan's, give the bird great 
buoyancy. I do not know why, but these birds — especially the 
apparently coal-black male — remind me of a figure of Satan, a 
detail of an engraving by Gustave Dore that, in my boyhood, 
hung (a cheerful adornment) in my bedroom. This fearsome 
object was placed there by my much-tried Calvanist nurse — 
whose patient soul now rests with the Elect, I trust. She 
expressed the justifiable opinion that " boys like you " require 
for their eternal welfare not only physical but mental influences 
to keep tliem in the straight and narrow. Hence, the warning- 
portrait. It is one of the regrets of my career that Nurse'h' 
faithful works should have proved so disappointing and that 
in time, I came to look upon the Mephistopheles on the wah 
as a kind of guardian angel. Be that as it may, the moment I 
raw the great glistening, double-triangle pinions of the Frigate 
Bird I instantly visualized my old friend the Devil! And yet, 
as Newton says, it is a beautiful sight to watch one or more of 
them floating overhead against the deep blue sky. the long- 
forked tail alternately opening and shutting like a pair of 
scissors, and the head, kept to w-indward, inclined from side to 
side. The wings seem to be fixed in one position in all directions 
ot the wind. 

The Man-of-War Bird exhibits some wonderful diving 
and hunting stunts when, from on high, he fishes in the sea 
beneath liini or chases other birds to rob them of their prey. 

88 Zoo Report. 

Altogether he is one of the most remarkal)]e objects to be seen 
about the Antilles. 

Later, when we reached the South American Mainland, 
we made the acquaintance of another bird fit to be mentioned 
with these majestic aves, viz: — the Swallow-tailed Kite 
(Elanoidcs furcaius). This feathered beauty, noted because of 
its length of tail and wing, has a black body but a white head 
and neck, the outstretched wings showing from below a broad, 
pa])er- white band extending almost from one wing-tip, across 
the l)ody, to a corresponding area on the opposite side. 

These markings, with the long, bifurcated tail, make a 
splendid appearance as the bird goes sailing and soaring through 
the blue. 

{To he coniinned). 

Zoo Report. 

Zoo Notes : We have noted from time to time most 
of the birds given in the following lists, taken from the annual 
Report of the Zoological Society of London for 1921, but we 
are of the opinion that a complete list will be of interest to many 


]une 21. 2 American Robins (7";/;'<y;/.T ;n/\(,^r(7/or/?/.9), reared. 
June 2Q. 3 Bluebirds (Sialia sialis), reared. 

3 Zebra Finches (Tcrniopygia easta)njtis), reared. 

1 Blue Grosbeak (Guiraca ccrnilea), reared. 

2 ("lambel's Sparrows (Zoiiotrichia leucoplifvs s^ani- 

beli), reared. 
Sept. n. 2 Leadbeater's Cockatoos (Cacatiia leadhcaieri). 

vSept. II. I Cockatiel (Cnlopsittacits novcr-hoUandlcv), reared. 
Oct. 18. I Cockatiel (Calopsitiacus iwvcr-Jwllaudice), reared. 
July 18. 4 Budgerigars (Melopsitiacus undulafits). reared. 
June 16. 2 Sacred Ibises (Ibis ceihiopica). reared. 
Oct. 8. I Sacred Ibis (Ibis (rthiopica), not reared. 







Zou Report. 89 

I line JJ. i) Mallard l)ncks (Anas boscas), reared. 

July 10. 4 Carolina I )uck.s {fMiiil^roficssa sf^o)isa). two 

June 27. 2 Southern Trians^ular-siiotted Pigeons (Cohiniha 

ph(coiiota), reared. 
June 28^. I Dwarf Turtle Dove {Oiiopclia hiiniilis), reared. 
July 13. 2 Dwarf Turtle Doves (Oiiopclia liiiiiiHis), reared. 
( )ct. 25. I (leoffroy's Dove [I'cristcra gcoffroii). reared. 
June I. I Brush Bronze-winged Pigeon (J'liaps clcgans). 

June 21. I Brush Bronze-winged Pigeon (Pliaps clcgaiis), 

)une 2. 1 Crested Pigeon (0 cypliaps lopliotcs) , reared. 
June 2. 2 Talpacoti Doves {ChamccpcVia talpacoti), reared. 
July 13. 4 Gambel's Ouails (Z.6>/'/;6'r/y.r ^(?/n/?r/ij, one reared 
June lO. 3 Himalayan Monauls (Lophophonis hiipcyanns), 

not reared. 
June 16. 13 Gold Pheasants (C7/rv^'6'/6>/'///<i' /'/r/».s-), six reared. 
June 16. 3 Silver Pheasants {(.Jeiuucus iiycthcnwnts), reared. 
2 Hybrid Reeves's and Silver Pheasants {Synna- 

ticits rccvcsi x Gcniucus t}yct''cuicn{s), reared. 
4 Hybrid Lineated Kaleege and Silver Pheasants 

(Geuiucits Uiicatus x G. uycthcnicrus), reared. 

2 North American Turkeys {Mclcagris amcricaiia), 
one reared. 

3 Burmese Peafowl {I\wo muiicus), reared. ' 
I White-necked Crane (Pseudogeranus leucaiichcn) 

not reared. 

SPECIES new to the COLLECTION exhibited during- 1921. 
Spizixits canifrons Blyth. Finch-billed Bulbul. 

Hab. Yunnan. 
Ciiniyris giittiiralis Linn. Scarlet-breasted Sunbird. 

Hab. Durban, S. Africa. 

Sicgaiiiira paradisca vcrrcauxi Cass. Eastern Paradise 
Hab. Mombasa. 











90 Zoo Report. 

Scriints scofops Sundev. Sunde^•al^s Seed-eater. 

Hab. S. Africa. 
Spreo bicolor Cimelin. Pied Starling. 

Hab. S. Africa. 
i'liolidaitgcs Icitcogastcr I'crrcatixi Bocage. Verreaiix's 
Amethyst Starling. 

Hab. Durban, S. Africa. 
Polio psar iioiioricoliis Jerd. White-winged !\lynah. 

Hab. Yunnan. 
C\'a)nn-orax cccrulcus Vieill. Azure Jay. 

Hab. S. Brazil. 
Col ins affi)iis Shelley. East African Coly. 

Hab. Mombasa. 
Saitroniarptis tyro Gray. Aru Island Kingfisher. 

Hab. Aru Island. 
Coracias caudatns Linn. Long-tailed Roller. 

Hab. S. Africa. 
Aprosinictiis aDiboiiiciisis Linn. Amboina King Parrakeet. 

Hab. Amboina. 
A star IcKcosoiUKS Sharpe. Lesser White Goshawk. 

Hab. Aru Island. 
Ptilopiis aiiyaiitiifrons Gray. Orange-fronted Fruit Pigeon. 

Hab. Aru Island. 
Mcgaloprcpia magnifica Temm. Magnificent Fruit Pigeon. 

Hab. S.E. New Guinea. 
Chalcophaf's stcpliani Keichenb. Stephani's Green-winged 

Hab. New Guinea. 
Mitita salz'iiii Reinli, Salvin's Razor-billed Curassow. 

Hab. Ecuador. 
Talcgallits fiiscirostris Salvad. Brown-billed Brush Turkey. 

Hab. Aru Island. 
Rulabconiis casta}iciz'ciitris Gould. Red-bellied Rail. 

Hab. Aru Island. 


Correspondence. 91 


SiK, — I am about to make a confession of deplorable ignorance after 
over forty years of aviculture. I have been starving to death, and nearly to 
death, some dear little foreign linches 1 have had over twelve years ! 1 
could not get Indian millet locally, so always sent to London for it, until 
quite lately, when I found it was (seemingly) obtainable. I used it, just 
noticing it was slightly larger and brighter than the ordinary, so apparently a 
better quality. After a time I remarked the birds seemed dull and mopish, 
,-.0 unlike their usual cheery little selves, especially in the spring time ; they 
would sit huddled together as one sees them in dealers' shops, neither singing, 
nor bathing, nor interesting themselves in the sod of flowering grass with 
which they are always supplied. Too late I discovered this Indian millet (?) 
though scattered about, was never eaten — not a grain of it — and the little 
things had been subsisting on white millet, and only a scanty supply of that, 
for they cared little about it in ordinary times. There was always a supply 
of canary seed for other birds, but that I knew they never touched. On 
discovering what was amiss I at once gave the real thing, of which there 
happened to be a little in the travelling cage of some new arrivals, until I 
could get some down from town, and the survivors happily recovered. The 
question to me is what was that fatal seed? It was not " Brown Millet," 
for I know brown millet. This query- ma\- be a display of ignorance, but 
it may possibly act as a warning to other aviculturists of less ancient date 
than mx'self. I enclose samples of the seed. 

I'.ishops Lydeard: April 17, 1922. (Mrs.) E. A. H. HARTLEY. 

[One sample was the seed usually sold as Indian millet, but imperfectly 
cleaned; the other was a good sample of yellow millet, a variety which few 
foreign birds will eat, or only take a little under the stress of hunger- — it 
u.sually appears in fair quantity in young chicken mixtures, and would, we opine 
l)e quite wholesome providing the birds could be induced to eat it freely. — Ed.] 


Sir, — A few notes may be useful of " B.N.," though, I fear, there 
is little that is new or of particular interest to record. 

Last winter 1920-1, as an experiment I allowed the hundred birds in 
m\ mixed aviary to have the use of the outside flight the entire winter, and 
casualties were few. I dread to think what would have happened under 
the same arrangement this winter — In the stone-walled enclosed aviary 
(15ft. X 15ft. X 15ft.) I have had fewer losses than ever before. The 
Lavender Finches, Blue-breasted Waxbills and similar species have come 
through in fine form, and are now in breeding condition. 

The cock Indigo Bunting changes into his azure breeding plumage in 
^larch each year ; the hen, I am sorry to say, died recently after spending 
seven years in the aviary, and I would much like another. 

The Cape Canaries {Serimis canicollis) are wonderful songsters, and. 

g2 C.o) rcspundoicc . 

nink-r (1k' luiliuii ol' a particularly .y'oud !^oldliiK-li imilr. lasl season's young 
niali',^ >ini^' heller lliaii llic adults. 

Tin's is the first season 1 have had a cock I'lulltinch ])ii>inj^' in the aviary 
(.tiler tlian tlie call notes. 

.1//V(' : The walls ol' the enclosed aviary have larye hunches of hrackcn 
hant^ini;- (jn them, together with nest hoxcs as winter quarters for the hirds. 
and at this time of \ear 1 see little of them — We are, of course, continually 
killing odd mice that we see in the place, but lately it seemed to me that the 
mousey order was particularly strong, so it was decided to shake out the 
bracken — eighty-three mice, okl and young, were bagged in the ])rocess 1 
^\'e thought tliat must be the end of them, but tlu' other day I saw a mouse 
]>ut its head out of the hole of a nest-bo.\ about loins. high by Oins. wide and 
deep : we plugged up the hole and ])lunged the box into a water tank : the 
ct)ntents drowned were : 34 young mice of all ages, 4 adult females, and _' 
adult males. 1 nnist be excused for giving all this a])]),arently sim])le detail, 
but I was ver\- interested, as I did not know that mice were gregarious to 
that extent, and would be pleased by information. 

1 can hear you say, " What an awful waste of seed." and I assure \ ou 
i think so too. 

H. CAR1^\\'.\LK1•:R. 


SiK, — I should be \ery pleased to try and comjiile a list of foreign 
species which have been bred at libertx' in this countrw if members would 
kindly assist me by sending information as to species, localit}' and (jwner. 

I only want to include instances where both parents have been full- 
winged, and the young have been rearetl to be indei)endent. 

Does one of our members i)ossess any record of the parrots, etc., bred 
at liberty at Northrepps ? 

{The .Manpu's of) T.W'lSTt )fK. 
Warl.)linglon House, llavant. April Q, igj2. 


SiK, — \<.)V\ are ]>|-obal)ly correct in sa\ing that with man\- birds brother 
and sister do not norm.ilK- m.ate bv preference. Tiiere is, however, one 
genus where brother and sister always normally appear to mate. In manv 
years' experience with (.'ranes of various .species, some being full-winged 
at complete liberty, I have never known the two young of opposite sexes 
fail to mate with each other on reaching maturity. Tt would appear that 
fresh blood is only introduci'd into crane families in the n.itural state, as the 
result of the death of a bird by accident, or the failure of an egg to hatch, 
llavant. April 7. i9_'_>. (The Marquis of) TAVISTOCK. 

Corrcspo)idcncc. 93 



Sir, — It is strange how rare it is, even for the most intelligent of 
birds, to rescue their young by using the lieak to lift or carry them when they 
have fallen into some place of danger. Cranes arc devoted parents, but 
if their chicks become imbedded in soft mud, they are quite unable to release 
ilieni. The other day I came across the body of a young raven, which had 
fallen from its nest on to the ground not many feet below. It must have 
been botii visil)le aiul audible tij the jjarents, yet, with all their sagacity, it had 
not occurred to them to carry it back. 

The American Xaturalist and writer Long records having seen a 
Canadi;ni gander pull his offspring out of a bog hole into which it had fallen. 
1 have alwavs wanted to find out if the incident were fact or fiction. 

Havant. .April 7. 1922. (Tlit- .Marquis of) TAVISTOCK. 


Sir, — I have been surprised to notice the Golden Pheasants, which 
have been entirely wild here, for more twenty years, feeding g'reedilv 
on the young shoots of the elder trees. The foliage of this tree is so strongly 
flavoured that even captive birds usually leave it alone. 

Havant. .March 2-. iqjj. (The Marquis of) TAVISTOCK. 

I Ca])live birds will certainly eat elder, though less freelv than thev 
do other kinds. Some years ago, when 1 lived at liedford Park, I ])lanted 
elder in my very modest aviary in the hope of having some living green : 
1 allowed the bushes to get a start before turning in the birds, but before 
a year had passed the elder bushes were a mass of dead sticks, owing to 
l!ie birtls refusing to allow shoots from the base, or buds along the branches, 
to develop. Quail were responsible for the destruction of the base shoots, 
and various passerine species for the branch buds. Later I built an aviarv 
a1 Mitcham. enclo.sing in the flight large clumps of elder, hazel, privet and 
hawthorn fifteen feet high — the elder had lateral arms twelve feet long; this 
elder bush was. of course, too huge to be readily killed bv the birds, but tliey 
did all I he pniiiiug required. This, of course, with such a rapid growing 
iree, meant "some" ])runing ! I noticed that comparatively few flowers 
were allowed, these being eaten in the bud stage; of the flowers which did 
open only an occasional berry was allowed to ripen, as these were readily 
eaten in the green stage. I have seen Pekin Robins, Black and also Blue 
Tanagers, Malabar Mynahs, and Cardinals feeding on the unripe berries, i.e., 
berries of full grown size but totally unripe. On one occasion the late LI. 
Goodchild saw them doing so, and was very astonished when I told him 
they did so regularly. As regards the interesting instance recorded above 
by the Marquis of Tavistock I can make no comment save that I have seen 
wild Turdidae feeding on unripe elderberries. Certainly, e.xcept in 
(luite large aviaries captive birds will not allow elder to e.xist any more than 
more edible (from our ]ioint of view) kinds of shrubs and plants. — W. T. Page] 

94 Post Morton Reports. 

Siu. — I notice two errata in my contributions to P.ikd Notks : page 53, 
line 1 should read " The very thing I've wailed for for years I'" and jiage h-. 
last paragraph should be "Strange to say // is not unknown among wild birds :' 
A])ri] 7, 1922. (The Marquis of) TAVISTOCK. 


Post Mortem Reports. 

J'ide rules on page ii. of cover. 
Ykllow-billed Cardinal (9): Capt. Reeve, Leadenham. — Decomposed. 
Violi:t-e.\ri:d Waxbill ( v ) : Duchess of Wellington. — Congestion of kmcs. 
Budgerigar : S. Williams, London, N. — Congestion of lungs. 
Paradise Whydah : T. O. Harrison, Sunderland.^ — Bronchitis. 
Orange Weaver : Mrs. A. Chalterton, Ruislip. — Congestion of lungs. 
Blue Budgerigar : Mrs. Foster, Torquay. ^ — Enteritis. 
Blue-breasted Waxbill : Mrs. Calvocoressi, Liverpool. — Pneumonia. 
Indigo Bunting : Mrs. Calvocoressi, Liverpool.- — Decomposed. 
Cockateel (9): Capt. G. E. Rattigan, Devon.- — Pneumonia. 
Yellow-billed Cardinal (9) ^ Capt. G. E. Rattigan. Devon. — Decomposed 

Hon. Pathologist. 



ZAU !J^igl)ts yi&sarvcb, !>ttay ^ 3un(t. 1922. 


— THE — 



May in My Aviaries. 
By W. Shore Baily, F.Z.S. 

I wonder whether any of our members can remember a 
May in any way similar to the on.e that has just ended — / can't ! 
From an a\'icuhural point of view it lias been the most disastrous 
experienced here since 1 took up the hobby of bird-keeping — not 
entirely from the extraordinary climatic variations we have 
experienced, but partly from this cause, and partly from a series 
of untoward happenings. 

( )n the 1st of May in Wiltshire the weather was cold and 
raw, with winds steady in the east; the elms were absolutely 
leafless, and the hedges entirely bare; in spite of this I turned 
my birds into the outside aviaries at the usual time. Now, at 
ihe end of the month, we have semi-tropical conditions, the 
thermometer for the last ten days having ranged well over 80 
degrees in the shade, and the poor birds, instead of suffering 
Irom chiUs. have been half baked by the hot sun. 

The following daily notes may be of interest to our readers : 

May ist.— A great loss occurred. My cock Tragopan, 
.1 most beautiful bird, was picked up dead. It had burst a 
blood vessel whilst displaying. When found, its horns were 
e.N tended, as was the gular lap. but the colours were fading. 

May 2ud. — Hen Dick-cissel died of enteric; cock Bobolink 
ki'led by Weaver. 

May i^rr/.— Algerian Chaffinch and Stni)e-headed Gros- 
beak laid. The Chaffinch built a neat nest, but it was not 
covered on the outside with lichen as is usually the case with the 
nest of the common bird. The Grosbeak built this time in a 
box; four eggs were laid in each case. 

96 May in My Ai'iarics. 

May ^f//. — l^ileated Jay lolled. This bird was in an 
aviary with two Azure and one Yucatan Jays, and they had 
agreed very well together during" the winter. The head and 
neck of this bird were stripped of flesh when found. 

May f,th. — Three young" Peacock Pheasants hatched. 
These are pretty little things when first hatched, the back being 
striped with buff and brown. 

-If ay 6th. — Crimson-headed AIarsh-l)ird killed. This bird 
was picked up ag"ainst tlie wires of the aviary, and on being sent 
t the taxidermist, he reported that it showed the cla"wmarks of 
a cat, but suspect the Jays in the adjoining aviary were the 

May /th.— Two Yellow Weavers laid. Military Starling 
killed. The head and neck of this bird was cleared of flesh in a 
similar way to that of the Jay. 

May 8tli. — Mistle Thrush sitting. The nest, a typical 
one. was built on the lintel of the door, but the bird sat steadily 
in spite of this. 

.U(;v QfJi. — Military Starling and Crimson-headed Marsh- 
bird killed. The heads and necks of these birds were like the 
others. Suspected a cock ( Jlivaceous Thrush which was seen 
chasing" a pair of Common Quail. Had its wing cut. 

May lotli. — vSpotted Eagle Owl laid a soft egg. The bird 
was very mopy the day before this event, and I thought that I 
should lose her. Suspect that she has got a bit too fat.. 

May nth. — Hen Grey-headed Sparrow (Passer diffusus) 
laid. This bird was mated to a cock Cutthroat, who was in 
constant attendance at the nest. 

May I2th. — Yellow-throated S])arrow laid in an artificial 
nest-box. Hen Diuca Finch and cock ]\Iisto Seed-finch killed. 

Max T^th. — Ground Thrushes nesting". 

Max 14th. — Cock Ground Thrush missing. This bird 
had been suffering severely from asthma, and I concluded that 
Hiis was the cause of death. 

Max ff^tli. — Pair Shore Larks and a hen Diamond Dove 
killed by weasel. This little brute was no doubt the cause of 
the death of many of the other birds. I had seen it in the 
aviary early in the year, but as the little Quail. Larks, and other 

May in My Aviaries. 


Photo by IV. Shore Baily, F.Z.S. 
Ovster-catcher's Nest. 




' ^£^ _r2ll^^^^^^^^BIS 



■■■PI 4 • ~sM^ 



E ^^^8 

W^t-:-^%. ;-'*^ 

^ ^ .^ IP^ 


■^*\ *^ 

t^"' ,■•«*" 



-^ rt. " 


, r 

FAo/o &v fK. Shore Baily. F.Z.S. 
Ring Plover's Nest. 





May ill My Ai'iarics. 99 

May 2^ til. — Algerian Chaffinch hatched. I had removed 
two of her es^.^s and put them under the Stripe-headed Grosbeak 
ien. whose own egi^s were infertile. The nestHngs w^ere ugly 
little things and w'ere covered with long white down. They 
only lived three days, as neither the hen Chaffinch nor the hen 
( irosbeak seem to be able to find suitable food for them, 
ilthougli they brooded them very carefully, even after the poor 
little things were dead. 

May 2fitli. — Misto Seed-finch laid. The nest was in a 
patch of grass and not very well hidden. It is lucky that the 
weasel is defunct. 

May 26th. — 2 Peacock Pheasants hatched. 

May 2jth. — Calif ornian Quail sitting. Golden-breasted 
Bunting missing. 

May 2S'tli. — Alanchurian Pheasant sitting nine eggs. 

May 2pfJi. — Alistle Thrush hatched three common 
Thrush's eggs. These were substituted for her ow-n eggs, 
which were, of course, infertile, as she has no mate. 

May joth. — ]\lonaul laid. A fine egg very similar to that 
of the Capercailzie. Cock Shore Lark died. 

\fay ?/.?f. — Horned Tiuinea Fowl sitting. Demoiselle 
Cranes playing at nesting. I have had this pair of birds six 
years — the former owner had them seven years. This is the 
first season that they have made any pretence at nesting. The 
hen spends a good deal of her time incubating a stone. 


Spring Notes for 1922. 

By L. F. R. Pullar. F.Z.S. 
The past winter was a mild one. and I lost no birds from 
climatic causes. I was, however, very unfortunate in losing 
nn pair of Peach-faced Lovebirds {Agapornis puUaria). These 
were delayed on the raihvay on their return from a show, and 
this, added to the fact that the stewards had not supplied 
sufficient seed, caused their death. I have only recently been 
able to get another pair. The only other losses of importance 
were a Virginian Cardinal (Cardinalis cardhialls) and a hen Blue 


Sf^riiig Notes for ip22. 

Most of my pairs have now been removed from the 
indoor flights to the outdoor aviaries. My aviaries are not so 
crowded this season, and I hope for better breeding results. 
L ast year 1 had far too many common Budgerigars and odd 
birds, but these have now been disposed of. 

Aviary No. i : This is a small affair ( i6ft. x 6ft. J, but it. 
is a useful size for a single pair of Parrakeets. In it I have a 
fine pair of Red-headed Conures (Connrns yuhruJarvatus) which. 
I hope, will nest. Both birds are very tame, but 1 have not 
been encouraging this lately, as I find that very tame birds are 
disinclined to breed. 

Aviary No. 2: This measures i6ft. x i6ft., and in it I 
have four Prince Lucian Conures. There is at least one true 
pair among them, and I am hoping that these will nest. These 

West Side of Aviaries Nos. 3. 4 and 5. 

are my favourites among the conures, although they are not 
very brightly coloured. Still they are handsome little birds, 
and do not scream like the larger conures. Last season one 
pair occupied a nest-box, but they did not lay, as they were 
disturbed by mice. 1 have taken care that this shall not happen 
again. The other occupants of tliis aviary'are a pair of (ireen 
Cardinals, which are great favourites of mine, and are nice 
birds to kee]) with Parrakeets. I have only recently bought 
this pair, but the hen is already ins])ecting nest-boxes. 

spring Notes for jp22. loi 

The next aviary is my largest and measures 36ft. x 24ft. 
In it I have the following pairs: 

J pair Jendaya Conures (Conurus jendaya). 

I pair Brown-throated Conures (C acruginosits). 

I pair Peach-faced Lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis). 

I pair White-winged Parrakeets {Brotogcrys vircsccns). 

I pair Green Cardinals (Gubernatrix cristata). 

T. i^air Californian Quail (Lophortyx calif ornica). 

I am hoping the Brown-throated Conures will nest, as 
they are a true pair. The Green Cardinals successfully reared 
one young bird last season and should do better this year. The 
Jendaya Conures are new arrivals, but seem quite peaceful 
though somewhat noisy. I also intend adding a pair of some 
species of Australian Parrakeets to this aviary — probably 

All the aviaries are fitted up with logs and nest-boxes, 
also boxes with long spotits. The latter are favourites with 
al! my parrakeets. 

During the winter I bought a pair of charmingly-tame 
Orange-flanked Parrakeets (Brotogerys pyrrhopterus). These 
were delightful in the house, but as they had their wings clipped, 
and the hen was none too strong, I decided that they would 
TiOt be suitable for an aviary. I therefore parted with them 
with much regret. A strong, full-winged pair would be most 
interesting in an aviary, but I do not think they could stand 
bullying by other birds.* 

I have also a pair of finger-tame Illiger's Macaws 
(Ara Jiiaracana). They are very gentle and never 

attempt to bite. I have not yet decided whether to keep these 
or not, as I think they will cause trouble in the aviary. At 
present I have them in cages. They are a true pair and I am 
sure they would nest if I could give them an aviary to them- 
selves. Unfortunately all my accommodation is full for this 
season. They are not noisy for Macaws and would look well 
on the wing in a large aviary. 

I have two more aviaries, each loft. x 8ft. In the first 
of these I have a pair of Euops Conures (Conurus euops). I 
have not put these in the large aviary this season as they spoilt 
several nests last year through inquisitiveness. They want to 

102 Sf'ring Notes for i(j22. 

see what is in every nest, and nii^iit kill the youn!^- birds; so this 
year I have ]mt them where they can do no harm. Still they 
are not vicious birds, and aj^ree well with birds of their own 
size and strength. I notice that since the moult they have 

much larj^er areas of scarlet in their i)luma,L;e. and expect this 
will develop still more as they become fully adult. 

My last aviary is devoted to Budt^erij^ars. I have pairs 
of Blue, (Jlive, Apple-green, and Blue-bred Green, and hope to 
have a good number of young by the end of the season. 

The beginning of the season always finds me very hopeful, 
and I picture crowds of young birds. So far my successes have 
been very few and insignificant, but this year I think 1 shall do 
better, as my aviaries are not so crowded; moreover, many pairs 
which I got in the late summer have had time to settle down. 
Anyway, I wish a most successful season to all members of the 

[A pathetic interest attaches to the above notes, dated 
April 25th, as they are the last which can reach us from our 
young member's pen, as he died after three days' painful illness 
(pneumonia) on April 30th, within two days of his eighteenth 
birthday — he is a distinct loss to aviculture, as he was keenly 
intelligent and observant, and took his birdy obsession very 
seriously; Bird Notes will certainly miss his seasonal contril)u- 
tions. To his sorrow'ing ])arents and sister we tender our 
])rofound sym])athy. — Ed.] 


Notes on Jungle and other Wild Life. 

Bv Dr. Casky A. Wood. M.B.O.U. 

(Coiiiimtcd from fage 88). 
Do caged birds on shipboard suffer from seasickness? 
Well, some of them do. One rather stormy day, when between 
B)ermuda and Sombrero Dight, our good ship rolled and tossed 
■I good deal, and some of the passengers retired for a reason- - 
lohn the Third was noticed to be frankly and freely indulging- in 
an attack of ;;/<// dc 111 cr. It was not an ordinary fit of 
" gagging." but the genuine article, followed by that unmis- 
takable " gia/.ed '" look about the eyes, that indifference to his 

Notes oil J iiiii^Ic and Other IVlld Life. 103 

f.ivourite food, and tlial wobljly, i^roi^gy state, from which he 
did not recover until we liad reached more quiet waters. My 
observation of them leads me to believe that, except when at 
play, parrots strongly object to swaying branches and irregular 
swinging cages; in their sober moments they seek the stiff 
limbs of steady trees; and, as all naturalists know, they nest and 
Oii'ten sleep, like woodpeckers, in holes scooped out of arboreal 
trunks. Perhaps that is one explanation of the large mortality 
among captive birds imported from Africa and America in small 
cages and across stormy seas. 

Speaking of parrots, a good many West Indian islands 
liave had, and some of them still have, varieties of these beautiful 
and highly intelligent birds that are, in certain instances, 
peculiar to the Antilles. Austin H. Clarke, who has written 
much on the subject, tells us that the parrakeet, once abundant 
in the hills of Barbados (I notice that the Rev. Grif^th Hughes, 
writing in 1750, counts the " Parakite " among the native birds 
of the island), has suffered the same fate as most of the other 
West Indian parrots, ])arrakeets and macaws. Not only are 
they unknown to any living native, but even tradition hardly 
records their early existence. Worst of all, the memory of 
barely a single species, a Cuban variety (Ava tricolor) is pre- 
served as a museum specimen. It seems outrageous that these 
lovely and sensitive animals should be treated by both natives 
and (some) wliites as game birds, and that the edible quality 
of the parrot should be partly responsible for his extermination. 
Clarke also points out that their conversational powers and their 
reputation as pets led to wholesale trafific in immature birds, and 
their nesting places were so constantly watched that scarcely 
any of the young were allowed to go free. Then, again, 
parrots are particular about their food, and betray their presence 
liy the litter of torn fruit on the ground about trees in which they 
habitually feed. Once such a tree is discovered all the (potj 
hunter has to do is to sit nearby and shoot the birds as they fly in. 

Another fatal and pathetic quality that leads to the easy 
destruction of these s])ecies by their human enemies is the parrot's 
devotion to his mate and to the flock of which the pair form an 
essential unit. When a parrot is killed or wounded the others, 
hitherto wild, wary and una])proachable. at once lose all fear 
of the hunter in their solicitude for their unfortunate companion. 

104 Notes on Jungle and Other Wild Life. 

and remain in the vicinity and within range until all or most of 
them are killed. 

Still another cowardly method of exterminating these 
attractive birds is to place a tame decoy in a tree with a line 
attached to his leg, the pulling upon which at intervals causes 
the ca])tive bird to call out and thus attract passing pairs or 

As recent agitation of the matter has resulted in the 
enactment of protective laws by the various insular legislatures, 
many of the disappearing parrots may be saved, but some of 
them are already so reduced in numbers that it is doubtful 
whether they will survive. 

Although the indigenous birds of Barbados are, like those 
of Bermuda — another isolated, non-continental, island-- 
comparatively numerous, yet they are divided among very few 
species, of which there are only about seventeen in the former 
colony. Nevertheless, some Barbadian races, like that curious 
animal, the Sea Parrot {Pnffnnis aitdiiboni), is cjuite rare and 
seems slated for extinction. 

1 must tell you about at least one of the interesting birds 
of Barbados. The Sparrow (Pyrrliitlagra barbadensis), was 
first named and properly described by an old friend — whose 
IcdDours are over and who now dwells in Burton's City of 
Surcease — Charles B. Cory, lately of the Field Museum. 
Chicago. This charming little bird, with his dove-coloured 
breast and darker, grey mantle, is a fearless and friendly, some 
say impudent, bird, whose chief characteristic is that he invites 
himself at mealtime, and daily and regularly, to such houses as 
do not support a cat or other objectional deterrents. Flying 
through the ever-open window, entirely unmindful of the human 
beings within, he and his mate ]:)erch on the backs of chairs or 
other article of furniture, and look about for something to eat. 
The pair that attached themselves to our menage were inordin- 
ately fond of sugar, and at tea-time took possession of the 
sugar bowl by roosting on the rim of the same as soon as the 
maid a]»])eared with the tray. One of the birds then l)obbed his 
head into the sugar — not a very sanitary ]^erformance, you will 
say — and with a dozen or so grains adhering to his beak, flew 
to a nearby table, upon which he dislodged the sweet particles 

Notes oil Jungle and Other Wild Life. 105 

bv knockiny; his mandibles on the wood. Then the birds picked 
up the particles one by one, repeating the process until they 
were satisfied. A lady, with whom I was discussing this matter, 
told me that she devised what she thought was a sure cure for 
the " nuisance " by placing d'oyleys, weighted along their edges, 
over such receptacles as milk jugs, bread plates and sugar con- 
tainers, but it was of little avail because the sparrows soon 
learned to pull off the protecting cloths, so that she was obliged 
to follow the example of the hotels and restaurants and support 
a feline or two. Cats appear to be the only animals, unless it 
be the (imported) mongoose, that the Barbados sparrow really 

After ample observation of these odd little birds. I am of 
the opinion that not food alone impels them to make domiciliary 
visits. Often, following a full meal, and when there were 
crumbs lying about uneaten, have I seen a sparrow giving the 
contents of my room the " once over " in the minutest detail, 
poking into wardrobes, looking into shoes, hopping about on 
tables and under chairs and beds — even searching the waste 
basket — to satisfy curiosity, which, I am convinced, is as real and 
pronounced in some birds as it is said to be in some men. 

When one remembers that during his three voyages 
across the Atlantic Columbus discovered nearly all the West 
Indian Islands, and that from these dates most of them began 
ro " make history," it is no wonder they have had their due 
share of it. Nevis Columbus so named because of the snow- 
like cloud that capped its volcanic peak ; and there they proudly 
point out the house where Alexander Hamilton was born, and 
still more proudly exhibit the register of Fig Tree Church, 
containing the entry of Admiral Nelson's marriage. The date 
is 1787, and the certificate testifies that " Capt. Horatio Nelson, 
of H.M.S. Bureas was. on March iith, united to Frances 
I^erbert Nisbet, widow." When I was in Barbados and my 
speech betrayed me to the negro " who had lived in the States," 
1 never escaped the reminder that the original George Wash- 
ington had profited by living in their midst. 

Apart from personal contact with the haunts of these and 
other celebrated individuals. I recollect that in and about these 
islands there occurred many famous sea fights between the 
English and PVench. When I was at school my maternal 

loO Xolcs oil J iiiiglr anil Other Wild Life. 

Liraiulfather, a ca])tain in tlie navy, left me most of his library, 
one of the consequences of which was that I had to use his 
cij4"liteenth century Horace. Virgil (with the s's like f's) and 
Itomer — totally void of the predigested " notes " of my more 
fortunate fellows — and regarded this unassisted task in much 
the same light as the remiger on the second row of the trireme 
iliought of his unhappy lot; but it was quite otherwise with five 
volumes of James' Naval History; they were as fascinating" as 
any novel (dime or other) then accessible to me. I recollect to 
tliis day tlie story of H.M.S. Diauwnd Ruck, which, if yuit 
remember, please pass on to the next item. Three times have I 
,-een the Rock during the past two years, and three times have 
1. for the sake of old memories, scamied it attentixely. 

About a c[uarter of a mile from tlie south coast of 
Martinque, between that French island and St. Lucia, there rises 
sheer out of the sea a naked rock that suggests, to my mind, i. 
magnified Flatiron Building, with its almost straight sides and 
level top. It was between this rock and the neighbouring- 
island that the French and British fleets were wont, during the 
Napoleonic wars, to play at naval hide-and-go-seek — to the 
advantage of the tirst-named. until Admiral Hood conceived the 
original plan of converting the rock into a garrisoned fortress. 
In February. 1805. the crew of a British cruiser, by means 01 
ropes, hauled their guns to the summit; and there, for four 
months, exposed to all the discomforts of a liroiling sun, torren 
''al rains and the continued assaults of an active enemy, defied 
their adversaries. During that sixteen weeks it wasn t healthy 
lor a French ship to come within range of f^iaiuoiid Rock! 
Many a historian has told this romantic tale, but here is a para- 
graph or two from Aspinall's li'csf Indies: — " Hood, seeing 
that the h'rench ships escaped him by running between this rock 
and the Points de Diamante, laid his seventy-four, the Centaur, 
close alongside the Diamond, made a hawser fast to the ship 
and to the top of the rock, which is accessible on the leeward 
side, and slung with a traveller three long 24's and two i8's to 
the summit, the sailors looking ' like mice hauling a little 
sausage.' Scarcely could they hear the (lovernor on the top 
'h'recting them with his trumpet; the Centaur lying close under. 
i'ke a cocoa-nut shell to which hawsers are affixed." FTere 
Lieut. L W. Maurice, with 120 men and boys, remained for 

Motes on hiv.^lc and Other Wild Life. 107 

four months, their nature-built fortress being tlie while borne 
(;n the Admiralty books as H.M.S. Diamond Rock. h'rom this 
commanding" position they harassed the French fleet until ist 
June, 1805, when, through want of powder, they were compelled 
to surrender to a h'rench squadron of two seventy-fours, a 
frigate, a corvette, a schooner and eleven gunboats, upon whom 
they inflicted severe loss, only themselves losing two men 
killed and one wounded. 

South America may be regarded as the homeland of ant 
life. There are microscopic ants, small ants, medium-sized 
ants, and ants so large that they may easily be mistaken for 
big cockroaches. There are also stupid ants and wise ones, as 
well as ants that possess not only all the human senses but other 
perceptions that we wot not of. 

Here is one of our numerous experiences of these 
mysterious creatures. One evening E. remarked that she had 
seen few insects about the hotel — some flies, fewer cockroaches, 
and, most remarkable of all, hardly any of the ant races. I 
replied that it was very likely due to the excessively dry season. 
'I'hus did v.'e both attract the evil eye and were " overlooked. ' 
Half an hour afterwards we were astonished by a solid stream 
of scavenger ants stretching from a waste-paper basket (into 
which I had most improperly thrown a small box containing the 
remains of some Christmas bon-bons) to the baseboard of the 
room. This mass of little red ants was an inch wide, and the 
column made straight across the room, ten feet away, crossing 
over but never going around any of the obstructions in their 
path. Every foot or so of this insect army was ofificered and 
controlled by larger and quite different coloured ants, who ran 
hither and thither, in striking contrast to the ant mass that was 
headed always in the same direction — towards the crack in the 
baseboard — behind which they disappeared. After watching 
this phenomenon, quite common in tropical countries and 
occasionally seen in temperate localities, E. said " Why, they 
seem to be going all one way and to be coming from the 
basket." Investigation proved that an incoming column could 
be traced back from the basket, out into the hall, along and 
past two fairly large adjoining apartments, into and across a 
third room, to emerge from its baseboard at least 100 feet from 
the exit in my room. Thus we had to deal with a solid column 

io8 Notes on Jungle and Other Wild Life. 

or stream of ofiicered and picketed red ants (Monomorium 
pliaraonis Linn., to furnish the necessary scientific background) 
travelling- along and forming the inch-wide periphery of a circle 
thirty vards in diameter. We made several experiments with 
this ant " material," but the most remarkable incident occurred 
when we removed the basket altogether ; marshalled and 
captained as before, the pharaohic host disappeared as if by 
magic into their home by the baseboard. We never saw them 
again, unless as individuals, as isolated detachments or as small 
squads scouting for miscroscopic grains of food. Doubtless 
it is an easy matter for the close student of Fabre and other 
psycho-entomologists to say wdio carried the first news of the 
basket treasure, who ordered and generalled the expeditionary 
forces, and who eventually sounded the general retreat, but to 
mere observers like E. and myself the mystery deepens the more 
we see of these comparatively simple and every-day insects. 
As for the Army ants, we are all at sea. When we consider 
their ways we are not wise. 

It is only fair to add to these platitudes that after I had 
penned them I saw the following account of the activities of an 
alHed species, written for the Demerara Argosy, January i8th, 
1922, by a well-knowni Guiana naturalist — Mr. Harold W. P. 
Moore. He answers several of these questions, and says : — 
" I • M.iere any animal other than man that can so clearly inform 
another of its kind where a particular object is that the one told 
can go and find the object without much difficulty? Yes, there 
is. and the animal wdiich shares this power with man is none than the ant. Times without number have T seen ants 
tell another where a bit of food could be found, and seen this 
second go right off and find it, but it comes home forcibly to me 
now because only last week I saw it done. One of my windows 
is frequented by a certain kind of warlike and carnivorous ant-- 
always among the most intelligent of the lot —which is in the 
habit of taking by force from some spiders any flies or other 
insects these may happen to entrap. When the ant arrives on 
the scene, the s]')iders soon have to leave them in possession of 
whatever prey their webs and skill may have got them. They 
are unable to fight the ants. As it was the first time T have had 
an opportunity of observing this particular species of ant, I 
thought I would experiment with it, as I have done before with 

Notes oil Jungle and Other Wild Life. 109 

some others. I killed a fly and placed it near one of the scout 
pnts and about four feet from where their domicile was. The 
ant was not long" in finding the fly. It then made off towards 
home. Just outside it met a comrade with which it remained in 
(lose contact for two or three seconds, the latter becoming" more 
and more excited while they were together. On parting, the 
first ant went on to the home, while the second started off in the 
opposite direction at a brisk run along the path traversed 
originally by the first. On it hurried until it got opposite the 
flv to get to which it would have to turn aside about an inch 
and a half from the straight path. The bend seemed to puzzle 
it a little. It went past an inch or two and returned, and did so 
for two or three times, evidently hunting for the trail laid by the 
first. Finally it picked this up, turned aside and was at its 

Something" more wonderful yet can be seen with these 
ants. The scouts or small workers can report to headquarters 
whether an object they have found is dead or alive, or requires 
a turn-out of the big workers or carvers, as I call them, as these 
are ants with a large head furnished with a formidable pair of 
sharp jaws for cutting up where necessary, an object found. 
Let a scout find a few grains of sugar, for instance. When the 
scouts report only similar small workers come out to fetch them 
in. Let them find a small dead fly which they can handle easily 
themselves. There is no turn-out of the carvers. Let the 
scouts report a dead cock-roach. The carvers come out, as it 
is a big object and may need not only some carving but also 
the superior strength of the big workers for bringing it home. 
In such a case the carvers do not come out in a very excited 
manner. Let, now, the scouts report a small live moth, or a 
cockroach wdiich, though you have smashed, still has a deal of 
life left, or a stubborn hard-back, and the carvers turn out in a 
very excited manner, and hurry along with jaws agape and 
threatening. They know they have been summoned to give a 
speedy quietus to some troublesome quarry." 

As with mosquitos elsewhere, the tropical species are 
given to hiding during the day (preferably in dark corners and in 
the folds of black clothing") and seeking victims during the 
night ; they are generally nocturnal animals. Taking advantage 
of that trait, a Barbadian (or Badian as they sometimes call 

iio Notes on Jitiiglc and Other Wild Life. 

tlieniselves) told nic lie bad been able to keej) bis bouse almost 
free of tbe pests by placin!^" in eacli room a l)lack-lined. tin 
biscuit box, eacb one provided witb an opening tliree or four 
inches square. As daylight approaches, the insects find their 
way into this favourite nest, which during the day is covered, 
removed, and its contents appro])riately dealt with. 

Importunately for the inhabitants, there is no native malaria 
(i.e., no anof'lieles) in Little England; hence, the device just 
described is not directed against disease-bearing insects so much 
as against the local eiile.r. a vicious beast, small, aggressive and 
almost noiseless, so that one is usually ignorant of the creature's 
presence until he bites. 

In this connection, I am not so confident as I once was of 
ihe su])erior eflicacy that the screening of houses and verandahs 
affords in the tropics over a careful provision of nets over the 
beds, and the wearing of mosquito boots. A number of houses 
and one whole village are to be seen in the Guiana Colony pro- 
tected after the American plan ; but with an irresponsible colored 
population to deal with one must exercise eternal vigilance, that 
exits are constantly watched, that the screening does not inter- 
fere with the free ingress of the winds of heaven to every nook 
and comer of the house — the sine qua nou of life for white people 
in the Tropics. 

No more in equatorial lands than up north can there be 
found agreement as to the order of excellence in fruits. 
Which do you really prefer (always assuming that they are the 
best of their kind), apples, peaches or pears? Which does a 
St. Lucian like better, a ripe pineap])le (which we all know is 
not an apple at all and doesn't grow on a pine or any other sort 
of tree) or one of his own grafted mangos? If anybody is 
unwise enough to ask me my preferences in tropical fruits, I 
reply: — First of all, give me every morning for breakfast half 
a medium-sized paw-paw, iced and served with lime-juice and 
sugar, so that I may know the combined, fruity qualities of the 
musk melon and the peach; then, for second choice, a russet- 
brown sabadillo, whose pink flesh stiggests a perfumed water- 
melon; then, a ripe-on-the-tree avocado, or alligator pear, also 
reinforced by a ripe lime; then, an island pineapple, and, finally, 
a St. Lucie mango. There are a dozen others in common use 

Azotes oil Some Forvis of Cissolopha. iii 

(a ripe-on-the-tree yellow banana is not to be despised), but you 
may i.^nore them if you can conuuand the best varieties of these 

(To be continued). 


Notes on Some Forms of Cissolopha. 

By Lrp: S. Crandall. 

After reading- Mr. W. Shore Baily's interesting article on 
Jays, in Bird Notks, for March, 1922, it occurs to me that some 
notes on the forms of Cissolopha, which usually appear in the 
market as "" Yucatan Jays," might not be amiss. 

Five species and sub-species of this genus are known, 
ranging" from Alexico into northern Nicaragua. In general, 
all have the head, neck and underparts black, and the remainder 
of the plumage some shade of blue. At first glance they seem 
\ery much alike, but on closer examination it is found that they 
really are easily distinguished. Four of the forms have been 
represented in the collections of the New York Zoological 
Society from time to time — we have three of them at this 
writing — but the fifth I have never seen alive. 

The typical Yucatan Jay (C. yncatanica) is by far the most 
common in captivity and is the one usually seen. 

Adult birds may be known from the other forms by having 
the head free from crest, the irides dark in colour, and the 
legs yellow. 

Young birds of this species, strangely enough, are white 
where the old birds are black, and have the beak yellow as well. 
Tn 191 1, in collaboration wath Mr. Wm. Beebe, I had the pleasure 
of describing this plumage for the first time, as well as some of 
the intermediate stages. 

Beechey's Jay (C. heechei) has a circle of elongated, 
erectile feathers around each eye, a character not seen in any of 
the others. Moreover, the iris is a pale greenish yellow, and 
the legs are dark, nearly black, in colour. 

The San-blas Jay (C. san-blasiana san-blasiana) has a 
scant but fairly long, recurved crest, just back of the base of 

112 f'Jiinutm'' of flic ]'iirafa}i Jay. 

the bill and overhan.i^ins" it. It also has the le.^s and irides dark. 

TiiK AcAPULCo JAV (C. s-h. pidchra) is similar, but has the 
blue i)arls uuicli darker. These forms are not easily distin- 
guished when only one is seen, but when livin,!^' toi^ether in an 
aviary, as we have had them here, the difference is very decided. 

The fifth form. I Iarilaub's Jay (C ))iclanucyanca) I 
never have had the pleasure of seeinii' alive, but it has a heavy, 
bushv crest, so that it should easily be known to the fortunate 
a\-iculturist who mi^ht happen on it. 

\ am aware that the characters noted above would not 
suit ihe technical systematist, but I am sure they will serve to 
identify living' l)irds at a i^iance. and 1 Lake it that is wdiat i; 
wanted l)v the a\iculturist. 

The Undescribed Juvenal Plumage of the 
Yucatan Jay. 

By C. William Beebe. Curator of Birds, and Lee S. Crandall, 

Assistant Curator. 




On Septeml)er 3, 191 1, three jays in immature plumaj^e 
were received from "^'ucatan. The plumage was a hitherto 
undescribed one, and a drawing was made of one of the birds 
on September 8. The subsequent postjuvenal moult trans- 
formed the birds into undoubted Cissiloj^ha yucata)iica. This 
change is described in detail in Part II. of the present paper. 

Both Sharpe (i) and Salvin and Codman (2) describe the 
female of this jay as differing from the male in having the beak 
yellow instead of black, and the outer rectrices tipped with 
white. Our collector who brought north the yoiuig birds, 
reflecting the o])inion of the natives in Yucatan, asserts that the 
white rectrice tips alone characterize the female. Ridgway 
(4) describes the adult sexes as alike, and considers the vellow 

1_1877. Sliarpo, Cat. Birds Brit. Miis., III.. 133. 

2 — ]887. Salvin nud Godman, Biol. Oent.-Amer., Avos. I, 498, pi. 3o. 

4—1904. Ridgway, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., No. 50, Part III., Slo, 

Bird Notes. 

Yucatan Jay in Juvenal Plumage. 

Reproduced from coloured plate in Proceedings of New York Zool. Soc. 

f'liiiihigc of the Yucafan Jay. 113 

beak and white-tipped rectrices as " immature " characters. 
''/his he evidently bases on Chapman (3) whose notes on this 
species are obtained at first hand in the field. Cliapman writes 
as follows : 

" Current descriptions of this bird, including that in the 
' Biologia.' ascribe the differences shown by certain individuals 
in the colour of the bill and tail to sex. the male being stated 
<o have a black bill and tail, while the female is said to have 
the bill yellow and the tail tipped with white. My series of 
twelve specimens shows that this variation is not sexual, but is 
evidently due to age. Thus I have males and females with 
black bills and tails, and also examples of both sexes in which 
the bill is yellow and the tail tipped with white. The series 
also contains intermediates between the two extremes. 

How long a time is required for the acquisition of the 
adult plumage remains to be determined. Apparently at least 
two years, for each group of jays had several yellow-billed 
individuals, about one in every four birds giving evidence of 

The chief points of interest may be thus summed up : 

1. The Juvenal plumage of CissUopho yucatanica 'S 
characterized chiefly by the entire head, neck and under parts 
being wliite : bill and eye-ring orange yellow; iris pale hazel 
brown ; all but the central rectrices more or less tipped with 
white. This white plumage is retained from the time of 
leaving the nest, about July 15th, until October. 

2. The first wnnter plumage is acquired exactly as in our 
northern Cyanocitta cristata by a partial postjuvenal moult 
(Dwight [5]), reaching its height in October. The head, neck 
and underparts become black; the iris darkens to a cold slaty 
gray; the primaries and rectrices are not moulted, but if the 
latter are accidentally pulled out, they are replaced with feathers 
showing no trace of white. 

3. The advance toward an adult plumage in this species 
is marked chiefly by an increase in dark pigment; sudden and 
complete in the body plumage of head, neck and underparts in 
the fall moult, and in the lateral rectrices in the first moult of the 

3—1896. Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. His., VIII., 282. 
5— 190n, Dwight, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., XIII., 152, 

114 riiinici^c of flic Yiicaiau Jay. 

following;' year; more gradual in tlic colour of the iris; and still 
more L;"ra(lual in tlie colonr ot the niandihles and cyc-rini;". 



Individual A. — (Fig. 51 ). 

Seven Weeks Oed (September 8. 191 t). 
Head, neck, breast, belly and under tail-coverts pale 
creamy white, faintly tinged on the crown with blue, all of the 
white feathers with sooty l)lack bases; above, pale blue, with a 
few new feathers of brighter blue; wing-coverts like the back; 
remiges sooty black on inner web and rachis, (rachis white 
below'), outer web bright bUie like new back feathers. The 
blue on the tip of the inner web gradually increases, from the 
outer feathers inward, so that the inner secondary is uniform 
blue, with the exception of the proximal portion of inner web. 
Under wing-coverts sooty black, with faint lighter bars; tail 
bright blue above. IV.ack below; rachis black above and below; 
thighs brownish black, tinged with blue at the tarsal joint. 
Legs and feet pale yellow; bill orange yellow. Iris dark hazel 
brown. A small patch of black feathers is appearing at either 
side of the breast and scattered ones throughout the rest of the 
underparts, but none on the head. In both this and the other 
individuals the rectrices are so broken that it is impossible to 
state the amount and place of occurrence of the white. Bill 
;^2 mm., tarsus 46 mm. 

Sixteen- Weeks (Novemrer 18, 1911). 
Feathers of the head, neck and upper breast deep black, a 
few white feathers, inter]^osecl with black ones, remain above 
and below the eyes and on the lores and chin. The lower breast 
and abdomen are slightly tinged with blue, which becomes more 
distinct on the under tail-covers. The back and scapulars are 
uniform bright blue. The lesser coverts, carpal edge and inner 
nedian coverts and all the greater coverts have not as yet been 
moulted. Wing and unplucked tail feathers have not been 
renewed, nor have the under wing-coverts and the feathers of 
the thighs. The eye-lid is bright yellow, the bill and legs some- 
what paler. The iris is dark slaty gray. All of the feathers, 
e^ cept rectrices, remiges and upper wing-coverts, are loose in 

/'hiiiiagc of the ]'i(cataii Jay. 115 

texture, the Ijarljs few, lony and disconnected. Bill 33 nnn., 
tarsus 46.5 nun. 

Individual B. 
Sevkx Weeks Old. 
vSimilar to A, except that the sooty bases are present on 
only a few isolated feathers; a distinct blue tinge on tne crown; 
thighs wholly bluish black; pectoral tracts of incoming- black 
feathers further advanced; crown, nape and sides of the neck 
tliickly sprinkled with Ijlack l)lood-feathers. Bill orange yellow. 
B'ill 35 mm., tarsus 47 mm, 

This specimen was skinned and preserved in its juvenal 

Individual C. 
Seven Weeks Old. 

Shows sooty feather-bases on only the anterior part of 
crown, where they are very pronounced. Black feathers on 
breast are more scattered and more advanced than in A and B , 
thighs bluish black. One or two dark feathers appear on the 
crown. Bill clear orange yellow. Bill 31 nnn., tarsus 45 mm. 
Sixteen Weeks Old. 

Similar to A, but lireast and abdomen uniform black, only 
the under tail coverts tinged with blue. No white feathers 
remain. The thighs are deep black, very slightly tinged with 
blue near the tarsal joint; these feathers have evidently been 
renewed. The under wing-coverts have been moulted and are 
deep black, slightly tinged with blue. Back, scapulars, carpal 
edge, and wing-coverts have been moulted, but not the remiges 
o- rectrices. Bill and legs clear yellow, iris dark slaty gray, 
Bill 33 mm., tarsus 47 nnn. 

In my Bird Sanctuary. 

By the R.H. Viscount Grey, K.G. 

[In Pcarsoirs Maga:::i)u\ June issue, a most interesting 
account is given of this sanctuary at Fallodon. We make the 
ft llowing extracts with our apologies and thanks to Editor and 
Author. --Ed. B.N.] 

1 16 hi My Bird Saiictiairy. 

My bird sanctuary at Fallodon is not a lari^e one. There 
is no park. There is no lake. There are two ponds, the larger 
of them less than an acre, a flower L;arden of fair size, and 1 
have enclosed round the ponds two or three acres of rough 
ground planted with trees and shrubs. That is the place in 
which the waterfowl have been kept. 

Three things are necessary if you wish to keep a collection 
T waterfowl. 

1. A fence as nearly fox-proof as you can make it. 

2. Quietude — in the early spring when they are in pairs, water- 

fowl spend some weeks looking about for nesting places 
cautiously and quietly by themselves, and, if they find 
out that they are watched, or should you come suddenly 
upon them, and they are disturbed, they will not select 
that nesting place, and will not nest at all. So even 
in the case of oneself or the g'ardener (attendant), care 
must be taken not to walk at random in the nesting" 
season on ground where birds are likely to nest, for 
fear of destroying the chance of their nesting altogether. 

3. A daily attendant who takes an interest in the birds. My 

gardener, Mr. Henderson, does this; and to his interest 
in and great care of the birds is due the credit of 
such success as has been attained in rearing the different 
It is given up to waterfowl, and the follovving have 
successfully bred : 

Surface-feeding Ducks. — Mallard, Widgeon. Pintail. Shoveller, 

Garganey, and Teal. 
Diving Ducks. — Tufted, Red-headed or common Pochard. Red- 
crested and White-eyed Pochards. 

Breeding of the Carolina or N. American Wood-Duck : 
I would tell of one incident in the breeding" of the Carolina or 
North American Wood-duck which I thought of considerable 
interest. I had a good many of these birds at one time, unpin- 
ioned and therefore at perfect liberty to choose a nesting-place. 
Their natural nesting" place is a hole in a tree. One of my 
ducks selected a hole in an old elm tree some three-hundred yards 
from the water. There she nested every year and brought out 
her young. The hole in the tree was a considerable distance 

/;; My Bird Saiictiiory. 117 

above the ground, and Mr. Henderson (I was away at the 
time) was very interested to know how the duck managed to 
get her young brought down to the ground. 

One year he noted the day she began to sit, and, as he 
knew the period of incubation, on the morning the duck was 
due to hatch the eggs he went and sat down a Httle distance 
away opposite the ehn tree. 

Presently he saw the duck come to the mouth of the hole 
and fiy down into the long grass underneath, where she began 
calling. Then he saw the little ducks come to the edge of the 
hole, and fall, one at a time, except in one instance where two 
fell together. There were six of them altogether, and he told 
me they fell like corks into the long grass. 

Afterwards I had the height from the ground measured. 
and the depth of the hole in the tree measured. It turned out 
that the hole was two feet deep, two feet perpendicular from the 
nest to the mouth of the hole. The hole was twenty-one feet 
above the ground, so the little ducks, newly-hatched when the 
mother flew out of the hole, had first of all in the dark cavity of 
the tree to climb up two feet within the trunk, then come to the 
hole and throw themselves down, and after having- done that, to 
go with their mother for three-hundred yards through the long- 
grass, following her to the water. 

I think that this is a striking incident. Think of the Httle 
ducks left in the nest. Xewly-hatched out. they had no feeding 
to strengthen them after leaving the egg. That they came out 
of the egg with such vitality and vigour that they could accom- 
plish a cHmb of two feet perpendicular, and after a drop of 
twenty-one feet they could thereafter go off three-hundred yards 
through long grass, is a tremendous tribute to the energy of 

You will observe that the mother duck made no attempt 
to carry them down. Sometimes I have read in books that the 
common wild duck occasionally nests at a considerable heighi 
from the ground. I have seen one nest about seven feet from 
the ground, and know that this is so; but when I see it stated 
that in such cases the mallard carries the young ducks down to 
ihe ground, I doubt it. I think if any duck is in the habit of 
carrying its young to the ground, the North American Wood- 

Ii8 /;/ .1/v Hird Sdiiciuary. 

duck would do so, as its natural nestiny-})laces are in hok-s in 
trees and not on the ground like our common wild duck. Since 
this North American Wood-duck made no attempt to carry its 
young down to the ground, I am doubtful if any waterfowl 
v\ould make the attempt at all. 1 will not say it is 

Vkrsicolour Teal : The versicolour teal which bred ac 
Fallodon were, as far as 1 know, the only birds of this species 
to breed in this country. Of course, I cannot be sure. There 
may be some instances I have not heard of. These bred once 
with me and the sequel is curious. Eight were reared, so i 
had a little flock of ten beautiful versicoloured teal. The sexes 
are so alike, as is the case with several other S. American 
v/aterfowl, that young males and females are difficult to 

Unfortunately, out of the eight reared, six turned out to 
DC drakes and only two were ducks. However, that made three 
pairs of versicolour teal. One pair I exchanged with dealers for 
something else which was rare and which I wanted, then the old 
duck which had bred died, and the young pair left were in the 
following year killed by a fox, which somehow got into the 

I found myself left with five drakes. Then came tiie War. 
Of course, during the War I made no attempt to buy any birds 
o»' replace any losses by purchase. Two drakes I sent to the 

Zoological Gardens I heard of one female of the 

species being in the collection at Kew. I thought it w^ortli 
while sending one of my drakes to Kew to mate with the female 
which had no mate, so I did that. In the next air-raid a piece 
o*^ our own shrapnel fell and killed the female at Kew. Soon 
after that food became impossible to get, and what remained of 
my versicolour drakes, in conmion with several other rare things, 
l^erished. That completed the episode. 

DoMKS'i'ic I.iFK : Of course, as you all know, w^ild ducks 
are monogamous and not polygamous like pheasants. They 
have one wife, and theirs is a highly developed domestic life with 
great evidence of affection. When the drake has no eclipse the 
pt'ir never separate during the year. Where the drake has an 
eclipse he separates when in eclipse, and when he conies into 
plumage again, early in autumn, which most of the waterfowl 

In My Bird Sanctuary. 119 

do, though it is so long- before the breeding season, the duck 
and drake come together again and spend the whole of the 
autumn and v\inter displaying every sign of affection in each 
oiler's company. 

The greatest instance of this I have seen I will tell you of. 
It was a Red-crested Pochard — a British species, though a very 
rare one. ( )ne drake that 1 reared was never pinioned so that 
lie could fly. I had him for over ten years, and during all that 
time he had never been away once. He mated with a duck, a 
bird of his own species, but which had been pinioned and could 
not fly. He spent years with her. and had every appearance 
of being happy and contented. One day, early in the year. 
Lis mate was injured by some vermin and practically ripped 
open on one side. She sat on the bank for two days, perfectly 
helpless, and there he sat by her. She was so much injured 
that I had her caught and put out of her pain. There was 
another female pinioned red-crested pochard unmated, and I 
thought, of course, he would mate with her; but he would pay 
no attention to her. He spent, if I recollect the time — it was 
some years ago — two or three weeks flying about with every 
sign of restl^'ssiiess and distress from one pond to another, 
looking" everywhere for his old mate. I had had him for some 
ten years, and he had never gone away, but now, aftei two or 
three weeks he went. He flew away, and I never saw nan again; 
it was as if he had gone on an endless search of the world for 
the mate lie had lost. 

That sort of thing is very interesting, for it shows the 
great natural affection which exists amongst birds of a high]\^ 
developed and intelligent species. To me it is a clear proof 
ot the fact that the relationship between the more highly 
developed birds is one of real domestic happiness, not confined 
to the breeding season only and the reproduction of species. 

I know that swans become attached to eacli other. ^'ou 
can see it is so. They do become permanently attached to each 
other, and have domestic happiness, which plays a large part in 
their lives, quite apart from the breeding season. 

Length of Life: Perhaps you would like to know how 
long this sort of bird will Hve. A great many of my birds are 
unpinioned and fly away, but in the case of a pinioned bird you 

120 /// .1/\' Hird Sanctuary. 

can tell how lonj^" it lives. The longest-lived bird 1 had was a 
Chiloe widgeon drake. 1 bought him as a full-grown bird in 
October i(S8(S, and he died peacefully and obviously of old age in 
(Jctober iQOcS. I do not know how old he w'as when I bought 
him, and this is the longest life 1 have known of any of my 
waterfowl. (leese. no doubt, live much longer. 

.A.'n'R.\CTKD Wild X'isitors: Since 1 have had these 
waterfowl of different kinds at Fallodon, it has been very inter- 
esting" to see the varieties of wild ones which have come to my 
ponds. 1 remember when I was a boy my father showing" me a 
place on one of the burns at home and saying: ' ^ iiat is the 
place where I once shot a teal." And that, with one other 
.exception, nothing but mallard has ever been shot or seen on the 
actual property at home. It does not extend to the sea, and the 
sea ducks do not come to it ; but I myself once, after a great gale 
in the winter, shot an immature widgeon on a little pool. With 
these exceptions nothing but mallard used to be seen on the 
property at all. 

Now every year my ponds are visited frequently by the 
Mallard. Teal, Widgeon, Pintail, Shoveller, Pochard, and 
Tufted Ducks. I treat the enclosure as a sanctuary. That shows 
how so many birds, considered rare by those who shoot, are 
often passing over, especially in the season of migration, and, 
if they hear birds of their own kind calling below, will come 
down and settle. 

One very interesting" point about wild things is how 
quickly you can get a perfectly wild bird tame. I remember 
one December afternoon finding a wild pintail drake on the pond. 
He rose, fiew high into the air and circled round; but when he 
saw that the pinioned and tame birds did not follow him, after 
-much fiying at a great height he lit again on the pond. That 
evening" when I was feeding the birds he came and looked on. 
and within a week he would come out with the others to feed 
and Y)\ck up the grain I threw to hini, and even when sonie of the 
grain fell on his ])ack he was not alarmed. 

.So you see how tameness in their own kind gives confi- 
fVnce to the wildest birds, but that tameness, that confidence, 
is associated with the place, which does not cause them to be 
les«; wi'd elsewhere than they were. 

1 had one good instance of that in the case of a drak'^ 

/;; .1/3' Hird Sand nary. 121 

Shoveller. A brilliant bird in full plumage, he came one year 
ir February or March and stayed on my ponds. He was not 
always there, but he was often there, and he adopted all the 
habits of my tame shovellers. If he were sitting" on the bank 
and I walked past he would fly five or six yards into the water 
and sit quite unconcerned. If he were in the water he did not 
offer to get on the wing at all 

( )ne day after lunch 1 had a walk round tlie pond and 
saw he was not there. I went for a bicycle ride, and coming 
back, about a mile from home, I saw on a pond in a held, not on 
my property, a shoveller drake in full plumage. I felt morally 
certain it was the same drake which had come to my ponds. 
The pool was about one-hundred yards from the road. I got in 
tne field and walked straight towards him. He rose off the 
water, went high in the air, and after circling about I saw him 
go straight for my woods. I stepped the distance at wdiich 
he had risen, and, allowing for a few yards of water I could not 
step, the distance was something over ninety yards. 

I l:icycled straight home, and went straight to the fartlier 
pc nd which he usually frequented, and there he was on the water, 
perfectly unconcerned and tame. That is a very striking instance 
of how quickly birds find out when a place is a sanctuary. 

[We have given the main features fairly fully of this inter- 
esting description of the Fallodon Waterfowl Sanctuary, which 
was not written for Pearson's Magazine, but was delivered as a 
lecture by Lord Grey to the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, and 
was reproduced by permission from the recently issued proceed- 
ings of the Club. We tender thanks and apologies to the 
Berwickshire Naturalists' Club for the above partial reprint of 
Lord Grey's most interesting lecture. The article is illustrated 
by L. R. Brightwell. F.Z.S., two of whose drawings are quaint 
and full of quiet humour In one is a wire fence, on the left of 
which are three happy contented ducklings, and beneath them 
one reads " Fox-proof " — on the right is a discontented and 
unhappy-looking fox; beneath him is the trite title " sour- 
ckicklings. ' 

Another depicts a realistic sketch of the young wood- 
ducks dropping to the ground from the nest-hole; just above 
level of the hole is a peeping, quizzical squirrel. — Editor, Bikij 






Sir, — We are getting grand weather. Tlie birds are doing fairly 
well, l)Ut nothing definite as yet. Blue Rol)ins (Sialia sialis) have young all 
but ready to leave the nest. 

Baltimore Hangncsts (Icterus galbula) have young in the nest eight 
or nine days old. and 1 am hoping they ma\- be reared. The nesl 
(snai)shot enclosed) i> built at the hisjliest point of the aviary — practically out 

Nest of Baltimore Hangnest. 
of reach of close observation, save from beneath. .My little daughter feeds 
the Hangnest with mealworms from her hand, and my wife too — the cock 
l)ird is absolutely tame, and runs between my feet for live food. 

X'irginian Cardinals (Cardiualis cardiiuilis) have also nested and have a 
family several days old. 1 expect there will be trouble when the young get 
about, as they certainly are not an amiable species, and the birds in thi.s 
aviary are not good friends as it is. 

Correspondence. 123 

American R()l)in> (Titrdiis inigratoriiis] have already liad one brood 
but these died when about half-reared. They were fully exposed to the 
blazing hot sun. riyhl out on the top of a nest-box. Looks as if they knew 
it too. for they have nested again in a well-sheltered place. 

The only } oung on the wing as yet are : Peaceful Doves (Gco[^clia 
tranquilla). Zebra Finches (Taoiiopygia casianotis), and Cutthroats [Aimidiiui 

My young hybrid ( iold-breasted Waxbill x Avadavat {Sporaci:;i)!tliiis 
subfiavHs X S. aniandava) hybrids are pretty little things — they are more like 
the avadavat, but have a little yellow on the breast (Your description is exactly 
similar to that of some reared by Dr. Easton Scot some ten years ago — 
though I think none have been reared in the interim. — Ed.) 

An English mated to an American Robin have nested, but all 
their five eggs were clear — they ought to breed surely? (Only individuality 
stands in the way, i.e., the inclination, or otherwise, of respective birds). 

I think Pekin Robins (Liothrix hit ens) also have young in the nest. 
Woolton, June 11, 1922. H. E. BRIGHT. 

[We think the signs are very promising. — Ed.] 


Siu, — I was most interested in Mrs. Hartley's letter on her experience ot 
what is called Indian Millet, a sanijile of which I enclose with this letter, as 
I am anxious to know whether our editor thinks it is yellow millet. I got 
this seed over from England and mixed it up with Canary and a little white 
millet for four Zebra Finches, which were j^erfectly healthy up till then ; they 
got rather dull, and a hen got very bad and died. I thought it might be 
the new seed as they only took ill after I gave it to them. The seed was 
changed to Canary and White Millet, a new hen was procured, and the four 
are now in perfect health. 

I am starting foreign bird keeping again, and new aviaries will shortly 
be completed, so I take this opportunity of thanking our editor for keeping 
up Bird Notes to its high standard, especially for catering so much for the 
less experienced members of the Foreign Bird Club. 

Belfast, June 8, 1922. W. H. WORKMAN. 

[The sample of seed sent is Yellow Millet, exactly the same as that 
referred to by Mrs. Hartley — but I find a difficulty in attributing the death 
to its use, as there was some white millet in your seed mixture ; if the birds 
rite the seed I do not think it would act adversely upon them. According to 
my experience the danger lies in so many refusing it and dying from lack of 
ncurishment.- — Ed.] 


Sir, — Four young Diamond Finches (Steganopleura guttata) left the 
nest a fortnight ago. 

I have bred some White Bengalese {Munia doincstica). 

My Red-rumped {Psephotos haematonotus), and Rosy-faced Parrakeets 
(Agapornis roseicoliis) in the nest ready to fly. 

My Blue Budgerigars (Melopsitlacus undulatus, var. cacruleii.^) have 
some young in the nest-boxes. 

124 Correspondence. 

A l)ad start, liowevor ; too mucli rain ami cold, 
(icrv, iM-aiicc, April 27, 1922. A. i:iXuL'X. 

The above was not a letter written for publication, but part of a private 
letter, which we have taken the liberty of publishing. ^Ed. 

Sir. — The Post Mortem Report given below is interesting to nie as -t 
is the first case 1 have ever known of a bird dying of jmre old age. The 
r.M. report is as follows : 

" Versicolor Amazon to hand. I think your estimate of its age is 
" not far out. I very carefully examined this bird and could Ihid no trace 
" of any disease. The cause of death is senile decay, simply. lie was the 
" toughest old customer, 1 think. 1 have ever tackleil. His hide was as 
" tough as a Rhinoceros, and the flesh equally tough." 

One often reads of Ijirds dying of old age, but in practically every 
case it is merely an assumption on the part of the owner, no examination 
of the body having been made. Old age may be a contributory cause, but 
i' is seldom the only cause, and often has nothing to do with the l)ird"s death 
at all. 

The Versicolor was for many years in the possession of Lord Sherborne 
(Canon Button), and previously had been owned by a lady. As long as I^ord 
Sherborne lived at Bibury, the parrot .spent the greater part of the .summer 
at liberty in the garden. When his owner moved to Cheltenham, these 
summer outings were no longer possiljle. and with the loss of his liberty 
' Jaco " began to show signs of age. On the death of my frienci he came 
to me, but was so decrepit in the earl)- summer of 1920 that 1 thought lie 
could only last a few weeks. I turned him out as a sort of forlorn hope, 
and, to my surprise, found that he could fly quite strongly. Me imi)roved 
greatly, and when I caught him up in October, was quite strong again. I 
kept him in a room that winter, and when I turned him out next spring 'le 
was too robust, as he nearly killed the cock Great-billed Parrakeet. and 
started courting the hen ! I was therefore obliged to put him in an aviary 
with a hen (ioulding's Amazon. They soon took to one another, and the 
X'ersicolor fed her and they even examined a nest-box. 

When winter came 1 put him back in a room, but after a few months 
the Versicolor caught a severe chill and had to be caged in a warm place. 
The close confinement proved too much iov him. and some time later he 
i^rew very weak and died. 

Had it not been for his ill-judged attack on the (ireat-bill. I believe he 
would be still alive, as another .summer's freedom would have fortified him 
against winter ailments. He remained in good plumage up to the last. 
Havant, April 2S, 1922. (Lord) TAVISTOCK. 


Sir, — The birtls are doing fairly well to date. iloth paiis of Ouail 
binches are incubating. Three pairs of Zebra Finches have young. 

Pairs of Long-tailed, Masked, and Rufous-tailed Crasslinchcs : Chestnut- 
breasted, and Rufous-backed Mannikins are all busy building. 

White Java Sparrows. Cuban and Red-headed Finches are incubating. 

Editorial. 125 

One pair of Green Cardinals are incubating and another [tair just about 
to lay 1 think. Pairs of Red-crested, and Virginian Cardinals are also 

In fact all the birds are nesting or showing signs of so doing. Gouldian 
Finches and hen Violet-eared Waxbill are the only slackers so far ; the cock 
Violet-ear is verv anxious to nest, and so zvas the hen. They had the aviary 
to themselves for a few days in early April and had actually Inn'lt and com- 
pleted a nest in the shelter, when the hen liecame very ill all of a sudden, and 
J only just managed to save her — she lay in my hand as though dead, so it was 
a narrow shave. She is back in the aviary now and looking very fit. but shows 
no desire to restart nesting operations though the cock is very keen on doing 
so. The Gouldian Finches have only been out a few days. All the birds 
are very fit in spite of awful weather. 

Kingskerswell, May 3, 1922. GERALD E. RATTIGAN. 



Latk and Irrk(;ular Is.suk oi" thk Club Journal : ( )nce 
and for all your officers disclaim the responsibility for this, and 
the Editor is decidedly of the opinion that, even if he could spare 
the time, it would not be for the tj;"ood progress of the Journal 
or the Club that he should fill the missing" pages by a given 
date each month. The sole cause of the delay, except with the 
January issue, is the lack of copy— -too often the publishing date 
comes round and no copy in, though requests are often sent 
round ; as a consequence things have to be put through in a very 
hurried manner, which tends neither to correct English nor 
general excellence. Foreign journals have to be searched for 
suitable field notes, in the absence of purely avicultural matter, 
and the proofs only get about half the attention really called 
for — a request for copy brought the following reply: "too busy 
on more remunerative work." Well, if the Editor (the office 
is only Iionorary and he desires no change) takes the same stand, 
wdiat will be the result ? We leave the obvious conclusion to 
our members' common sense, but would point out that even if 
one be an enthusiast there comes a day when it is a case of "the 
last straw breaking the camel's back!" In respect of this 
issue — we stated the case plainly in Notices to Members in April 
Bird Notes — within a week of publishing date only one article 
was in hand. 

Yet such is the fatuosity of our humanity that the pub- 

ij6 Editorial. 

li,>-liei" is (lelui^ed with f^osf cards forsootli. ccjinplainini; of 
irrei^ularity, etc. — some even threatening resij^nation. Well, 
so far as the Editor is concerned let them resii^n if that is their 
sense of the fitness of things, and the sum total of their interest 
in aviculture. 

The publisher cannot and will not in such cases (that is, 
when the issue has not been published) send any reply, but will 
always promptly deal with cases which point either to an 
omission or loss in post. 

The case is this : we lost many of our most rei^ular 
contributors in the War ! Are we to conclude that we who 
remain have not sufficient interest or energy to fill the gap for a 
time— a little self-denial in the giving up of possibly well-earned 
leisure to the writing of an article, or chronicling the doing of 
his or her birds, and the case would be met. We have well 
over 300 members, and if 200 articles were sent in annually wUat 
a Journal we should have ! 

At present most of our members are more or less alseep. 
and only wake up wdien they find Bird Notks has not come to 
hand, and fear they are not getting value for their subscrii)tion 
of 20s. per year — the fact really being that they get a Journal 
worth fully double the subscription they pay. 

As we have repeated many times members have only to 
do their part for the Foreign Bird Club and its Journal to be r 
greater success in the future than in the best days of the past. 

Vour officers have certainly not spared themselves in 
organising the affairs of the club to the best of their ability, but 
even supermen (they do not claim to be this) cannot "make 
bricks without straw." 

Some may consider we have stated the case too strongly, 
and that we might have used a little diplomacy in setting fortli 
the issue — diplomatic language is mostly very ambiguous, and 
ours is a plain simple case and its remedy the same, and we con- 
sider it best met by stating the fact in plain language, then there 
can be no misconception. 

At the same time we do not wish any to run away with 
the idea that the F.B.C. is nearing its end. most certainly not. 
but owing to the slackness of part of our membership there is a 
danger of its usefulness and progress being hindered and 
marred. As stated, we have a membership of over 300, and 

Editorial. 127 

this number will increase annually; surely it is not too much to 
ask that at least 200 members send one article about their birds 
and their doings annually? We only ask our members to "play 
the game." One of the members came to see the Editor's 
aviaries and birds a few days ago, who said "You are not doing 
as much in birds as you did are you?" The reply had to be 
"I have to neglect my birds and leave them to others, so that 
Bird Notes may appear month by month. / crb saf^/' 

Zoo Notes : There have been some interesting additions 
recently in the section A\^ES. 

The Prince of Wales' Collection. 

3 Indian /Xdjutanls (Lcptoj^tUus ari^ala). Nepal. 

I Southern Fruit-Pig;eon (Crocopits clilorogasfcr), Nepal. 
g Green-winyed Doves (Clialcopliaps uidica). Nepal. 

1 Goshawk {Astiir pahtnibarius). Nepal. 

r Wood-Francolin (Francolinus gidaris). Nepal. 

Chukar Partridges (Caccabis cliukar). Nepal. 

2 Himalayan Monauls {Lophophorus itupcyanus). Nepal. 

1 Koklass Pheasant (Pucrasia microhplia). Nepal. 

2 Nepal Kaleege Pheasants (Gennaeus leucomehnus). Nepal. 
5 Common Peafowl (Pa-i'o cristata). Nepal. 

The above arrived April 7th. 

The following came to hand on May 22nd. 
2 Non])areil Finches {Erythntra prasina). Trenganu, Malay Peninsula. 
2 White-headed Mannikins {Munia inaja). Trenganu. Malay Peninsula. 
2 Java Sparrows (.1/. oryzivora). Trenganu, Malay Peninsula. 
2 Sharp-tailed Finches (Urolovcha aciiticauda). Trenganu, Malay Peninsula. 

* I White-bellied Finch (U. leucogastra). Trenganu, Malay Peninsula. 

I White-billed Hornbill {Authracoceros malayamis). Pontianak, Borneo. 
I Blue-crowned Hanging-Parrakeet (Loriculus galgitlns). Malacca. 
I Pagoda Owl {Syrnium sinense). Jahore, Malay Peninsula. 

1 Malayan Hawk-Eagle (Spisaetus Ihnnaetns). Jahore, Malay Peninsula. 

2 White-necked Storks (Dissoura episcopus). Borneo. 

* 5 Wagler's Egrets {Mesophoyx intermedia). Malacca. 

* I Black-crested Bittern {Gorsachius melanopliiis). Kedah, Malay Peninsula. 
2 Javan Adjutants (Leptoptilus javanicus). Kedah, Malay Peninsula. 

2 Javan Adjutants (Leptoptilus javanicus). British N. Borneo. 

5 Argus Pheasants {Argusianus argus). Trenganu, Malay Peninsula. 

4 Rufous-tailed Fireback Pheasants {Acomiis erythropthaJmns). Trenganu, 

Malay Peninsula 
I Vieillot's Fireback Pheasants (Lopliura ntfa). Trenganu, Malay Peninsula. 

5 Painted Quails (Excalfactoria chinensis). Trenganu, Malay Peninsula. 

T Black-breasted Button-Quail (Turnix taigoor). Trenganu, Malay Peninsula 
5 Crowned Wood-Partridges (RoHuhis rovh'oiil). Pahang and Trenganu, 
Malay Peninsula, 

I2S Rcvicivs and Notices of New Books. 

3 Lonjj-billod Fnincolins { Rhicotlicni loiigirostris). Pahang. Malay roninsiil-i 

4 Javan Peafowl {I'avo iniiticus). Trenganu, Malay Peninsula. 
I Red jungle-fowl {Galliix ii^nllits). Trenganu, Malay I\-ninsula. 

* 2 (irev Pigeons {Cohimba grisca). llorneo. 

8 Nutmeg Fruit-Pigeons {Myristiclvora bicolor). Moluccas. 
I lamhu Fruit-Pigeon {Leucotrcrou jambu). Kedah, Malay Peninsula. 
1 illue-lailed Fruit-Pigeons {Carpopliaga concnma). Moluccas. 
23 Spotted Turtle-Doves (Spilopclia suralciisis). Malay Peninsula. 
I P>arred Dove {Geopelia striata). India. 
6 ( ireen-winged Doves {Chalcophaps hid'ica). India. 
^ Javan Tree-Ducks {Dendrocygna jaraiiica). Pahang, Malay Peninsula. 

* I Sharpe's Crane {.iiitigoiic sintrpci). Kcdali, Peninsula. 

l White-breasted (lallinules (.\iuaiiroruis pliociiiciira). Trenganu, Malav 

1 Water-Cock (Gallicrcx cincrca). Trenganu. Malay Peninsula. 

The foregoing' and the following" have been taken from 
the Zoological Society's Rcpori on the Additio)is to the Me)iag- 

During the month of May the additions were quite 
numerous, but mostly of well-known species. Among the 

more interesting additions we note the following : 

2 Crimson-lvacked Tanagers {Rliaiiipliococlns dimidiatus). Colombia. 

* 2 Red-rumped Hangnests {Icteni.<; janiaicai). Colombia. 

2 Red-underwing Doves {Lcptoptila riifaxiUa). Colombia. 
? Purplish Guans {Penelope purpiirasceus). lirazil. 
The only breeding records given are : — 

May ig. 2 Leadbeater's Cockatoos {Cacatua leadbcatcri). Parrot House. 
31. 4 Budgerigars (Mclop.<;iftacns nnduJatus). Parrot House. 
* New to tlie Collection. 


Reviews and Notices of New Boohs. 

THEM. By E. F. M. Elms; Illustrated by many excellent 
photo reproductions. London: Thornton Butterworth Ltd.. 
15 Bedford Street. Strand. W.C.. 2. 6s. net. 

Last year we reviewed Our Resident Hirds by the same 
author; Our Migrant Birds is a com])anion work, and its plan 
and general arrangement are the same. Its contents are : 
Migrant Birds of tlie Gardens. Orchards and Cultivated 

Migrant Birds of the Woods, and Well-wooded Districts, 

Rc^'icics and Notices of Nczv Books. 129 

Alii^rant Birds of the Commons. Downs. Mooiland anii Aloi'.n- 

tainous Districts. 
Mii^Tant Birds of the Streams. Rivers, Lakes and Marsli 
The half-tone plates are well-printed on both sides and 
each contains four illustrations, most of wdiich represent episodes 
of the nestini^' season. Some 29 species are so fi.qured. 

The Author states in liis Introduction that : 'Tn the tw~i 
volumes I have endeavoured to cover the wdiole subject of 
British Birds, and it has been my intention to provide two 
little companions which will enable the bird-lover to identify 
without trouble, any bird he may see at any season of the 
year. If this result be achieved. I shall feel that the work- 
entailed in compilation has been amply repaid." 

How far he may have succeeded we leave the individual 
reader to conclude from the following extract. 

Quail {Coturmx commums). 
" Migrant for the greater part, coming in spring and 
" departing in October; but some are resident. Found less 
abundantly nowadays in England than formerly. In Scot- 
" land, distribution limited: in Ireland, rare." 

" Haunts. — Both cultivated and uncultivated districts." 
" Plumage. — Generally sand-brown, with buff shafts to 
the feathers. Throat and collar white, margined with 

black and finishing with black patch on throat. Forechest 
buff. Three parallel, longtitudinal, yellowish streaks on 
head; underparts white. Bill, feet, and legs yellowish 

brown. Length 8in. Female paler, and minus the cres- 
centic collar on throat ; chest more spotted. Young like 

Language. — Call-note of male, three piping syllables, 
usually written ' click-lik-lik,' or * wet my lips.' Female's 
call, a low musical disyllabic. Alarm-note, much like the 

Habits. — An expert rtumer. spending most of its time 
on the ground. On the wing it is like a miniature Partridge 
flying with rapidly vibrated and whirring wings. Usually 
monogamous, the males fighting very fiercely at mating 

130 Post Moricm Reports. 

" Pood. — Insects, small slnL;"s. seed and iL^'rain." 

'* Nest. — May or June. Two broods sometimes." 

" Site. — In a little hollow scraped in the j^ronnd; among 

" growing herbage." 

" Materials. — If any, a few dead grasses." 

" ^,§'^-^- — Seven to twelve. Yellowish white, spotted and 

*' blotched with umber-brown." 

The book has been well conceived and planned with care, 
and. in spite of the apparently endless multiplicity of British Bird 
books, will form a welcome addition to the bookshelves of all 
sludents of our native avifauna. They would be excellent gift 
books to young people and to others also of older growth. We 
opine a thin paper edition of Our Resident Birds and Our 
Migrant Birds bound in one volume would be cordially 


Post Mortem Reports. 

s, Canaries and Lavi^nder Finch : P. J. Calvocoressi. — All acute enteritis. 
These birds had had access to egg-food which was stale and possibly 
infected with a mould This food should only be used quite fresh. 

Gouldiax Finch : Capt. L. 11. Wand. — Enteritis. 

Whydah-bird and Cordon I'lku : Mrs. Dennis.- — Pneumonia in both cases. 

Blue-eri:ast!:d Waxbill and Nonpareil Bunting : Mrs. Calvocoressi.-- 

Pneumonia in the case of the waxbill. The bunting was over fat, 

and its lungs congested. 
CoCK.vrEEi. : Ed. Boosey.-The bird was much too decomposed for examination. 
Siskin : T. (). Harrison. — The cause of death was i)ncumonia. The l)ird 

was too fat. 
Amazon Parrot: H. Westacott. — Congestion of lungs. 
Zebra Finch : W. H. Workman.— Pneumonia. 

N. S. LUCAS. M.B.. F.Z.S., 
Honorary Pathologist. 





I— I 



:5 5? 

:AII :ai3l)ts !acscrvc6. Uul?. 1922. 


— THE — 

Jiine and July in My Aviaries. 

By W. Shore Baily, F.Z.S. 

At the beginning of this month most of the birds in my 
Waders' aviary were coming into colour. Four out of my eight 
Knots had assumed their reddish-coloured breasts; the cock 
Puffs had fully developed their queer necklaces, ah totally 
different from each other, so that a non-birdy observer would 
take them to be birds of different species; the only Wader in 
which, so far, there has been no change is my solitary Grey 
Plover. Two years ago I had one of these birds that came into 
Of the other birds most of the Whydahs and Weavers are either 
full breeding plumage, and he really was a handsome bird then, 
in full plumage, or showing colour. The two Giant Whydahs 
look particularly handsome as they fly around their large 
aviaries. Unfortunately I have been unable to get hens for 
them. My Demoiselle Cranes have at last given up their 

attempt to produce chicks from stones. The cock has been 
qrite savage recently. On one occasion a cocker puppy about 
r,ix months old followed me into his paddock, when the cock 
Crane promptly came at him open mouthed and with wing.s 
outspread — a truly alarming object- -and the puppy evidently 
thought so, as he took refuge between my legs, only to be 
removed by a vicious peck from the bird's beak. Verily that 
puppy flew, but the Crane covered the ground nearly as quickly 
and but for the friendly shelter of some thick bushes the little 
dog would have had a sad time. I was much amused, as the 
puppy had been rather fancying himself on the strength of being- 
able to make my Peacock take flight, and my Adjutant Storks 

13- ///;/(' (ind July in My Aviaries. 

walk off from their dinner in a more or less dignified manner. 
However, I notice that he now leaves these last very carefully 
alone, if he happens to he in their paddock. Possibly he thinks 
the Crane experience may be repeated. 

June I St. — Senegal Sparrow sitting again. 

June 2nd. — Californian Quail sitting. Very prolific 
layers, these. 

June jrd. — Two young Necklace Doves left nest. 

June 4th. — African Diamond Sparrow sitting" again. 
Cabani's Weaver sitting. The cock weaver has built nine nests, 
all perfect. The hen weaver, unlike most of the Hypanthornine 
weavers, lays white eggs. 

June ^th. — Cuban Finch and Cape Sparrows sitting". 

June 6th. — Mistle Thrush nesting" again. This makes 
the third time, and she has now laid thirteen eggs this season. 

June yth. — Six little Mantchurian Pheasants hatched. 
These are extraordinary tame little birds, and they grow very 
fast and l^ecome great pets. 

June 8th. — Snow Bunting" nesting in coco-nut husk. A 
queer place for such a bird. The nest was neatly built and 
lined with hair. Unfortunately at time of waiting no eggs have 
been laid. Last year one built a nest in a box. which was lined 
with feathers. 

June Qth. — Grey Singingfinch sitting. 

June loth. — Tinnamou cock calling again. Common 
Quail nesting. I have hunted long for this bird's nest but so 
tar without success. I think that my New Guinea Quail must 
also be nesting, as the cock has been calling. These two 
species are very shy. 

Ju)}c nth. — Song Sparrows nesting. T have two pairs 
(jf these birds in adjacent aviaries, both of which I feel sure 
liave nests. They nest on the ground in very thick cover, but. 
;is they are very secretive in their habits, the nests are very 
difficult to find. The cocks are continually fighting with each 
other through the wires. 

June 12th. — Two young Tinamous hatched under hen. 

June i^tli. — Algerian Chaffinch sitting again. 

June 24th. — Second pair of Misto Seedfinches sitting. 







I— I 

. ■ o 
= O 

i en 


June and July in My Aviaries. 133 

Nest in centre of thick bunch of grass. 

June i^th. — First pair of Misto Seedfinches hatched four 

June i6th. — Alantchurian Pheasant sitting". 

June i/th. — Cabot's Tragopan hatched three young 
Iforned Guinea Fowl. Four of these eggs had been placed 
under her. as her own eggs were infertile. 

June i8th. — Tinamou sitting on six eggs. 

June igih. — Twite sitting on four eggs. I have had tw(j 
])airs of these birds in my large aviary for three seasons, and this 
is tlie first time either have nested. The nest is in a willow 
about three feet from the ground. 

Ju)ic 20th. — Second pair of Misto vSeedfinches hatched. 
Red-billed Weaver sitting; the first time in these aviaries 
these birds have laid. Red Ground Dove sitting. 

Ju)ie 2ist. — Yellow-throated Sparrow^s sitting again. 
New Guinea Quail hatched three young. These were about the 
size of Bumble Bees and much the same colour. 1 he first to 
be born in England, I believe 

Ju)ie 22nd. — Cape Sparrow hatched. Californian Quail 

June 2^rd. — Diuca Finch laid in Snow Bunting's nest. 

June 24th. — Young Chingolo Sparrows left nest. 

Ju)ie 2^th. — Snow Buntings nesting again. This time 
in a box. 

June 26ih. — Crimson-crowned Weaver laid; this is also 
a first occurrence in these aviaries. The hen was only purchased 
at Gamage's a week ago. The cock completed the nest in a 
day. Eggs pale blue, like a Wheatear's, and nearly as large. 

June 2yth. — My keeper brought me two young Stone 
Curlews. I couldn't get them to feed, and although I hand- 
fed them they did not survive ; this is the second failure I have 
had with these birds. 

June 28th. — Bramble Finches sitting". Red-fronted Braz- 
ilian Sparrows nesting. The cock has a rather nice song, and 
a very curious display when courting the hen. I do not know 
their scientific name. 

June 2gth. — Stripe-headed Grosbeak sitting again. I am 
afraid that her eggs will be again infertile, although her Misto 
Seedfinch husband pays her a good deal of attention. Received 

134 J Idle and July in My Ai'larics. 

to-day a very tine young pair of Spoonbills from Rotterdam. 
Most interestint;- birds. 

June ^oth. — Fifteen young Horned (iuineafowl left nest. 
Saw two young- Plumbeous Quail to-day for the first time since 
they were hatched. Appear to be growing nicely. 

July ist. — Four young Misto Seedfinches left nest. 

July 2nd. — Snow Bunting laid. 

July ^rd. — Black Tanager sitting. 

June 4th. — Two young Misto Seedfinches left nest. 

J itl\< ^th. — Three Cuba Finches left nest. 

J nly 6th. — Bearded Tit sitting. Another case of infertile 
eggs, as my birds are both hens. 

July yth. — Visited the Duchess of Wellington's aviaries. 
These fine aviaries have been designed by the Duchess herself, 
and constiucted under Her Grace's personal supervision. 
Besides being extremely ornamental, they are most suitable 
for the different kind of birds contained therein, as there is 
water, growing grass, shrubs, etc., in all of them. I was 
particularly struck with the fine flock of Giant Whydahs, most 
of which have been bred in the aviaries. The pretty Indigo 
Bunting was also very much in evidence, and one or two pairs 
have already nested; but the principle event this season is the 
hatching out of a nest of young Blue Tanagers. It is to be 
hoped that Fler Grace will succeed in rearing these. An 
account of this would greatly interest B.N. readers. 

J Illy cV///. Five Tinamous and one Black-winged Pea 
Chick hatched. 

July pth. — Senegal Sparrow hatched. 

July TOth. — Cape Sparrows left nest. One of the young- 
ones appears to be abnormal, as it has a broad white patch across 
the wings. 

July I2ih. — Russ' Weaver sitting. 

July I ph. — Red Ground Dove sitting. 

July /^//k— Orchard Finch sitting again. Plumbeous 
Quail chicks now strong on wing. 

July 15th. — Tinamou sitting again. Whilst looking for 
nests I stepped on and crushed three young, day-old Misto 
Seedfinches. These birds make their nests in the long grass, 
and cover them over with the growing grass blades. ' The 

Bird Notes. 

(Photo h;i W. Siinin Bo//;/. F.Z.S.) 

Mistle Thrush Incubating. 

Notes On Jungle and Other Wild Life. 135 

rtrst lot of youiij^' ones are now independent of their parents 
The tirst time they have been reared in England, I believe. 

July i6th. — Five young Calif ornian Quail hatched. 

July lyth. — Twite hatched four young- ones. This is 
my second pair. The second nest of my first pair was destroyed 
ijy other birds. The same fate befell my Brambling's nest. 

July i8th. — Misto Seedfinch hatched three young. 

Jnly / 9/ //. — Seven Buffalo Weavers and three Gambian 
Sparrows arrived from Dr. Hopkinson. who brought them over 
with him from the (Gambia. They are most interesting birds 
and will, I hope, survive, and in due course go to nest. These 
birds make communal nests, and it would be very interesting to 
get photos, etc., of these in an aviary. It was very good of 
Dr. Hopkinson to send them here. 

July 2()th. — ^'oung Senegal Sparrows left nest. This is 
also for the first time in these aviaries, although I have had 
many of these birds. 

July 2J.y^— Crimson-crowned Weaver sitting on three eggs. 

July 22nd. — Plumbeous Quails have now driven off their 

young and are evidently looking for a new building site. The 

young ones appear to be a pair, but I cannot be sure of this 

without handling them. 

July 2^rd. — Four young Californian Quail hatched. 
I^iftal Weavers died. Whether this was due to a change of 
(Met, too much live food after their long abstinence from this on 
their voyage over, I am unable to .say, but it is very disap- 
pointing. They all lost the use of their legs before succumbing. 

July 24th. — Left for summer holiday, so record for the 
rest of the month not available. 

Notes on Jungle and other Wild Life. 

By Dr. Casey A. Wood, M.B.O.U. 

(Continued from page iii.) 

Two voyages to the West Indies have convinced me that 
the cheapest and most satisfactory method of really " seeing " 
that section of them known as the I-esser Antilles, is to organize 

ii,() Notes On Jitui^lc and Oilier Wild Life. 

a party of not more than four cons^enial souls unafraid of the 
sea, and set sail from New York or Halifax for Trinidad or 
Demerara, visit in the usual orthodox fashion the ports of call 
at the various islands. This part of the plan insures an intro- 
duction of considerable value to the itinerary subsequently to be 
followed, permits the traveller not accustomed to tropical life 
to become more or less acclimated, and emphasizes the enjoy- 
n:ent of the true adventure. This last consists, briefly, of 
engaging" and provisioning" one of those beautiful schooners 
uhose graceful lines and lovely white sails hold the attention of 
every visitor to the Caribbean. The ideal vessel is, of course, 
clean, well manned, roomy and properly supplied with the 
necessaries and some of the luxuries of West Indian travel. 
I ''or details consult either of those most courteous and well- 
informed of men, our Consuls at Demerara or Trinidad, whence 
the expedition should set out. Early in January is the bc.o; 
lime to start; and the excursion will occupy about two months — 
but oh ! the wonders that may be encountered in that short space 
by the right kind of people ! Sailing leisurely along, one may 
visit and stay as long as one likes, not only at the usual points 
of interest, but an opportunity is also given to explore comfort- 
ably and easily fascinating localities, peoples and animals 
otherwise inaccessible. The steamship companies offer an 
excellent chance to spend a few weeks in this enchanted land, 
but they, not being run for recreation alone, are obliged to 
consider profitable freights, harbor facilities ,etc., that do not 
always jibe with one's desires to visit islands or ports not on 
their schedules. On the other hand, the independent schooner- 
yacht goes everywhere. Just think what it would mean ^^o 
visit this far-stretching archipelago — these Antillean Sporades 
.Mid Cyclades and to sail the blue ocean that flows between them, 
set in everlasting summer. Few seas furnish as many historical 
memories, natural beauties, curious animals and remarkable 
incidents as the long semi-circle of islands and islets that seem 
to have been scattered broadcast by some mighty sower between 
the Virgin Islands and Sombrero Light, away north, and 
Trinidad, almost within gun shot of the V'enezuelean coast. 

Two institutions almost peculiar to Georgetown bear n 
possible message to those who do not think it necessary to 

Notes Oil hoiglc ivid Other Wild Life. 137 

provide a substitute for the " poor man's club" when prohibition 
is adopted by a country previously addicted to the consumption 
of various forms of alcoholic beverages. This new growth is 
well described by the author — now unfortunately passed on — of 
Georgetown Vignettes." He begins his clever description 
with a quotation from the repertory of the Demerara Laureate 
as follows : — 

When mail heart is sore and weary 

And mah love is growin' cold. 

When the outlook is so dreary 

An' de chile she gettin' bold — 

Just turn to you " bub " in de evenin' ! 

The author then assures us that to " define what are the 
ingredients of a " Bub " drink does not require the scientific 
knowledge of a professor. A " bub " is composed principally 
of an infinitesimal portion of milk, with a maximum quantity of 
water, a fractional part of ice, a few grains of nutmeg and ten 
drops of syrup. In fact, it has been known where the attendant, 
v.'hen in a bad mood, has reduced the drops of syrup aforesaid 
tc- seven. 

Running the " bul) " a close race in popular favour is the 
■ ;.!iave ice " drink. What is a " shave ice?" This is purely 
nnd simply a piece of ice shaved by a sharp " planer " into a 
glass and besprinkled with syrup. A large glass costs one 
penny; while a half tumbler's worth can be purchased for a cent. 
Us chief charm lies in its ability to slake the thirst of a throat 
vearied with the imbibings of too much " coolie throw down," 
or in other words our familiar friend — cask rum ! 

Having let our readers into the mysteries of " bub " and 
" shave ice " manufacturing we pass on to treat of the attend- 
ants. These depend primarily on the locality where the saloons 
h.appen to be situated. In High America and Hincks Streets, 
three of the chief thoroughfares of the " bub " and " shave ice" 
monopoly, the lady attendants are chiefly of the Hindustani 
race, while in the purlieus of Charlestown, Bourda, Queen, 
Regent and Camp Streets, the attendants are indirect descend- 
rmts of sons of Ham. 

In each of these " bub " shops scattered all over the 

13S Nutcs Oil Jungle mill Other Wild Life. 

town the assets of tlie proprietors are comprised chiefly in the 
obihty of their attendants to carry to a successful issue promis- 
cuous flirtations with every Johnnie who comes along". Be the 
patron a young Barrister-at-Law out for a night's fun, or a 
" centipede " just eleased from prison, after serving a term for 
carrying a stick for the purpose of terrorizing" the public, her 
smiles, airs, and graces must be equally distributed. An attempt 
at favouritism has been known to end disastrously. 

These " Imb " shops undoubtedly serve a useful purpose. 
Wayfarers, after an evening's jaunt, have found them handy 
for providing a smack composed chiefly of tw'o or more slabs of 
iDread and minute portions of ham plastered between. A 
peremptory call or so at the blushing" damsel behind the counter 
may or may not produce a daub of mustard with which to give 
the horse flesh a slight flavour. As an indication of how much 
these " bub " shops are favoured by high and low alike, it may 
be mentioned that the writer of this sketch once received from 
a now defunct solicitor an invitation to lunch. ilie offer was 
accepted, and the party at once " adjourned " to the lawyer's 
oflfice. Visions of a sumptuous feast, ordered from the 
Victoria, naturally floated before one's eyes. But all specula- 
tion was quickly set at rest when a smiling " bub " shop 
attendant marched in with a waiter whose spotty cloth covering 
hid two large glasses of " bub " flanked by two slabs of bread, 
ham and mustard. 

The " bub " was gratefully received, for a varied 
experience has taught one that it is sometimes polite to be 
thankful for small mercies, even though they lake the form of 
penny " bubs ! " 

Now comes the sequel. With the al)normal growth of 
these small saloons there has come a corresponding decline in 
the craving for strong waters. As a matter of fact to such an 
extent have things come in this respect for the spirit dealers, 
that there is now on foot a serious project, having for its aim 
a monster petition to the Governor praying" that the license of 
the " bub " dispensers should be used. It has also been stat^ 
that owing" to the wave of temperance now sweeping" over the 
community the attendance at places of worship in Georgetown 
has increased ten per cent. Even habitual drunkards, now few 
in number, look as they pass with longing at the cool refreshing" 

Notes On Jungle and Other Wild Life. 139 

glasses of " bub " as they are dispensed to patrons who in the 
now remote past used to Hne up ten deep before the counters 
of the rumshops. The spirit dealers Hke not the outlook, and 
only in the assistance of the Government, whcm they assume to 
be their ally, do they hope to obtain relief. 

It occasionally happens that a planter whose estate is far 
distant from the conveniences of town or village must perforce 
be emergency guide, friend and doctor — not to mention minister 
and priest — to his peasant employees. Bearing on this fact I 
recall that I took into dinner, on one of the islands, a very 
attractive young woman who, from her war experience in 
France, acted in a medical capacity to the ignorant employees on 
her husband's plantation. 1 asked her how she managed the 
eye diseases. " Oh, I have had very few of them, and they 
generally yielded to treatment in a short time. My last case 
may interest you. One morning, bright and early, a coloured 
man, after trying — as they generally do — all the domestic 
remedies at hand, came to see me with a badly swollen eye and 
face. I diagnosed the trouble as an abscess of the eyelid, and 
thought a poultice might help. As I had run out of linseed 
meal 1 wrapped up for the man a large slice of white bread 
soaked in milk and sent him on his way rejoicing, with directions 
to apply the remedy for one day and then to report. To my 
surprise he returned the same afternoon evidently much 
improved; it seemed as if the abscess had " broken." Asked 
how long he had kept the poultice on his eye he confessed that 
he thought it was to be taken internally. ' Berry good; berry 
good; me like him; me eat him,' and in view of its miraculous 
effects I soaked him another slice which completed the cure, 
and established my reputation as a doctor of wonderful healing 

Almost every island in the Antilles has its Botanic 
Gardens, each one of them presenting attractions all its own ; 
and none should be neglected by the tourist. E. and I liked 
especially the lovely little tropical park at St. Lucia, and were 
greatly impressed by the much larger and better kept Gardens 
of Dominica where especially abide not only everlasting spring 
and never withering flowers but also pretty nearly every curious 
tree and shrub under the tropical canopy. 

140 Notes Oil Jungle and Other Wild Life. 

Takint^" it all in all. perhaps the Demerara Botanic 
Gardens are the most attractive. Nowhere else can the peculiar 
tropical ves^'etation of South America be studied to better advan- 
tage, all artistically disposed along miles of well-kept drives 
and walks. Palms there are in great variety and abundance, 
including the majestic royal, the somewhat similar cabbage 
palm, the Eta, the fan or traveller's (so-called because of the 
supply of water to be found at the base of its leaves) palm, and 
many another curious form. 

The glorious Victoria Regia lily is a common weed in 
British Guiana, was first discovered here and at one time flour- 
ished in some of the drainage canals that crisscross the city of 
Georgetown. When it was, for sanitary reasons, decided to 
fill these trenches this huge water-lily was banishel to the 
Gardens — its ponds and canals — where it may be seen by the 
hundred, with its immense leaves, enormous buds and wonderful 
flowers. Here, too, one sees other water lilies of great size 
and beauty — the lotus and vast numbers of the red, white and 
blue nymph ca. Adjoining the Gardens proper are 40 acres ct 
fWjjcrimental nurseries where certain economic products — 
sugar-cane in particular — likely to be of value to the colony are 
grown. As might be expected in this land of orchids, the 
crrhid house is often redolent of bloom, and is always well 
worth a visit. 

The traveller will be charmed by the animal life of the 
( lai'dens, and especially by the home-coming flight of hundreds 
of blue herons, white egrets, hawks and other birds, best seen 
(from 5-30 to 6 p.m.) just before they settle for the night in the 
liigh trees of tne " Island" — a small bird sanctuary entirely 
surrounded by a canal or moat. This body of water is filled 
with flowering lilies whose pads support numerous large, long- 
toed, brilliant-coloured jacanas and other water-fowl that run 
along the wide leaves, while flocks of Night and Day herons call 
and squabble for a favourite resting place in the branches above. 
All things considered, this sight alone is worth a trip to British 
Guiana, and it is made possible by a sensible bird protection 
law strictly enforced. 

A Cuckoo Episode. 141 

In these same gardens is to be seen, among' other animals, 
that curious am])hibian, the manatee or " sea-cow " — not cooped 
UP in a cage but swimming about in the miles of canals and ponds 
that supply the Gardens. Come any morning about 7-30 and 
ask a keeper " where the manatees are feeding." 

(To be continued.) 

A Cuchoo Episode. 

By Capt. J. S. Reeve, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

The following may be of interest to our readers : 

A Pied Wagtail Ijuilt as usual on the house here (Lincoln), 
close to my aviaries, but the nest was destroyed and they built 
ag;ain. During this period, on May i8th a Cuckoo was seen 
to alight on the creepers close to the nest ; on 24th there was 
one Wagtail's egg; on 25th a pair of Cuckoos were in the 
garden, both " cuckooing." and one also making the " water- 
l)ubbling " sound; one of these was seen to fly to tne house, 
but, unfortunately, was not watched! On 27th, at i p.m., i 
examined the nest and found two Wagtail's eggs and one 
Cuckoo's, tnis latter being of a rotund shape with markings 
of a greenish hue. A friend arriving that afternoon, who was 
interested in birds, at 9 p.m. I showed them to him. I examined 
the nest next day at i p.m., when lo and behold! the Cuckoo's 
tgg was gone, the nest quite undisturbed, and a third Wagtail's 
egg" in it ! (Jn 29th there were four Wagtail's eggs, and the 
bird duly commenced to sit on them. What happened to the 
Cuckoo's ei^'f^''! Is it possible that the Cuckoo saw me twice 
go to the nest on 27th, and removed the &gg'^ I searched the 
wh.ole garden over and found several other nests — Linnet's. 
inrush's. Flycatcher's, and a Lesser White-throat's, but no 
Cuckoo's egg, and I know of no other pair of Wagtails near at 
hand. I have since been told of the case of a Cuckoo laying 
in a nest in an open greenhouse, and of her being found there 
in the greenhouse a day or two afterwards. It is, I believe, on 
record by Dr. Chance and others that the Cuckoo has been 

142 Stray Notes of the Saisoit. 

known to take a subsequent interest in its Ci^ys and even youni,^ 
when hatched, but has it ever been su.^• .jested or recorded that 
they will remove their eggs in case of danger ? It does seem a 
possibility. I may add that on June 24th 1 found two Hedge 
.Sparrows' nests, each with three eggs and a Cuckoo's — one 
forty-seven yards from where the Wagtail's nest was, and the 
other seventy-seven yards on beyond the first, all in the same 
garden; the nearer of these two clutches was slightly incubated, 
the Hedge Sparrow's eggs being- of a very deep blue type and 
small; the other clutch was perfectly fresh, tnough the bird was 
sitting, but they were of a perfectly different type, very long 
and light greenish-blue, and might almost have been taken for 
Wheatear's eggs. The two Cuckoo's eggs were of entirely 
different type and assimilated more or less to their respective 
clutches, one being oval and lightly marked with grey, the 
other elongated and well marked with brown. The former is 
about an inch long, and the latter seven-eighths of an inch. 
Each exceeds by about one-eighth of an inch the length of the 
eggs in it3 clutch. Again 1 searched everywdiere within two 
or three hundred yards but found no more Hedge Sparrows' 
nests and no more Cuckoos' eggs! 

Another deduction which may seem to be drawn from the 
first part of my story is that the CXickoo finds the nests in the 
first place by seeing the birds building. 

Stray Notes of the Season.] 

By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

These indeed must be very much stray notes, for I have 
been so occupied with many things that I have frequently only 
seen ni}^ birds once during the week. Owing to the adverse 
and frequently changing w'eather conditions, there is much more 
of failure to chronicle than success, even with such species as 
usually triumph over our inconsequent English weather, and T 
fear the same record will prevail in many (most) aviaries this 

Doves, which usually do well here, have only up to the 

Stray Azotes of flic Scaso>i. 143 

present i)ro(luoed a single youngster successfully reared; still, 
with all the disappointments attendant upon aviculture, it has 
been the solace and interest of many an hour during the many 
depressing periods of recent times. 

My birds are not as numerous as they were; accidents, 
etc., have robbed me of many rarities and pals, and I have made 
but few additions, so that to-day there are more odd birds in 
the aviary than mated pairs. Many of the odd ones are patri- 
archs with a history and old friends too, so they remain, till in 
the fulness of time they travel West, to the happy hunting 
grounds of the feathered tribe. Who knows? Perchance at 
some future time we may meet again upon a happier shore ! 

My newest acquisitions among the C olumbidac were a 
pair of Cape Turtle Doves (Turtur capicolo) kindly presented to 
me by Mr. Guy Falkner, being part of a consignment personally 
brought over by him about a year and a half ago. In general 
appearance they much resemble the common Barbary Turtle- 
Dove, but their plumage is a much greyer and darker tone, 
iliey are handsome birds, and a species I had not previously 
kept. They came to hand in late summer last year, soon settled 
down and made themselves quite at home in my largest aviary, 
where there are five other species of doves. They passed the 
winter without apparent discomfort, and this spring found them 
in perfect health and plumage, and were soon sparring with 
other doves for the more suitable nesting sites ; this continued 
for so long a period that I was contemplating removing several 
of the doves to another aviary, when one morning in June my 
attention was directed to the top of a mass of foliage (Poly- 
gonum climbing up one of the roof standards), by one of the 
Cape Turtle-Doves flying therefrom. An examination revealed 
the usually sparse, fragile nest and in it a fully fledged young bird 
which left the next day, and is now (July 26) disporting itself 
m the aviary almost indistinguishable from its parents, who are 
nesting again. The young bird resembles its parents in 
plumage pattern but was of a slightly warmer and darker hue, 
and was in possession of a partial neck ring when 1 saw it in 
the nest. It only received the attention of what I took to be 
t.-e male parent for seven days, and was then entirely on its own 

T44 Stray Notes of the Season. 

I should say that neither in plumage nor contour have i 
been able to detect any difference in the sexes, and it is during" 
courting displays that 1 know " t'other from which. 

I regret my brother was not available to take a photo of 
the young bird in the nest, for, though it was not a rare 
episode, it made a very pleasing picture indeed, the nest being 
almost hidden in the convolvulus-like foliage. It was just to 
the end of the path used during daily visits to replenish food 
-upplies, situate three or four feet above one's head. 

The Indian Green-wing Doves {Chalcophaps indica) are 
incubating. Though, perhaps, one of the species longest 
known to aviculture it is one of the most beautiful of the 
Columhidac. Its general colour is deep wine-red, with lustrous 
wing of deep rich grass-green, which vary from copper to deep 
blue-black under the play of light ; the beak and feet are red — 
lovely creatures in a roomy garden aviary. I have kept the 
species for many years and found them hardy and long-lived — 
ten to twelve years being by no means an uncommon period. 

Though I have bred this species on several occasions, 
and as recently as 1920, failures have been more numerous than 
successes, not that they are bad sitters or parents, but rather 
because of wasting their efforts in attempts to construct nests 
on impossible natural sites, though numerous artificial platforms 
were scattered about in sheltered positions all over the aviary — 
their predilection evidently being for a naturally constructed 
nest amid the branches of some tree or bush. Apparently, at 
last they have constructed one to their liking, in a position where 
;iny human would have said a nest was impossible — the query 
is. will the fragile, sticky platform they have constructed stand 
the strain of storm, incubation and brooding of the young? 

The X'inaceous Turtle- Doves {Tiirtitr z'i)iaceus) are no 
better, and so far have not got beyond trying to construct nests 
.'i.mid the branches, which the alighting of other birds on one of 
the branches invariably disperse. This was the case with this 
;\iir last season. 

Red Mountain Doves (Geotrygou moniana), are very 
handsome and hardy doves, comfortably spending tiie whole 

Stray Notes of the Scasou. 145 

vear out of doors, and usually bringing up one or two broods 
per annum. So far they have one youngster independent this 
year, and are now looking for a fresh site for another nest. 
They spend nearly the whole of their time upon the ground, 
have rather a mournful call " hoo-hoo," but in every other 
respect are pleasing and attractive occupants of the aviary. 

I have put these dove episodes out of their proper 
sequence, and I will now give a few other episodes in their 
regular order. I had better preface my remarks by stating that 
last autumn I put in the aviary two Hedge Accentors and four 
Chafifinches, and this spring a hen Goldfinch procured from one 
of the villagers; the others were captured on my holding. I 
had intended to capture a cock Goldfinch^ these are plentiful 
on the holding, but a pressure of duties prevented me till tne wild 
birds were paired up and then I would not. Also there are a 
number of hybrid Himalayan Siskin x Border Canary in the 
aviary, which have been there several years ; up to the present 
they have nested several times, but without result — all the eggs 
have proved infertile, apparently they are barren when mated 
inter se, but would doubtless produce young if mated either 
with a Himalayan Siskin, or a Border Canary. 

The first episode I noticed was a Hedge Accentor's 
(Accentor moditlar'is) nest, containing four blue eggs, of 
the usual kind without markings. The nest was quite typical, 
cosily lined, a perfect picttire of bird achitecture; it was in 
rather an exposed position, in a fork of a cupressus bush by the 
side of a path. They were only left in undisturbed possession 
for a few days. I suspect the spoiler to have been either a 
Pekin Robin or Pope Cardinal. The mischief was evidently 
only recent when I noticed it, for the interior of the nest was a 
mass of broken and partly-eaten eggs, quite fresh and still in 
Hquid form. I think they are nesting again, but some of the 
bushes are so overgrown with wild convolvulus that it is quite 
impossible, without undue interference, to ascertain all that is 
taking place in the aviary at the present moment. Many years 
ago a brood of Accentors were reared to maturity in my aviary, 
and I had a hankering to repeat the success. 

The Chafifinches (Fringilla coelehs) too, I desired to breed. 

146 Stray Notes of the Season. 

as. though yoimg have undoubtedly been reared in captivity, 
they have been unobserved successes, and I wished to have the 
pleasure of recording a fully observed success. One of these 
pairs supplied the next episode. They constructed a nest of 
hay, grass-bents and fine rootlets ; it was exactly similar to what 
we are accustomed to see in the country-side in every respect, 
except that it lacked lichen, none of which I supplied; in all 
other respects it was a replica of one I took from the raspberry 
canes on my holding. They were very secretive in their opera- 
tions, and the nest was completed and one egg laid before it 
was discovered; five days later it contained four eggs, and 
incubation had commenced. The nest was placed in a mass of 
Polygonum creeper, two feet below that of the Cape Turtle- 
Doves. lucubation lasted thirteen days, when four lusty young 
fledglings were observed in the nest — all went well for four 
days, but on the night of the fourth day there was a terrific wind 
storm accompanied by torrential rain, and when I made my 
visit to the aviary at 9-30 the next morning two dead fledglings 
lay beneath the nest, and two dead in the nest — they were 
well-grown and well-nourished for their age. 

The nest was then deserted, and I am assured that botli 
pairs now have nests, but I have not discovered them amid the 
wild tangle of bush and convolvulus. 

Next I saw one of a pair of Mealy Redpolls carrying 
bricks for Redpoll castle, but the chosen site was not the final 
one. for the home was not completed; but I have since seen 
them carrying nesting material into a wild tangle of creeper 
and bush, so presumably their home will be completed there — 
may be it already is. 

So far as I am aware Java Sparrows. Silverbills, Pekin 
Robins. Violet-eared Waxbills. and various weavers have not 
seriously built as yet, though some of them may have young 
hidden among the tangled growth. 

Owing to a series of mishaps last summer my collection 
of parrakeets consists mostly of odd unmated birds. 

By the kindness of Mrs. Reed I have secured a mate for 
my Blue-fronted Amazon {Chrysotis aestk^a), and one of them 

/4t'7V7;'v A'ofcs from Northern Ireland. 147 

now spends a lot of its time in tlie nest lo,^'. so once a.^ain 
one hopes. 

The same apphes to pairs of Rosella Parrakeets 
(Platxeereiis eximius) and Cactus Conures (Connrus cactorum), 
hut the happenini^'s are as yet " in the lap of the g"ods." 

A fine pair of Black Cassiques (Cossiciis spec, inccrt) are 
in the pink of condition, but, so far as I am aware, have made 
no attempt to go to nest, though mating is of frequent occur- 
rence. These are grand birds, glossy black with purplish 
reflections, whicn latter vary considerably according to the play 
of light. They are birds of character, and of fascinating 
demeanour — there is not a dull moment when one has a spare 
lialf hour to spend in front of their aviary. 

I am in want of a hen Blossom-headed Parrakeet, cock 
Alexandrine Parrakeet, and hen Pekin Robin, if any member can 
accommodate me with acclimatised specimens to complete. 

Though, of course, breeding is our paramount aim. it is 
not the sum total of the pleasures of aviculture; it certainly 
supplies most of its disappointments. The economy of bird- 
life that leads up to this central fact, surrounds it. and follows 
after it. in all its varied details, rewards careful observation 
with unending interest and pleasure as the season runs its 
course, even in those cases when full breeding success is not 

I have tried to say nothing as interestingly as possible; 
will not some of my fellow members copy my bad example, and 
tell us of the doings of their birds, even if they have only 
commonplace species ? 

Aviary Notes from Northern Ireland. 

By W. H. Workman. F.Z.S. 
Some of our younger members may be interested in a few- 
notes on my new aviary and a description of the various Httle 
fitments which I have included in it, and. at the same time, T 
feel I am complying with our good Editor's wish for more and 
more copy for the magazine, which has done so much to keep 
alive the avicultural hobby during the long years of the war and 
after, when we were unable to get or keep foreign birds and so 


Ai'ian' Notes from Northern Jrclaiul. 

turned our attention to the miinterestint;- bttt useful hen, so I 
turned one of my aviaries into an intensive fowl house, and it 
is this tliat 1 now have had reconstructed, and which I wish 
to describe. 

The fowl-house was a lean-to affair, of about 14ft. lon;^ 
and about 6ft. wide, havins::^ an over-hang-ins.:,- roof of, say, 
another foot, with a good solid cement floor. This I pretty 
well pulled to pieces, taking away the front and division, leaving 
only the one end, roof, and cement floor. I then got the 

carpenter to divide the house longtitudinally, into two divisions, 
\i/: a shelter for night, a roofed-over part which I call 

■ ■ C:^^ 





Q I 

5^ -^ 

o ^ 


'^i "of 

rian and Elevation. 
•Mr, W. II. Workman's Aviaries. 

Aviary Notes fi'oii} Nurthcrn Ireland. 149 

covered flii^ht, putting- doors between and windows — but the 
plan will give my readers a much better idea of my design, in 
which I was greatly influenced by the bird houses at the Zoo. 
and in a very small way I tried to copy them. 

This, you see. gives me a good place to put food for the 
birds, but more of this anon. We now proceeded to make 
the flight. This is made of half inch mesh wire lapped together 
so that looking through the front and sides one is not bothered 
with great lines of three inch timber spoiling the view. The 
flg-ht therefore is about 14ft. x 6ft. x 7ft. high, and like the 
house is divided into three divisions (see plan), with communi- 
cating doors of light wood framing covered with half-inch mesh 
wire. From the elevation you will see that the roof projects 
into the flight about one foot; this certainly makes it more 
difficult to, say, catch a bird or drive a strange bird in at night, 
but on the other hand it is a splendid place for them to sit and 
sun themselves in the morning, as it gets very warm on this 
roof, and they are protected from draught by a deep board 
running along the roof on its edge, this board taxing the 
wire netting of the flight. 

The next thing I had to think out was the arrangement of 
the flight. I flrst made a gravel path running straight through 
next to the cement floor of the covered flight. Then I got the 
gardener to get me some large and coarse grass sods and we 
planted them with an edging of boxwood. As the weather 
turned wet we had no trouble with the grass or plants. After 
T got the sods down I paid a visit to a Nursery, and there I was 
much disappointed to find I could not get a few firs as I was 
told that at that time of year (June) they couldn't be moved, but 
! secured some fine Box trees, so I put a small one and a big 
one in each flight, and they never looked back in spite of 
warnings by various gardeners. 

Our next consideration was perches, so I cut down a few 
Sycamore seedlings, when the top parts were cleaned of leaves ; 
these made beautiful shapely perches, and the birds took to them 
.It once. Some I hung up to the rafters of the flight, others I 
nailed up to the corners. Next I cut a lot of small branches, 
which I nailed up in various parts of the covered flight and 
sleeping compartment, putting in between various nesting boxes 

1^0 Editorial. 

of different sizes, suitable for the various birds, whicn I will 
describe later. 

Now as to feeding- and drinking arrangements : I made 
tliree trays — one for each division — about 14 inches square, and 
4 inches deep, putting screw eyes at each corner to which I 
attached by wire hooks four pieces of small sized picture chain. 
These all came to a hook in the centre which again is fastened 
to a screw eye in the roof. Into these trays I put glass bowls 
(old preserved meat bowls) of seed, and the birds drop the chaff 
out of the bowls into the trays, so the fioor, etc., is kept very 
clean. It then becomes an easy matter to tilt up the trays 
of chaff into the bowls and riddle out the good seed tliat is left. 
Eefill the bowls with fresh seed and replace them in their trays. 
For soft food, etc., I use the little delph pots that one gets 
potted shrimps in; they are so easily cleaned and kept fresh. 

For water I use enamelled steel dishes of various depths 
to suit the birds; they are white so one can keep them spotless, 
and thus one is sure of the birds getting fresh drinking and 
bathing water. 

For nesting boxes, I made a number from all sorts of 
suitable wooden boxes drilling a hole with an " Extension 
Bit " — by the way a most useful instrument because it drills a 
hole of a diameter of %in. up to 3 inches, and comes in useful 
for all sorts of purposes connected with the aviary. 

The account of my birds must form another story. 


Breeding of Leadbeater's Cockatoo (Cacotua lead- 
hcatcri). One does not often hear of cockatoos breeding in 
captivity, but at the present time in the London Zoo, at the rear 
of the Parrot House, is to be seen a happy family of Lead- 
beater's — the parent pair and two babies. This species is one 
of the most, if not the most beautiful, of the large genus 
Cacatua. Only on one occasion previously has complete success 
been attained in breeding the species in the Gardens, when one 
or two young birds were fully reared in the large aviary (now 
given up to monkeys) on the banks of the canal, almost opposite 
the Parrot House. Returning to the nresent success, both 

Editorial. 151 

parents shared the duties of incubation, and both were alike 
assiduous in feeding and caring" for their progeny. The young 
birds are strong and lusty, but, at present, more given to 
climbing than flying. 

One such episode as the above compensates tne avicul- 
turist for the many disappointments of their cult. iiie sights 
of such an episode through all its varied details of courtship, 
love, incubation, and rearing the young, are never-to-be- 
forgotten-ones. While the sight of these fine birds in the full 
excitement of sexual ardour, with the glorious crests upraised, 
and wings and tail outspread can be better imagined than 
described, and must be seen to be fully appreciated. 

It is a notable success and we heartily congratulate those 
concerned therein. 

Seasonal Notes : The season, which opened so hope- 
fully in several aviaries, has not borne out its earlier promise. 
The malignant attitude of the weather towards aviculture has 
caused the loss of the bulk of the young from the first round 
of nests, 

Mr. H. E. Bright, of Woolton, writes: " The birds have 
done very badly lately, have lost practically all my young ones 
through the cold and wet, and the Hangnests have gone into 
moult. I have a couple of young Turtle-Doves, which may 
not have been bred previously — Isabelline Turtle-Doves Rogers 
called them, and he says they are new." 

We think the Isabelline Turtle-Dove has been bred at 
the London Zoo. 

It will also be seen from the notes of Messrs. VV. Shore 
Baily, Capt. Rattigan, W. T. Page and others, elsewhere in 
this issue, that the unfavourable conditions so far this season 
have turned many very probable successes into failure ; we must 
hope that the last half of the season wnll be better than the 
first portion has been — August and September are often very 
fruitful of results in outdoor aviaries. 

Even at the London Zoo results have been less than 
usual, though two notable successes have been attained (noted 
elsewhere). The following breeding successes and more 
notable arrivals are extracted from the Society's Report 011 the 
Additions to the Menagerie for June: 

152 Correspondence. 

Hreeding Successes. 
8 Carolina Ducks { LiUJif^roiiessa sponsa). 

1 Chilian Teal (Ncttiuni flaz'irostris). 

2 Sacred Ibises {Ibis aethiopicus). 

Arrivals : These have Ijeen (juile numerous anionj;- the 
smaller fringilline and ploecine species, but mostly of well 
known species — we are ])leased to note the influx of several 
species which have been really scarce durin,^- the war and since, 
ior which reason we include them in the list. 

I Greater Amethyst Sunbird {Chalcomitra anietliystiiia). 
I Malachite Sunbird (Nectarina famosa). 
6 Pink-winged Rosefmches (Rhodospiza ohsolcta). 
■•' I White-crested Hornbill (Ortholophus Icucolo pints). 

I Crowned Hawk-Eag"le (Spicaetits coronatits). 
* I Apure Tovi Parrakeet {Brotogerys jugiilaris apuroisis). 
10 Painted Quails (Excalfactoria chincnsis). 
* Nczu to the Collection. 



Sir, — Not much of interest lo record re ni_\- aviaries, tun such as tiicy 
an., the}' may possibly be of some interest. 

BEARDED TITS {Paiiunis bianuiciis). My pair nested anil laid 
five eggs in a coco-nut shell, all clear. 1 had the same result last year 
when a pair (whether the same pair or not I cannot >ay, for I then had two 
pairs) laid two clutches of four each — all clear. 

turned out into my grounds two pairs of this species. For some time they 
i'' came down to feed, then onl\- three, and this week onlv two — otherwise 
they appear to have done well. I am hoping they may become established 
I'Lre at liberty. 

In the a\-iar\- my old pair have ,so far only reared one young bird 
this season. 

R1':D-RU.MPED PARR.\KEETS (I'scpliotus hacinaioiiotus). These 
have now three young birds in the nest-log. 

MILITARY STARLINGS (Tntp'mlis militayis). I turned my pair of 
this species into my large aviary: they were then in fine form, but do not 
ai.i)ear to have attempted to nest: the cock now ajjpears to be moulting. 

TURTLE DOVES (Tiirtur coiiimuni.s) : A pair of this species have 
appropriated a blackbird's (or thrush's) nest, placed some little height up in 1 
box tree : the nest now contains two young birds. 

Nothing worthy of mention re my other species. 
Leadenham ; June -'9, 1922. J. S. REEVE. 

Correspondence. 153 

Sir, — I have only a small number of foreign l)irds, which consist of : 
3 Avadavats {Sporaegintlius amandava). 
I pair Cordon Bleus (Estrilda plioenicotis). 
I, (S , Zebra Finch (Tacniopygia castavotis). 
3 Orange-check Waxbills (Sporaegintlius melpodus). 
I pair African Waxbills (Estrilda cincrea). 

1 pair Silverbills (Aidemosyue cantans). 

2 Vv^eavers (Species ?) 

I pair Grey Java Sparrows (Muuia orysi^'ora). 

1 pair Cutthroat x Red-headed Finch (Amadina fasciata x A. erytlirocc- 

pliala) hybrids. 

2 pairs each Green, and Yellow I'udgcrigars (Mclopsittacns imdiilatus). 
I Red-crested Cardinal (['aroaria cuctillata). 

I also have Canaries. Bullfinch, (ireenfinch. Linnet, two Goldfinches, 
three White Goldfinch-Canary mules, one Greenfinch-Canary mule. The 
Linnet mated to a canary has bred me two mules this season. 

I would like to tell you of a cock Zebra Finch, which came to me 
ii! 1915, and he only died on June i8th of this year. For some time i 
ke])t him alone, as I had no mate for him, but early this year I got a hen 
with whom he duly mated up. He was a very lively person in spite of 
his age, and I miss his quaint call now, as he was such a taking individual. 
1 do not know his age when he came to me, but I would like to know if 
In's age (cannot be less than eight years old) is a record for this species? 

Xo bird ever sang in my room that he did not try to copy in his 
comical way, and he always had a say in everything. 

He had no bad illness all the years he was with me, but about four 
days before he died was so stiff he could not manage a perch at all. 

I thought this might interest readers, but I hope to have more 
interesting items to record later. 

Torquay; June 28, 1922. (Miss) O^i .. BURN. 

Sir, — I wonder if a rather curious part of the display of the Rufous- 
tailed Grassfinch, which I witnessed this morning, has been recorded? 

I got a few pairs for turning out last week, as the species did verv 
well with me at liberty before the war. The new arrivals, though a bit 
rough in plumage, are thriving and staying in the most exemi)lary fashion. 
T(^-day the best cock and hen were making advances to each other, and 
the cock danced to her, holding a piece of grass in his beak in the usual 
fashion of grassfinches and waxbills. The next part of the performance 
was, however, quite new to me. He flew very slowly round a clump of 
bushes making, for so small a bird, quite a loud clapping noise with his 
wings. The hen then went up to him and took the grass out of his beak 
and performed the same flight, accompanied by the same sound. 

Havant : July 16, 1922. (The Marquis ofj TAVISTOCK. 

154 J^ost Mortem Reports. 


Sir. — T am havinr;- a fair season, tliougli not so good as last. Over- 
crowding- is rcsponsi1)Ic for tliis I fear. Imt i find it difficult to keep the 
inmates of llie aviaries down to proper l)rccdinf^- numbers. So far I have 
on1v tlic following- independent of their parents : 

5 Quail Einches (Orfygospica polysona) from two nests. A detailed 

account of this success will follow later. 
4 Zebra Finches {Tacniopygia castanotis). 
2 Cuban Finches {Phonipara caiwra). 
2 Red-crested Cardinals (Paroaria cucullata). 
2 Cordon Bleus (Estrilda plioenicotis). 

2 VirgMiian Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). 1 hand-reared these. 
2 White Java Sparrows {Mitnia oryzivora). 

A few Budgerigars and Canaries, and another brood each of Rcd- 
crested Cardinals, and Zebra Finches left the nest three days ago. 

F.MLURES : Four nests of Green Cardinals (Gitberuafrix cristata) came 
lo grief. Tliev contained, all told, no less than foiirtcoi young birds, and 
died on each occasion on the third day. Both pairs are incubating again, 
and due to hatch in a few days ; with better results this time, I hope. 
Altogether a pretty rotten season so far. A whole heap of birds are incu- 
bating, etc., but I do not count these in until the young have actually left 
the nest. 

The young hand-reared Virginian Cardinals should, I think, make 
\ery attractive pets. 

T am also hand-rearing Blackbirds, Magpies, and a few Chaffinches, 
tiic latter to try and obtain a hen for niule lireeding. 

At Ltbkrty : In the spring I tm-ned out loose into my grounds a pair 
o* Rufous-backed Weavers and other birds . The Rufous-backs stayed, 
built a nest in a holly-bush, directly in front of my bedroom window, and 
overhanging my bee-hive; a chttch of eggs was duly laid, and in due course 
lliev lirought forth three young birds, which arc now with their parents 
disporting al)out my grounds. 

Kingskerswell; July 2, 1922. G. E. RATTIGAN, Capt. 


Post Mortem Reports. 

(Irky SiNciNCFiNCii : A. IT. r.arnes, London. — Congestion of lungs. Fatty 

degeneration of liver. Answered by jiost. 
Ri n-cni.i.ARKD LoKiKKKT : Cajit. Reeve, Leadenham. — .'\dvice on clinical 

observation b\- Capt. Reeve. .Answered l)v post. 
WiivnAH : .Mrs. Cyril i")ennis, M;irket Drayton. — Enteritis. 


Bird Notes. 

Photo by /'. /:,'. ile 'J. (Juimen 
Group of Grass fin dies. 

^11 !^i3bt* !J\es(irvc6, August. 1922. 


— THE — 

Stray Notes from Lady Dunleath's Aviary. 

By the Lady Dunleath. 

I liave now a i^ood many birds, mostly ordinary species, 
in my aviary. haN'ini^- added a few more at intervals as oppor- 
tunity occurred. One, a (llossy Starlint;- {Lamprocornis 
chalvbcus), is a facsimile of the one which lived here for ten 
years; another, a Military Starling (Trupialis Diilitaris), is the 
first I have ever had of this species -these two I got from 

With them in the first division of my aviary are : 
Saffron Finches (Sycalis fiavcola). 
Various species of Weavers and Wliydahs. 
Pair of Budgerigars (Melopsittaciis iiiidulattis). 
Pekin Robin {Liothrix lutciis). 
Baya Cowbird {Molot lints bay a). 
Two Cardinals 

Madagascar Weavers (Foiidia madagascariensis). 
Pair of Cockateels (Calopsittactts novae-hoUandiae). 

Second Division: This is given up to VVaxbills and 
other odd Ploccidae, SiS follows: 

b pairs Avadavats (Sporaeginthiis ainandava). 

7 Grey Waxbills {Estrilda cinerea). 

I Blue-breasted Waxbill (£. angolensis). 

I Green Siugingfinch (Serimis icterus). 

4 Black-headed Nuns (Munia atricapilla). 

3 pairs Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia castanotis). 

I'he Avadavats (I got them from Hamlyn) have bred — 
a: least one pair has — and have four young ones just hatched 
(August /). They built a lovely nest, like a wren's, in an ivy 
liush, and I am hoping the young will be successfully reared. 
I bought these birds in December last, kept them through the 
winter in a large room in the house, the only heat being that 
radiating from two incubators. 

One pair of Zebra Finches have nested, and now they 

156 Stray Notes from Lady Du>ilcatli's Aviary. 

have a family of three flying about strongly. They built their 
nest in a fuchsia bush, very like a wren's. The other two pairs 
have nests and are, I believe, incubating clutches of eggs. 

The (irey Waxbills have not nested. I bought twelve of 
these charming, if freely imported, birds, but five have died; I 
found them lying dead, fat and in perfect plumage — one dropped 
dead while I was sitting in the aviary yesterday, almost at 
my feet. 

The other birds have made no attempt to go to nest. 
Third Division : Here are canaries and a few British 
finches, doves, etc., as under: 

18 Canaries (Serinus canarhis, dom. var.) 

I pair Bullfinches (Pyrrhula europaea). 

I pair Shore Larks {Otocorys alpestris). 

T Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis). 

I Masked Dove 9 (Oena capensis). 

I pair Palm Doves {Turtur senegalensis). 

I pair Calif ornian Quail {Lophortyx californica). 

I pair Red-headed Finches (Amadina erythroccpliala). 

The canaries were all bred from two pairs I got in the 
Spring — one pair built a typical, cup-shaped nest in a bush, in 
the open flight, in February last, and, in spite of inclement 
weather (cold & wet) the eggs were incubated and the young 
were successfully reared — they build beautiful nests in the 
bushes, in every way similar to those of the wild species. There 
have been some deaths, but eighteen are still living; they do 
not mind cold, but cannot stand cold and damp; we have had 
nothing else but mist and fog with rain for the past three 
weeks, and my yellow cock, which has fed and reared many 
young ones, died — he was quite well two days ago — from pneu- 
monia I am sure, and it was very rapid. I have never yet seen 
a hen canary feed her young ones ; the cocks feed both her 
and them. 

The Bullfinches have had three nests, but have not reared 
any young this year. I have had the hen (quite tame) since 
191 5 — she was taken out of a nest in Hampshire — the cock is a 
local bird ; he came into the aviary of his own accord and is very 
tame; they have reared young in past years. 

The Goldfinches have made no attempt to go to nest — they 
have never bred with me. 

The Calif ornian Quail, which T got from Gamage, have 

Stray Notes from Lady Dunlcath's Aviary 



Soft-food box — lid draws out. 

done well for new acquisitions. The hen laid fourteen eggs 
in a scrape, and is now incubating a clutch of thirteen. 

I also have a pair of small Egrets, which I got from Mr. 
W. T. Page; I have great hopes of breeding them next season. 
They live in an Insignis near the pond; they are pinioned, yet 
can fly down from a great height, but not up. 

All my birds are now quite ordinary, but very interesting, 
and all tame. 

Food and Treatment: I always feed and tend them 
myself, and we make the soft food of crushed hemp, bread 
crumbs dried in the oven, sponge cake crumbled fine and put 
through a sieve, and crushed cuttlebone — this I store in a tin, and 

moisten (slightly) the 
daily portion with water 
or grated carrot — I sup- 
ply this in small wooden 
boxes, 4in. by 2i/^in,; 
the lid has an oblong 
hole to prevent the food 
being wasted. Those 
used for seeds have six 
round holes in the lid. It does not get sour, and the birds, 
young and adults, do very well on it. 

In the shelters I hang shallow wooden trays from the 

roof, and place the boxes 
containing seed, etc., inside 
these, thus ensuring little or 
no waste, a tidy floor, and the 
foods cannot be fouled 
by mice. 

Mice must be kept down, 
and I get rid of a good many 
by means of a box of pois- 
oned meal, the box is about 
i8in. square, with a wire lid — 
only mice can get into it — 
they die at once in .ae box. 

My general seed-mixture 
is : Canary, white millet and 
rape in about equal parts, and a little hemp. I also supply 

Seed Trav hanging- in Aviarv 

158 Stray Notes from Lady Dnnleath's Aviary. 

canary seed in bulk separately. Indian millet, and millet- 
sprays are supplied for the waxbills and small ornamental finches. 
In the outdoor fljii^hts I have food tables, upon which I 
place the food-boxes; these I protect by small wood framed 

'^^^y^/y-'/ '\^v\\^,. 

Food Shelter on Outside Table. 

tvlass shelters — the whole front is open, and, the back being 
srlass. the birds have unrestricted light for feeding. 

I also have a large tray on a table in which 1 sow oats 
and all the different seeds, and the birds are very fond of this. 

On another table I have a wooden box in which I keep 
\vater. and in it place groundsel, chickweed and other greenfood. 

I scatter in the aviary fine hay and small feathers 
(cliickens') for nest material. 

Since the above was written a few days have elapsed, and, 
in spite of cold winds and constant rain, the little baby Avadavats 
are doing very well. 

Notes on Jungle and other Wild Life. 

By Dr. Casey A. Wood. M.B.O.U. 

{Continued jrom page 141). 

Once u'pon a time — I use this phrase because it seems 
appro{)riate to what follows — I was greatly interested in the 

Notes on Jungle and Other Wild Life. 159 

folklore and fairy-tales (if one can differentiate the two) of the 
(Suianese Indians, and even thoiiy;'ht of publishing an account of 
certain minor aspects of the subject, the details of which I would 
not weary you with for the world; but I abandoned tne scheme, 
ii for no other reason than that a very observant, diligent and 
painstaking scholar (for many years resident magistrate in the 
interior) has practically covered the ground. If you wish to 
read the remarkable and fascinating pages of this truly scientific 
Hans Christian Andersen, write to the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, Washington. D.C.. for Dr. Walter E. Roth's 
" Inquiry into the Animism and Folk-Lore of the Guiana 
Indians." For instance, this is How the Deer got his Hoofs 
(p 212): — 

" The Deer met the Turtle one day. while cleaning his 
hoofs — for in those days turtles wore hoofs and the deer had 
claws — and said : ' My friend, you have nice sandals. (Sandals 
are still commonly worn in the hinterland of Guiana). Let us 
have a trial of them." The Turtle, who was very proud of his 
feet, said: ' Certainly. Why not?' and handed them over, 
receiving in exchange the Deer's nails. When the 1 Jeer put on 
the hoofs, he found he could walk ever so much quicker than 
before, and trotted off. The poor Turtle, however, found his 
progress impeded, and stood still, waiting" every minute for the 
Deer to return, but he never did." Dr. Roth adds that among 
certain tribes, the head of a turtle is the ' amulet ' for hunting- 
deer. Well, I should imagine it well might be! 

Likev.-ise this is how some of the South American birds 
obtained their remarkable colours (tale No. 142 and notes): — 

Once there was war among the Spirits above the cloud^ 
oT \vliich the Kiskadee (Lanius sulphuratus, a very common an) 
very pretty bird, reminding one somewhat of our meadow-lark), 
though a vaHant little bird, greatly disliked, and bandaged his 
head with white cotton, pretending to be sick, but being detected, sentenced to wear it constantly. 

The Trumpeter Bird (Psophia crepitans) and the King- 
fisher quarrelled over the spoil (of the war) and knocked each 
other into the ashes. The former arose with patches of grey, 
while the other became grey all over. The Owl discovered 
among the spoils a package done up with great care, which he 

i6o Notes on Jungle and Other Wild Life. 

found contained Darkness only; he has never been able since 
to endure the light of day." 

There are over two hundred such tales illustrating everv 
phase of life among the Indians of this region. 

In the same volume is the legend of that wonder-spot, the 
celebrated Kaietur Fall, which we hope soon to explore. It is 
given in the words of Barrington Brown, its discoverer : - 
" Once upon a time there was a large village above the fall, 
situated on the little savanna (grassy plain), amongst cue inhabi- 
tants of which was an old Indian, who had arrived at that period 
of human existence when his life had become a burden to himself 
and a trouble to his relatives. Amongst other duties, there 
devolved upon the latter the tedious one of extracting the jiggers 
from his toes which accumulated there day by day. These 
duties becoming irksome at least, it was arranged that the 
old man should be assisted on his way to his long home, that 
spirit-land lying two-days' journey beyond the setting sun. 
He was accordingly transferred, with his pegall (basket) of 
worldly goods, from his house to a woodskin (boat) on the 
river above the head of the great fall, and launched forth upon 
the stream. The silent flood bore him to its brink, where the 
rushing waters received him in their deadly grasp, bearing" his 
enfeebled body down to its watery grave in the basin below. 
Not long after, strange to relate, his woodskin appeared in the 
form of a pointed rock, which to this day is seen not far from 
our lower barometer station ; while on the sloping mass of 
talus to the west of the basin, a huge square rock is said to be 
his petrified pegall. Thus has the fall been named Kaietur 
(Old Man's Fall) in memory of the victim of this trag'ic event." 

One more tale and we shall leave the realm of Indian 
fancy. I choose it because my friend Mr. John Ogilvie, who 
has lived among the Indians of the Guianas for twenty-five 
years, showed me how to make and solve the puzzle. In spite 
of the excellent cut (page i8o) in Roth's I can assure you it 
is not as easily solved as one might think. If I haven't forgot- 
ten how to do it, when next we meet, I shall be glad to show 
you. This is the story: — " If an Indian loses his way in the 
forest, the (Evil) Spirit is the cause. The Caribs, however, 
know how to circumvent the latter, by making a string puzzle, 
which is left on the pathway; the object of this puzzle consists 

Notes oil Jungle and Other Wild Life. i6i 

in removing", without cutting or breaking, an endless string from 
off two sticks upon which it has been placed. The Spirit 
coming along sees the puzzle, starts examining" it. and tries to 
get the string" off; indeed, so engrossed does he become that 
he forgets all about the wanderer, who is now free to find the 
road again." 

Every visitor to this region should extend his journey 
to Dutch Guiana or Surinam as it was originally, and is now 
officially called. It exhibits a curious mixture of Dutch 
modernity, and the relics of slave barbarism not to be seen 
elsewhere. Surinam was colonized by Lord Willoughby, 

Governor of Piarbados in 1665, and became a flourishing" plant- 
ation within a few years. It was not until more than a century 
afterwards that the British acquired their present holdings on 
the mainland. These dry facts are, however, subsidiary to 
the one I am about to mention, and especially ought it to be 
known to persons like myself, whose folk for many generations 
before the British occupation lived on Long Island. In 

1667 that parcel of land and " some waste territory adjoining," 
were by the terms of the Peace of Breda prartically traded by 
Holland for Surinam. Probably you and I would have done 
the same thing, because the British possession was apparently 
of more value than the bare farmer-fisherland along the Sound! 
Then, again, Surinam was next door to other Dutch colonies 
while New Amsterdam was only an isolated gateway to hostile 
territory; better let it go, and take something of actual value 
v.hile the taking was good. Still, somehow or other the 
Dutch guessed wrong, because I am informed that I could buy 
pretty nearly all Surinam for the present value placed on those 
600 acres on Long Island which, somewhere around 1676, were 
apportioned to my patentee ancestors Edmond and Josian Wood. 

Quite a library of books and pamphlets resulted, as you 
know, from this provision of the Breda treaty, not tne least 
interesting of which is one, a broadside by an English planter 
of Surinam, protesting in fervid terms against being turned over 
to the tender mercies of Holland; indeed Barbados, Virginia, 
and several other colonies were the gainers by immigration from 
Surinam after its surrender to the new Masters, the Dutch 
meantime trying to discourage this exodus, and especiall/ of 

i62 Notes on Juui^lc and Other Wild Life. 

those planters alnmdaiitly su|)i)licd with slaves — most valuable 

Speakint;" of slaves, it will be remembered that it was here 
in British Guiana that the Anti-Slavery Society (first established 
in Enj^iand about 1873) found their most effective appeal, in the 
person of a protagonist of our John Brown. There had already 
been several uprisings of enslaved Africans in other colonies, 
and the Guiana whites — few in number — were naturally appre- 
hensive of another on their own plantations. In the year 1823 
these fears were realized, for the blacks rose in rebellion against 
their white owners. Th Rev. John Smith, an English 

missionary, was accused of encouraging the uprising, which was 
soon suppressed, and a number of the slaves hanged. The 
charges against Smith were probably not true, although he was 
opposed to slavery and hoped for its abolition. 

Whatever the technical merits or demerits of the case 
may have been, he w^as arrested in a most brutal manner and, 
while ill of a serious disease, was thrown into prison and 
charged with being a chief cause of the negro insurrection, or 
that at least he " did promote, as far is in him lay, discontent 
and dissatisfaction in the minds of the negro-slaves." lie was 
found guilty of the charge and sentenced to be hanged, but 
before the order of the Court could be carried out the 
Demerara Martyr " died in the common iail. Smith's death 
proved of greater value to the cause of emancipation than all 
his previous efforts to free the enslaved. The circumstances 
of his arrest, trial and death were published through England, 
and the discussion and agitation that followed contributed not a 
Httle to the passage of an Act (August j8, 1833) abolishing 
slavery in every British possession. 

Under the caption " The Trail to Kaietur, the Great 
South American Falls, \^22 feet high, and 400 feet wide," Eleanor 
Beers Lestrade writes for Scribncrs Magazine, page 562 (about 
December) 1920, one of the best descriptions of this world- 
wonder that 1 have read. The article is illustrated by 
photographs taken by the author which give a better idea of the 
fall and cataracts than many of the larger pictures that one finds 
in the shops here. Not that any picture, great or small, can 
do more than suggest the awful majesty of Kaietur ! 

Notes on Jungle and Other Wild Life. 163 

Mrs. Lestrade says that until her trip in the Spring of 
1920, no American woman had ever seen the Falls, and that it 
had not been visited by more than a hundred white men. and at 
tlie most by ten white women. These figures have not been 
much increased to the present date. 

The great fall (four times as high as Niagara) is on the 
Potaro River, a branch of the Essequibo, about 200 miles in the 
interior of British Guiana and less than five degrees from the 
equator. The only feasible plan for reaching it is by means of 
rest houses and other provisions made by the firm of Sprostons, 
Limited, who control most of the transportation facilities. I 
wish I had space and time to describe the journey by forest, 
mountain and river; as it is, you will find full accounts in the 
" literature " fvumished by Sprostons as well as by the Geo- 
graphic Magazine and by recent work on the colony. I will 
only say that any (or woman) in good health and reasonable 
vigour may easily undertake the four 7-walks because not only 
are the forest trails well kept, but the mountain paths are shaded 
all the way by the evergreen jungle. It is always cool in the 
depths of the tropical bush. As for mosquitos, dangerous 
snakes, jaguars, hostile Indians — well, there are not and 
probably never were any ! An ordinary expedition occupies 
less than a fortnight, and five of us made the journey at a cost 
of less than $200 each; not bad when one remembers that after 
we left the last portage, to which we were brought by a steam 
launch, our human outfit included fourteen (mostly Indians) 
paddlers, bearers and other servants. All our provisions, 
sleeping material, etc., had to be carried on the backs of bearers 
around several cataracts, and several miles over a mountain 
trail to reach the elevated plateau whence the Potaro plunges 
into the Kaietur gorge. 

My four compagnons de voyage were all — whatever else 
Uiey may have been in life — sincere and eager worshippers at 
Nature's o])en slirine," and I think we all profited much from 
the discussions prompted by the flora and fauna seen by the 
wav. The names of my travel friends were Dr. Harold 
("\^or(.\. of ( )malia, Xeb., Major Chester Davis, U.S. Consul for 
-ritish (juiana. Major F. C. Shorey, of Montreal, and Mr. E. 
C Freeland, Chemist to Plantation Uitvlugt, one of the largest 
sugar estates in the colony. 

164 Happenings in Our Aviaries. 

Happenings in Our Aviaries. 

By Dr. E. Sprawson. 

The following happenings in our breeding aviary are 
forwarded, as they may possibly be of some little interest to 
others : 

Zebra Finches {Tacniopygia castanotis) : Two pairs 
have been laying and sitting, but have not yet brought anything 

FiREFiNCPiES (Estrilda 7nininia) have brought forth one 
lusty youngster who is now commencing to show male coloura- 
tion. The parents now have two more young in the nest. I 
am not quite sure that the two parents are of the same species, 
as the male which I purchased last year in immature plumage 
has never shown any white dots on his sides; he was in with a 
consignment of Senegal birds and many other ordinary Fire- 
fmches, so I presume this is merely a slight variation from the 
normal — but would be glad to know. 

RuFous-TAiLED Grassfinches (Bathilda ruficauda) have 
four very fine and now quite independent young, and the parents 
are now sitting again. These birds nested several times both 
in 1920 and 1921 — always in the open in a bush or creeper, and 
though each year they had one or more young leave the nest 
they never reached the age of independence — rains always soaked 
the nest or drowned the young. This year they nested in a 
box, and in spite of the wet have succeeded; their second nest 
they began in a rose busli, so I pulled it down and they have 
again gone to a box. 

GouLDiAN Finches (Poepliila goiildiae): We have two 
pairs of these — Black-headed, and at the moment both pairs have 
young, four and six days old respectively; we have bred these 
birds to maturity on three previous years — indeed, one of the 
hens which has young now we bred here last year. 

Pectoral Finches {Miinia pccturaJ'is) : We recently 
acquired a pair of these; once before we had young up to ten 
days old, but it was too late in the year for complete success. 
Several males that we have had have all, when courting, had the 
same habit of collecting all the small white stones they could 
fmd in the aviary, for what purpose it is somewhat difficult to 




h- ( 


Happenings in Our Aviaries. 165 

imagine; our first knowledge of this was in 1914 when we found 
some dozen or more small white stones the size of a pea on the 
top of an Avadavat's nest. One wondered who the practical 
joker was, and often afterwards used to see the male pectoral 
carrying similar stones about the aviary. 

We were unfortunate enough in the very early part of 
this year to lose our last hen Parrot Finch — one we had bred 
in 1919, and a very fine bird — otherwise we, or rather my wife, 
in my absence abroad, had bred one or more each year for five 
years in succession — nice birds, easy to breed, but not easy to 
sex with certainty. 

A male Cordon Bleu {EstrUda phocnicotis) paired with a 
hen Cuban hlnch {Phonipara canora) this year, and had two 
nests, but the eggs have proved infertile. The rain and cold 
killed the Cordon Bleu about a fortnight ago, so they won't 
have another chance, but anyway one is not particularly fond 
of hybrids. 

We have a pair of birds we are not quite certain of the 
name of — now I think going to nest; we got them from Mr. 
Castang about two months or more ago. I think he called 
them Bearded Seedeaters, or South African Green Singing 
finches — they are certainly larger and finer than the ordinary 
Green Singingfinch, and are easily sexed; the picture in Butler's 
book of the Green Singingfinch is a very good representation of 
the male, though not quite a deep enough yellow, but what is 
its real name ? 

A relative brought me over about a fortnight ago four 
Sydney Waxbills — extremely fit — we turned them out thinking 
we were going to have some fine weather, but in spite of the rain 
and cold since then they are as fit as ever. 

There are thirty-three birds, exclusive of young, in this 

The Breeding of the Crimson-winged Parraheet. 

By the Marquis of Tavistock. 

In a former article I described a successful experiment in 
wintering cock Crimson-wings at liberty. Three birds were 

i66 Breeding uf Cntnsun-ivinged Farrakeet. 

actually released, but one proved too spiteful and had to be 
got rid of. The remaining two were caught up at tne begin- 
ning of March and provided with mates in different aviaries. 
One of the females was a young bird, imported last autumn, 
jMul I was not very surprised that she did not come into breeding 
condition, but moulted early in the summer instead, without, I 
am glad to say, donning male attire, after the all too common 
custom of innnature " hens " of this species. The other 1 
had had two years. The first summer she laid several eggs, 
but entirely refused to sit or look at a nest-box. Last year 
she did not even lay. 

This year, acting on the advice of a friend in Australia, 
1 provded her with a new type of nest. According to my 
friend. Crimson-wings in their native haunts frequently enter a 
hole in a tree thirty or forty feet up, but the actual nest is usually 
almost on a level with the ground, the bird descending to the 
very bottom of the hollow interior. I therefore obtained a 
section of a hollow tree trunk about 6ft. in length, set it up on 
end, made the inside climbable with a strip of wire netting, 
fixed a scooped-out block of wood on the bottom for tne actual 
nest, fastened a " lid " on the top and made the entrance hole 
immediately beneath the lid, with a piece of cork bark under it 
for the birds to cling to. 

It might be wise, at this ])oint, to caution readers against 
following the example of an aviculturist who imitated my nest 
hut forgot my warning about the climbable interior. x xi& result 
was that the hen's first entrance of the log was also her last, for 
she perished of starvation at the bottom ! 

The new home fortunately met with the Crimson-wings' 
approval. The cock, who worried very little at the Iolo of his 
liberty, soon began to examine it, and condescended to that 
brief, lukewarm and reluctant friendship with his wife, which in 
Crimson-wing circles seems to be the nearest approach to 
married love. By the end of April the hen was also visiting 
the log, and in the first days of May she began to sit and was 
very seldom seen. At the end of the month a faint squeak- 

ing announced the arrival of a young one, and the cock began 
to spend a good deal of time inside the nest, even roosting 
there now and then. About the middle of July the youngster 
emerged, and an examination of the log revealed one addled 

A Seeker after Bird Marts. 167 

et^i^. The youni^ bird was well feathered and well grown, but 
for some reason seemed extremely weak and hardly able to 
walk or fly. It is possible that it injured itself in its first use 
of its wini^s. I did not think it would li\e. but latner to my 
surprise it has improved steadily. At the time of writin,^ 
( .-\u,L;nst; 4th) it can walk well, climb very fairly, and is begin- 
ning;" to fly with increasing strength, and cannot very readily 
1 e distinguished from its mother. The parents still seem fond 
of it, although they are in full moult; indeed the old cock is 
much fonder of liis child than of his wife, for he never attempts 
:o hurt the former, while the latter he chivies and bullies with 
renewed zest ; one would expect her to be glad when I turn 
him out again, but last year she rather missed him and was 
cjuite unhappy — there is no accounting for tastes, either in man 
or bird ! 


A Seeher after Bird Marts. 

By Mrs. U. Dickinson. 

I wonder if anyone shares my hobby, so amusing and 
instructive to myself, and so distressing and irksome to my 
companions, of setting out, immediately that one arrives in a 
new country, or one's ship touches briefly at a hitherto unknown 
port, in search of the Bird Shops. 

This apparently harmless occupation takes an astonishing- 
hold on you, as you develop a strange skill and secret satisfaction 
in learning how to meet and overcome the reluctance of hotel 
authorities, chief stewards, butchers, etc., on ships, railway 
employees, and one's travelling companions, to housing, putting 
up with, carrying about, and finding rare foods for, the extra- 
ordinary collection you joyfully bring from the birdshops. 

It is great fun, for you never know whether you will find 
that there is no such thing as a bird shop, and that birds are 
even seldom offered in the market places, or that there is a 
whole " Street of the Birdsellers," as we found in Calcutta, 
where the variety of birds, and the noise, was so confusing that 
I feel sure I missed the best ones, through being dazed and 
exhausted with choosing. There at least eight merchants 

were clamouring for your notice, thrusting reluctant parrakeets. 

i68 A Seeker after Bird Marts. 

liandciiffed on to minute swings, in your face, dragg'ini^- birds, 
unknown to fame, out by claw for inspection, thrustini^ aside 
birds you were choosing- with difficuhy, and making the amateur 
Hindustani speaker feel thoroughly ill at ease. 

My usual impression is that a really successful Ijird mart, 
or shop, must be in close proximity to coal wharfs, or at least 
have a faint aureole of coal dust round it. 

In Colombo, in Marseilles, in Port Said, this peculiarity 
l)revailed, or if not coal dust, or sand, a strange atmosphere 
I)ervaded, if not seen, often strongly felt on a hot day. In 
any case the locality is remote and grimy. 

At Port Said I found only some Manunoth Crested Larks, 
in dozens, whereas I had hoped for some rare African Finches, 
or Weavers to make up the job lot of Weavers hastily gathered 
in Marseilles, said to be the last coming in, as it was the early 
days of the war. I took them out East, and was greatly 
mystified by them until they began to come into colour, as I 
had no books of reference till later. I believe it is better to 
go in for this sport in considerable ignorance. 

The thrills I experienced in Bombay when I was offered 
Rangoon Bulbuls," which were delightful and taking crested 
birds — so handsome in glossy black and chestnut-red and when 
they turn out to be Buntings {Melophus mclanictcrus), caught 
locally, they are none the less delightful. This is a showy, 
graceful bird in a big aviary. 

The same man offered me " Basra Bulbuls," which 
doubtless came from the nearest cold climate in India. 

In Agra, they sold me " Nepali Shamas," intelligent, 
beautiful birds, but proving to be Black-headed Sibias ! They 
were the best of pals and the sweetest birds I have kept, accom- 
panied Ijy a " Thrush," said to come from some obscure 
province, which was in reality a rather dingy, slatey, mottled 
Babbler, who became the unfailing Clown and Court Fool of 
every cage or aviary he lived in. They offered me two price- 
less birds called " The Sun " and " The Moon," so talented 
and rare that I hesitated at asking their price, and. noticing that 
" The Moon." was in a species of fit. or eclipse, I pleaded 
poverty, and turned to a lovely Scimitar Babbler, but failed to 
buy him. I think the others were really Pied Mynahs 

Bird Notes. 

From life hy H. Goodchild. 

Black-headed Sibia. 
( Malacias cai)istrata). 

A Seeker after Bird Marts. 169 

(Sturnopastor contra), but being quite new to my eye, and the 
owner praising them so much, I thought them something beyond 
mortal ken. Native bird-sellers think very highly of these 
birds, and train them to a wonderful state of intelligence and 
tameness. I found them rather delicate and bad travellers, 
but clever. 

These were all at the " Fine Art and Animal Emporium " 
at Agra, the account of which would fill volumes, and the 
advertisement of which was absolutely unique, but, although 
it?, promoters guaranteed to provide Giraffes, Lions, etc., I 
cannot recall any symptoms of " Fine Art " about it. I was 
guided to it from a slum street in Agra, and went through 
such an alarming laybrinth of tiny alleys and precipitous stairs, 
up and down, that I feel sure the cages must have been moved 
in and out through the windows, which, I think, were in the 
rcof ! ! As I was creeping through the narrow door, a terrific 
looking, enormous dog nearly knocked me down, and made the 
stifling air vibrate with its furious barking. He was a Thibetan 
Mastiff, bred in the monastries of their remote hills, as his 
owner remarked, when full grown " will grow as an ass, as 
liis father was," or in other words, as big as a donkey. 

Colombo was my easiest hunting ground for a long time. 
" Leo," the owner of that bird shop, had such a variety and 
such nice things — lovely Red P>uit-eating Parrots, the most 
gentle and pathetic of fowls, of which he would only sell pairs, 
as single ones pined immediately. Alas ! I could not make 
them thrive, even in our damp, hot climate; perhaps they need 
? dry climate really. 

Cages of delightful young Painted Barbets greeteu you, 
clamouring for a feed, their absurd beaks agape, stiff Httle 
whiskers bristling with excitement, and probably several of 
them with the strange sort of Bagpipes of Skin, peculiar to 
their necks, inflated to produce their extraordinary and horribly 
noisy cry ; one never notices that the neck has anything unusual 
about it until they begin their call by inflating it. I was very 
fond of these absurd and prettily coloured little Barbets 
iXantholacma-hacmatoccphala). " Leo " recommended them 
to buyers, as having " a very pretty whistle." Heavens ! what 
appalling taste ! We used to buy, by the dozen, miserable tiny 
Avadavatish birds, from the hundreds huddled together, where 

170 A Seeker after ll'ird Marts. 

tliey were out of colour, viz : entirely without feathers except 
tor a few stumps ou their heads, for the fun of seeing what 
they turned into, when healthy conditions hastened their moult. 

Alas! those happy days came to a sad end. for ' Leo " 
was tactless enoui^h to get shot, when in the front of a very 
unsettled mob in the Ceylon riots, and that, doubtless by 
mistake, for I cannot believe he could have been a seditious 
character — he used to apologise so prettily when his young- 
bear's chain got too loose and it kept you imprisoned in a corner 
of the shop, while he was haggling with a neighbour outside. 
I was far out in the country, and his widow failed to let me know 
when she had a sale, and the stock was practically given away, 
1 hear. 

My most difficult marts were, I think, in Java and 
Bangalore. In the latter the old man sometimes refused to 
sell to me, but he did not often have uncommon things, I think ; 
I got a nice ( ireen Oriole from him, which, alas! escaped after 
■■{ week, and many Red-whiskered Bulbuls {Otucompsa jocosa). 
l)ut his mind was always on Fighting Quails — he was a bad 
business man ! 

In Java you have to drive round and find the birds, which 
merchants carry, strung in stacks of cages, from each end of a 
bamboo shoulder pingal, and offer for sale in the streets, moving 
along constantly. I never got anyone in Batavia or Bandoeing 
to divulge where these bird-sellers collect when in repose, but 
they spend all day running with a crab-like gait, and to my mind 
always away from the would-be buyer. I saw four kinds of 
young Mynahs. half-grown, together in a tiny cage, varying 
from the common browny-black one. to the beautiful Java pure 
white Mynah. with black bars on the wings {(iraeulit^iea 
melauoptera), the intermediates being real crossbreds of streaky 
greys and unsettled colourings. T found the white one a 
(k'liglitful pet. 

1 was buying a job lot of some smallish greeny " jungle 
liirrls, with a pretty orange streak on the brows and cheeks, 
apparently Bulbul relatives, which the man said he would let 
nie hive the lot (7) at the price of one. as he was tired of them, 
when, feeling a strange bumbling on my feet. I discovered tw'o 
yoimg Ilornbills poking and prying (when they could balance 
their heads into a useable ])osition) round my shoes — he 

A Seeker after Bird Marts. iy\ 

explained that they hked to be loose when he was still. Eacli 
beak was as long as a candle box! and they were being Lrotied 
about in a minute cage, at the bottom of a stack of eight oi 
ten other cages. Some instinct prompted me not to buy these, 
which was lucky, as 1 should have had to carry them off on some 
months of travelling, which fate decreed immediately after, and 
they look so immobile, and I feel sure eat vast amounts of 
possibly tmattainable fruits. 

My husband saw these Hornbills several times in Sumatra, 
being carried like a parcel in a small sling of grass maiLUig with 
a vast beak sticking out on one side, and tiny wedge of tail on 
the other, but with what motive he never found out ; was it for 
ornament? Surely not for food! ! Instead of the Hornbids 
1 bought a big wdiistling olive green bird, about the size of a 
Ivfissel Thrush, which I since found was a Bulbul {Tracnycomus 
ochroeepliaius), and 1 heard it wild several times in Sumatra; 
its note is so extraordinary, with a thrilling, penetrating, but 
beautiful tone, quite overpowering in a room, and 1 hear that 
the full song is gorgeous. They command big prices as cage 
birds in Java and Singapore. I wonder if this bird comes on 
to the English market at all ? They w^ould be very lovely to 
li-.ten to in a big aviary. Mine was distressingly wild until I 
put him in with my job lot of jungly birds, when he calmed 
down at once. 

Would not some of my fellow-members kindly write of 
tpcir adventures and successes during remote bird shop explora- 
tion ? It would be so interestinti'. 


Records of Birds which have Bred in Captivity. 

By Dr. E. Hopkinson, U.S.O., M.A., M.B., F,Z.S., etc. 

Some years back I compiled a Hst of the records of birds 
which have been bred in captivity; this appeared in Bird Notes 
in 1918 and 1919. 

Here I have arranged the PASSERIFORMES records in 
lWO lists to supply the information in a shorter and more con- 
venient form, by leaving the references out, as for those 
interested they are available in the original account. 

172 Records of IVirds Bred in Capik'ify. 

The first list contains the records which 1 consider sufficient 
to establish entirely the event recorded; the second the more 
doubtful or incomplete records, which require amplihcation, 
veritication or further details. From a practical point of view 
ihe birds in List i may be considered to have certainly been bred; 
those in List 2, probably or in some cases possibly. 

For the general plan and the original references, etc.. sec 
Bird Notes, 1918. 57 ct seq. 

The numbers before the names in list i are those used in 
the original list. A few new records (unnumbered) and refer- 
ences have been added, though these are by no means complete 
or include all the recent successes. 

When an entry is followed by the word " abroad " only, 
■'" means that I know no British record. 

In list 2 I give shortly whatever reference appeared 
originally; in list i only new references are given, the absence 
of any addition to the name indicating that the breeding of the 
species concerned is established by the references given in the 
original list. 

Latin names are not used for the well-known species. 

I hope that those who can will assist with corrections and 


P.S. — The following are extracts from a letter from Mr. 
Page, giving details and additions which I unfortunately received 
too late to incorporate in the Lists. I therefore give them 
here with references to this page under the different entries. 

I hope others will follow this good example and supply 
further details and especially references, that is. where recorded, 
date, breeder's name, etc., so that the present double and 
incomplete list may be converted into a complete and single 
one, containing" sufficient dated references to published 
records. — E.H. 

(A) " I see you have no mention of HIMALAYAN SISKIN 
(spinoides) x CANARY. Dr. Scott bred this cross in 1915, and I have some 
ol' the living hybrids in my aviary at the present time." W.T.P. 

(Where is the record? E.H. A like question needs answering in 
many other places). 

(B) " Re 134. BENGALESE Hybrids. I think I have seen living 
specimens at L.C.B.A. Shows of all of them As regards 

Records uf Birds Bred in Captivity. 173 

i'.liN(;ALESE X NUTMEG FINCH, thore has been more than one note 

al)out it in B.N Henstock, our pubhsher, bred it first, and two 

of the hybrids hved for quite a few years in my aviaries." W.T.P. 

(C) " Re 17b. Cissopsis Icveriana. My record IS the Zoo one. I 
saw the young- 1:)ird on tlie wing and finding insects . . . for itself." W.T.P. 

(D) " Re 856. So far as I know frontalis has not been bred in 
luigland : sijiiainifroiis lias lieen l)rcd by several, Teschemaker first." W.T.P. 

(E) •' GOLDFINCH and SISKIN Hybrids." (List 2), " I have seen 
all these at the large Bird Shows." W.T.P." 

(F) " Spiiiiis irtcricus x CANARY. I have seen this hybrid, but 
have no detail : — not bred by a member of the F.B.C." W.T.P. 

(G) " LINNET X CUT-THROAT. I saw the hybrid, but we refused 
a medal for it. as there was so little observed data." W.T.P. 

cross) " has been bred in England by Suggitt (first) and myself later." W.T.P. 

(I) The " CAPE CANARY (S. canicollis) has been bred." W.T.P. 
(J) " ZEBRA WAXBILL x AVADAVAT is authentic. It was bred 
by Dr. Scott .... I have a skin of one of them." W.T.P. 



which may be considered complete. 

GREENFINCH. Fairly frequently. And Hybrids. 

GREENFINCH x HIMALAYAN SISKIN. Hypacanthis spinoidcs. 
teste Shore Baily, A.M. 1919, 92. 
x MEXICAN ROSEFINCH, Carpodacus mexicanus 
206, 256; 1917, Insets, pp 22, 31; 1918, 123. 




■ hybrid X GREENFINCH. 


6 YELLOW-BELLIED GROSBEAK, Pheucticus chrvsogaster. 


8. BLACK-HEADED GROSBEAK, Zamelodia melanoccphala. 


TROPICAL SEED-FINCH, Oryzobonis torridns. 
Abroad. Holland. Blaauw. See A.M. 1918, 40 

10. WHITE-THROATED FINCH. SporophUa albi'rvln-. 


11. GREY FINCFI, Sp. grisea. 

174 Records of Hirds Hrcd in Caf'fn'ity. 

. l':ULIiR'S FINCH, Sp. snpcrciliaris. Abroad. 

13. BLACK-HEADED Sl^ERMOPHILA, Sp. inclaiwccpliala. Abroad. 


15. liLACK SEED-FLNCFL Melopyrrlia nigra. 

16. OLIVE CUBA FINCH. Euethia oUvacca. 

17. LITTLE FINCH, E. pusilla. 

18. CUBA FINCH, E. canora. 

19. DUSKY FINCH, E. bicolor. 


And Hybrids. 
RED C. 'x RED-CRESTED C. (Incomplete, " one deformed young- 
one lived seven weeks ") 


And Hybrids. 

X GREENFINCH. Page, and I think a more recent 

X CANARY. Ditto. 

And Hybrids. 

A recent record: Reeve (after 1907); see B.N. 1907, 174: and A.M. 
1911, 349; (One exhibited at the L.C.B.A. Show, 1910. was almost 
certainly wild-caught). 

And Hybrids. 
X TWITE, Scotland 1919; teste A. Silver, A.M. 1919, 13 

j;j. RED SISKIN. Spiuiis citcullatus. 
And Hybrids. 

BLACK-HEADED SISKIN. .?. ictcrkiis. 
And Hybrids 

*33. HIMALAYAN SISKIN. Hypacantliis spiiwides. 
And Ilvbrids. 
HIMALAYAN SISKIN x CANARY. See above P.S., A. page 172. 
IHAIM.AYA^T SISKIN y GREliNFINCH. Bright. 1916. See B.N. 
1916, 183. This cross also reported the reverse way, B.N. 1917, 195. 

Records of Birds Bred in Captivity. 175 

see B.N. 1917, 195. 
* In the records under 33 it is specifically stated that they refer to 
spinoidcs, but I think that in some other records this bird and the Sikhim 
Siskin, Spinus tibctaniis have been confused. 

30. SIKHIM SISKIN, Spinus tibetauus. (? if the record (Teschemakerj 
under HIMALAYAN SISKIN, B.N. 1918, p. 95, does not properly 
refer to .?. tibctanus). 


37. REDPOLL, (fuller record desirable). 
And Hybrids. 
REDPOLL X TWITE. See A.M. 1919, 12. " bred in London. 

3S. DESERT BULLFINCH, Erythrospisa githai^iiiea amantium. 
And Hybrids. 
DESERT BULLFINCH x CANARY. Abroad see Despott, Ibis, 1917, 
303. (in Malta about 1916). 

■if). LESSER ROCK-SPARROW, Petronia dcntata. Abroad. 

4J. CINNAMON SPARROW, Passer ciunamomeus. 

And Hybrids 

4-1. GREY-HEADED SPARROW. (Probably P. griseus, the commonh 
imported \V. African species). 
Hybrid record only. 

YELLOW^ SPARROW\ P. luteits. 
And Hybrids. 

4I GOLDEN SPARROW, P. enchlorus. Abroad. 

And Hybrids. 

40 ANGOLA STN(JNG FINCH, PoUospisa ansohvsis 
And Hybrids. 

x ST. HELENA SEED-EATER. First breed^r 
Chawner, 1916. F.B.C. medal See B N. 1917! 
p. 72. (N.B. in the Feb. pink inset the parentage 
is given the reverse way — an error). 

50 GREY SINGING FINCH, Poliospica leucopygia. 

51. CAPE CANARY, .Scrinus canicolUs. (no records found) 
But Flybrids, ^' 


52. SULPHUR SEED-EATER, 6-. snlphuratiis. 

176 Records of Birds Bred in Captivity. 

And llvhrids. 
Sin.l'HUR S. X WHlTlvTHROATliD SliLD-EATEK. S. albigularis 

53. ST. HELl':Ny\ .SEliD-l':ATER, S. flaviventris. 
And Hybrids. 

ST. h1':e1':na seed-eater x canary. 

54 (.r1':i-:n singing finch. 

56. CANARY. 

And Hybrids. 

Of the above some are commonly bred and all the records, I think, 
are reliable. 

Of the three following one cannot think the same : 
Orange Bishop X Canary, 
Bengalese x Canary, 
Natal Zostcrops x Canary, 
(See note, B.N. 1918, 139). 

And Hybrids, 

58. ARGENTINE SAFFRON FINCH, Sycalis pelzelni. 


And Hybrids. 

6^ MEXICAN ROSEFINCH, C. mexicanus. 

63A PINK-BROWED ROSEFINCH, C. rJwdopephis (or perhaps 

6j CROSSBILL. A record in 1910. See A. Silver, A.M. 1911, 109. 

And Hybrids. 
BULLFINCH x GOLDFINCH, 1915. White. See Cage-birds, Nov. 
20, 1915, reprinted May 31, 1919. 

66. PiNh: (;rosbeak. 


(Spmoides) X CANARY." See P.S. (A), page 172. 

Records of Birds Bred in Captivity. 177 


b8. YELLOWHAMMER (1 think I have heard of success, but have no 

70. MOORISH HOUSE-BUNTING, FringiUaria saharae. 

■2. BLACK-THROATED BUNTING, Spiza amcricana. 

72- SNOW-BIRD, Jiinco hiemalis. 

74. WHITE-CROWNED SONG-SPARROW, Zonotnchia Iciicoplirys. 
Hybrid record only. 

75. CHINGOLO SONG-SPARROW, Brachyspisa pileata. 


And Hybrids. 

X CANARY. Abroad. 


78. VARIED BUNTING. Abroad. 

RAINBOW BUNTING, Fasserina leclancheri. Mayer in France. 
See B.N. 1920, 254. 

79. TOWHEE, Pipilo erythrophthalmus. Abroad. 

80 ORCHARD FINCH, Phrygilus friUiceti. 

82. PILEATED FINCH, Corypkospingus pileatus. 


84. RED-CRESTED CARDINAL, Paroaria cucuUata. 
And Hybrids 


85. POPE. P. larvata. 

86 GREEN CARDINAL. Gtibernatrix cristata. 

{To be continued). 

Rearing of Tataupa Tinamous. 

In L'OISEAU for June 1922, Mons. P. Vendrau, gives an interesting 
account of this species reproducing its kind in captivity, and the followng is 
an abridged account of same. — Ed. B.N. 

In 1921 my breeding pair of this species after wintering in an open-air 
covered aviary, commenced nesting operations — laying at irregular periods 

17'*^ Rcariiii^ ol TaUntj-'a Tiiiauioiis. 

from April iitl: to JStli, Hic tirsl of these eggs was broken and the remainder 
jiiii under a l)antam, wlio desertecL 

Tlie hen Tinaniou again laid — eggs being laid on Ma)' I2th. i6th and 
jjncl. and on Mav 25th she was incubating a clutch of four eggs — being dis- 
turbed she deserted and the eggs were given to a l)antam — three were hatched 
out, one egg being clear- — the l)antam was inattentive and cruslied tlie 
chicks beneath her. 

On May 29th and June 3rd L found two more broken eggs, so I 
modified the aviary, making a retreat to which they could go unseen, though 
I was able to watch them unnoticed. Subsecjuently I saw the hen Tinamou 
construct a nest of grass and feathers — I saw the first egg on June 9th and 
others were laid on the uth, 15th. and i8th respectively. On the latter 
date she was incubating closely, only leaving her eggs for food — before leav- 
ing she completely covered the egg.s — the male took no jiart in incubation. 

On the morning of July 8th I saw some egg shells outside the nest and 
n little black head showed beneath its mother — I did not disturb them, but in 
the evening I saw her in the aviary with three chicks — she had left the nest 
about four hours, still leaving two eggs in the nest — the fifth egg being laid, 
I believe, about June 20th, after incubation had commenced. The following 
day I saw the hen chasing her mate and violently pecking him about the 
head — I immediately caught her up and put her and the three chicks into a 
small inner aviary. 

Although the two eggs she left in the nest were ciuite cold I put them 
under a bantam, and, on July loth I found a young chick under the bantam, 
the other egg being clear — I put the chick with the hen Tinamou, who took 
to it at once — she reared all four, they arc very fine and vigorous birds. 
The young Tinamous ate the insectile mi.xture freel}-, and were very keen 
on mealworms. 

It is noticeable that, contrary to other species of tinamous, the hen 
alone incubated the egg and reared the young. 

After the young were reared 1 reunited the parents, who got on very 
well together. 


Pas'e 131, July issue; transpose lines 9 and 10. 

Bird Notes. 

Photo btj W. Shore Bailtj, F.Z.S. 
Nest and Eggs of Misto Seedfinch. 

TWl !5\lgbts !5\cscrv(i6. September. 1922 


— THE — 


The Breeding of the Misto Seedfinch. 

(Sycalis lufeiventrts.) 

By W. Shore Baily, F.Z.S. 

You published last year an account of the nesting' of this 
little finch, and I am now able to send you a few notes on the 
successful rearing- of young. 

This spring I bought two more pairs from De Von, who 
was advertising them as Field Saffrons; my original pair, as 
Gome of your readers may remember, were privately 
imported. These birds seem to be very rarely imported by the 
dealers, and, when they do come over, are, I have no doubt, 
offered as Saffron Finches, but Saffron Finches they certainly 
are not. nor are they. 1 should imagine, very closely related to 
tlicm. The two Saffron Finches with which I am acquainted — 
-V. pclzclni and S. fai'coJa — are much more nearly related to 
Sparrows. They build in holes a large untidy nest, and their 
eggs are indistinguishable from some varieties of our English 
Sparrows'. The Seedfinch, on the other hand, nests on the 
ground, in the centre of a thick tuft of grass; the eggs are 
about half the size of the common Saffron, white with pink 
or red spots, sometimes all over, and sometimes at the larger end 

At the beginning of May I turned my three pairs into 
different aviaries. One of the cocks was promptly killed by a 
Weaver; me other tw^o pairs settled down nicely. Ihe first 
to nest was my original pair, but as these eggs were rather 
exposed I took them for my collection. They soon w^ent to 
nest again, this time in a heavier clump of grass. The first egg 
was laid on May 25th, and she commenced to sit three days 
later. On Jtuie 17th I noticed four naked young ones in the 
nest, These were fed by both parents, from the start, on 

i8o Ih-ccdiii^ij; of the Misto Seed finch. 

small insects, but after a few days bread and milk, and seed 
mixture were taken by the parents. The young ones feathered 
fast, and when they left the nest on Jttly ist were strong on 
the wing. 

In the meantime the second pair had also gone to nest 
in very thick grass. The nest could only be seen by parting 
the grass, which was a foot or more high. The hen reached 
the nest by a short run way. This nest must have been dry 
even in very wet weather. Here again four young ones left 
the nest — all strong fliers. In colour they were a greyish- 
brown, heavily striated on the back and wings, with the under 
parts buflish-white, slightly striped on the throat with brown. 

Both pairs of birds again went to nest in July. 1 stepped 
upon and annihilated one nest whilst walking across the 
aviary, and I am inclined to think that the same fate must 
have nappened to the other, as I left a brood of fottr when 1 
went for my holiday, and forgot to warn my man of the exact 
position of the nest. When I returned they had disappeared, 
and the old hen as well, and I expect that he planted his foot 
on them. When I was at damage's one day in August I 
secured a single bird that they told me had been brought over 
privately; they did not know what it was. This has turned out 
to be a cock. 

Writing of the Misto Seedfinch in Argentine Ornitholugy, 
Httdson says : — 

" This i.s a slender, graceful bird, less than the Canar\- in size; the 
" wlioU' upper ])lumage yellowishi-olive with dun markings, the lower 
" surface of a dull yellow. The female is a little smaller than the male, 
" and her colours are somewhat dimmer. This species is resident and 
" gregarious in the Argentine Republic, and in autumn frequently congre- 
'■ gates in flocks of several thousands. They are not so universally 
■■ distributed as the Chin.golo, and are not wood birds, but frequent open 
■■ ]ilains abounding in thistles and other coarse herbage, which affords them 
■' shelter. In (ultivated districts where their food is most abundant, 
" they are exccssi\cly numerous, and after the harvest has been gathered 
" frec[uent the fields in immense flocks. W'hile feetling the flocks scatter 
■' over a large area of ground, being broken u]i into small companies of a 
" dozen or more birds, rmd at such times are so intent on their food that a 
■' person can walk about amongst them without disturbing them. Thev 
" take flight very suddenly, bursting into a thousand chirping, scolding 
" notes, pur.sue each other through the air, and then wneeling about for a 
" minute or two, suddenly drop down into the grass again, and are as 
" silent as ever." 









Notes on Rcd-shiniug Parrakccfs. i8i 

" The nest is well built, deep and well concealed, sometimes resting 
on the ground, but frequently raised above it. It contains five long, 
pointed eggs, with ;i white or bluish-white ground colour, and thickly 
spotted with brown. I have frequently found the eggs of the ' Molothrus ' 
in its nest, but have never been able to see this bird feeuing or followed 
by a young " Molothrus.' PossiI)ly if it ever hatches this parasitical 
egg at all, the young Cowbird 's st:ir\ed by the delicate food supplied by 
its foster-parents." 

Some Notes on Red-shining Parraheets. 

By the M.arquis of Tavistock. 

Tlie Fijian Parrakeets of the small g'eniis Pyrrhulopsis 
are very rare, nowadays, in the foreign bird trade; indeed I 
have never seen a newly-imported specimen offered by an 
English dealer, other than the late Mr. Cotton, of Sheffield. 
Conseqitently, nearh^ all 1 have had have come to me through 
private channels. 

The three best-known Pyrrhulopsis are the Red-shining, the 
Tabuan and the Masked. T believe there is a fourth species, 
or local race, but I have never seen even a stuffed specimen, 
and cannot describe it. My experience of iabuan Parrakeets 
is limited to a moribund female I received from the Zoo, in the 
last stages of chronic enteritis. I hoped that a diet of fruit 
might save her; however, it did not, although the poor thing 
tried her best, eating and hanging on to life with a tenacity I 
have never seen equalled. Tabuan Parrakeets seem to be 
smaller than Red-shining; they have the head, neck and breast 
maroon, the back and wings shining green, nuchal patch blue, 
and flight and tail feathers of much the s?ime colour; the beak 
is black and rather large. Of Masked Parrakeets I have only 
seen one, and I believe they are very rare, even in their own 
country, having been practically exterminated by soine brainless 
idiot W'ho introduced the mongoose into the island they inhabit. 
My bird, " Georgie," is a quaint old fellow, and has already 
formed the subject of an article. He spends his summers at 
liberty in the garden, and his winters in a big cage in a warm 
room. He appears to be extremely ancient, and is neither very 
sound in wind nor strong of wing, but he still manages to enjoy 
life and is a great character. He takes no interest in anv of 

i(S_> Notes uii Kcii-sliiniug Parrakecis. 

the other birds and is afraid of most of them, allowing even 
tlie little cock Many-colour to bully him. He is. however, 
quite willing to share his dinner peacefully with rabbits or rats, 
eating out of the same dish ! He dislikes being touched, but 
is fond of human society, especially of men. He sometimes 
pulls ladies' skirts and pretends to bite their feet, but rather, I 
should say, from mischief than real malice. He has a great 
liking for coming into the house, but is not encouraged, as he 
knocks over flower vases and inkpots and devours fountain 
pens, notepaper, and the fruit in the dining-room. He has a 
passion for indigestible viand.s, particularly bread and butter, 
tea, cod-liver oil, ink and tobacco, and, as he not infrequently 
indulges his tastes when no one is about to restrain him, it is 
really astonishing that he still survives ! His only natural cry 
nppears to be a very harsh and hideous screech, and in addition 
lie possesses a little English conversation, including a most 
consumptive cough. His plumage is a very glossy green, with 
blue flights, tail blue washed with green, forehead and cheeks 
black, centre of breast yellow, and abdomen orange. 

I have had several Red Shining Parrakeets, but alas ! they 
mostly belong to the past tense, for they are terribly difficult 
to acclimatize. My first, a beautiful female, I received from an 
aviculturist in England. She was a gentle, rather timid bird, 
and died of swallowing a berberis thorn. T cannot remember 
tliat her plumage was different from a male's in any respect. 
Some writers on aviculture speak of Red Shining Parrakeets as 
if they were near relatives of the Australian King. Both are 
green birds, with red heads and breasts, and there the resem- 
blance ends. In voice, flight, and habits generally the Red 
Shining is no more like a King than it is like a Grey Parrot. 
.My next venture in Red Shning consisted in three newly- 
imported young birds. They looked well on arrival, and 1 
turned two into an aviary and kept one in a cage. All were 
dead within a month. The fourth and worst of the same lot 
was retained by the importer and kept in a cage, and he sold 
him to me later in magnificent condition. This bird won first 
prize at (^lympia and is still alive. He lives with a female 
A pros))}lctus siiluciisis and is outdoors all the year round. He 
ii- much attached to his mate, but very vicious with human 

Notes on Rcd-sh'uiiiig I'arrakccts. 183 

beings. He has two calls — a deep, soft " Hor!"" and a loud, 
harsh screech. 

At the end of last winter 1 received five more Red 
Shining- Parrakeets out of six originally shipped. 1 thought 
to myself that now I knew what to do and began to conjure 
up rosy visions of young Red Shining and Red Shining at 
hberty. How glorious they would look, and in their own 
country they are reputed to be good stayers. Clearly the best 
way to manage newly-imported Red Shining was to put them in 
cages in a warm room, and allow them some fruit, but not too 
nnich. However, " the best laid schemes of men and mice — " ; 
in the first place, the birds were terribly shy. Whenever a 
person entered the birdroom. they rushed into a corner of the 
cage and tucked their heads under their breasts to shut out the 
horrid sight. Then one died; post mortem revealed the old 
enemy, chronic enteritis; a few weeks and another died; this time 
aspergillosis; a few weeks more and a third died — chronic 
enteritis again. This was awful; my rosy visions vanished, and 
" We all go the same way home " seemed to be the programme 
to be anticipated. The only crumb of comfort in tlie melan- 
choly exodus lay in the fact that all three of the dead birds were 
cocks. It was clear that they could not possibly do worse, 
however I treated them, and as it was now May, my thoughts 
turned to outdoors (about tnis time No. 4 was reported off its 
food). It seemed useless to give such nervous birds complete 
liberty, so I prepared a big, sunny, grass-grown aviary for their 
reception, filling the dark part of the shelter with branches. 
I thought they would probably spend all their time sulking on 
the ground in the corner, but although they retreated hastil.v the shelter they kept to the branches. Later, when every- 
thing" was quiet, I saw them exploring the flight, obviously 
hoping to find a way to complete freedom, but not wholly 
dissatisfied with their surroundings. They also began to utter 
tlieir call — a short, loud cry, something between a croak and a 
squawk. From that day to this they have never " looked back ;" 
they are still very nervous and retreat hurriedly into the furthest 
corner of the shelter, if closely approached, but they will tolerate 
tlie sight of human beings up to within 20 yards. In July I was 
sm-prised to see the smaller bird feed the other, so I am in 
hopes that I have a true pair, especially as the bird that was fed 

184 I' our Species oj Loz'c birds. 

is the master, and did not seem to solicit its companion's 
attention. Red Shinins^' are very active birds; they fly to and 
fro and walk about with long', quick strides, and the action 
ot a pheasant, rather than a parrot. I never see them on the 
ground, though " (ieorgie " is very terrestrial in his habits. 

Experience and observation, coupled with what I have 
heard from the friend who sent the birds and had much better 
luck with them than I, makes me think that the right way to 
treat newly-im])orted Red Shining is to turn them out all 
together in a room, giving them a rich and varied diet and not 
stinting them of anything". Caging is bad for such active, 
nervous birds ; it impairs their health and lowers their spirits. 
Anyhow, that is what I shall do if I ever receive a fresh lot. 
One has to live and learn ! 

Four Species of Lovebirds. 

By J. W. Bearbv. 

Lavkndkr-hk.aded Lovebird {Agaponiis ania [presum- 
ably]) : 1 purchased my pair in October 1921, when they were 
in very pitiable condition, with flights badly broken, etc. 

I have found them very timid and most difTicult to tame ; 
when approached they crouch in a corner of their flight and 
utter repeatedly a snake-like hiss. The hen in particular, in 
spite of this timidity, is very pugnacious toward all the other 
occupants of the flight, the largest of which are a pair of I^lum- 
hcads. An amusing" and curious mode of attack is. by rolling 
over on her back and fighting" with claws and beak — thus she 
invariably manages to frighten any opponent. 

Flight very rapid and climbing powers simply wonderful. 

Their favourite seed are : white millet, good fat oats and 
hemp. Millet sprays they are particularly fond of, and they 
can easily eat a large spray per diem. Cracked sunflower 
they relish (no need to crack it. Ed.). A bundle of seeding 
grass is a special treat, and they spend hours pulling it to pieces. 

I have repeatedly seen the male feeding his mate, but, 
so far, they have made no attempt to go to nest. 

In this flight 1 have bred (joldfinch-Linnet hybrids, and 

I'uur Species of Lovebirds. 185 

the Lavender-heads in no way interfered with the Linnet dtiring 
the period of incubation. 

Red-faced Lovebird {Agaponiis puUaria): The beauty 
01 this charming- species was too great a temptation when 1 first 
saw them and I fell : their beautiful colour harmony — brilliant 
contrasted w-ith their vivid red head and beak^was quite beyond 
resistance, and I brought them away with me. 

This species, when first imported, is undoubtedly very 
('elicate. I purchased mine last February, during very frosty 
weather; the hen speedily went West. I replaced her and kept 
the pair in my dining-room, where a fire was continually 
burning; they both speedily improved in plumage, and became 
very tame. Both birds bathe and invariably choose a sunny 
day for their ablutions. They are murderously inclined to all 
(jther birds with whom they come in contact, and, in fact, 
often deal each other severe blows with their powerful beaks. 

Their demeanour is not lively; they strike one as being 
generally stupidly inactive, but have occasional bitrsts of vivacity 
v.dien their deportment is very amusing. They have never 
made any attempt to go to nest, but I have never encouraged 
-.1 as in the case of all my lovebirds they were newly-imported, 
and before attempting their breeding my idea was to study their 
wants and get them thoroughly acclimatised for another season. 

I feed on equal part's of canary, white millet, oats, and a 
llL'.lc hemp; they are passionately fond of millet sprays, in fa;ct, 
A, hen this food is available, will eat little else, and, I should say, 
would easily thrive thereupon. As spring advanced they 
readily took to grapes, pear, and any fruit of a sweet, juicy 
r.atnre; groundsel, seeding grass, and lettuce they eat freely too. 

Rosy or Peach-faced Lovebird (Agaponiis roseicoUis) : 
These are really a larger and paler edition of puUaria — their 
;;oft green plumage, vivid l)lue back-patch, and undoubtedly 
peach-coloured face, easily make them first favoin^ites with me, 
and they are undoubtedly the most attractive, vigorous and 
hurdy of the A gaporni. 

They have an ear-piercing note, but this, to me, is a 
cheerful contrast to their quieter brethren. My pair are in 
perfect plumage, and they have shown a decfcled inclination to 
go to nest — they live in a cage 2ft. x 2ft. x 4ft. high — but, as 

i86 I'our Species of Lovebirds. 

my aviary accommodation is, tliis season, decidedly limited, 1 
have not been able to give them full scope. 1 should imagine 
this species is not at all difficult to breed, at least, with my pair 
I have every hopes of success next season. 

Their main dietary is a mixture of canary, large millet, 
oats and hemp; they are very fond of the latter, but 1 gi\e them 
very little, for if their liking is gratified they become fat and 
gross very cjuickly, and are then very sluggish. As extras 
they get one millet spray per diem, with an occasional bunch of 
seeding" grass, and this seems to fulfil all their wants. Fruit 
is invariably in their cage, but they practically ignore it, straw- 
berries beng about the only fruit I have seen them touch. 

Bluk-winged Lovebird or I'.asserine Parrotlet 
{Psiitacula passerina) : These active little birds are unlike any 
of the preceding" trio in their actions, and I believe they must 
belong to a different group. They are very active indeed, and 
to be seen to advantage must be in a large aviary, where the 
cock can display his brilliant blue rump and wing patches in 

My pair are practically hardy and in finest condition. 
Their sleek green plumage, peering black eyes, and fiesh- 
colcured beaks form a pleasing combination, and an equally 
p'.easing contrast to the other occupants of the flight. 
Although they took ]:)ossession of a large husk, nothing has 
r'^sulted, not even eggs. Their mode of hollowing out a husk 
ry scratching" and tearing pieces off witli their beaks is similar 
to that of the Budgerigar. They never attempted to carry any 
nesting" material, and I rather think a small rustic log nest with 
a spout to run dov/n would suit them best. They are very 
active on the ground, very quick in flight, and cpiite inoffensive 
and harmless to other birds. I consider them a charming 

addition to any mixed series of birds. 

Their bill of fare is a very simple niatter : oats, canary, 
millet, hemp, and even sunflower and safflower seeds are eaten. 
Sweet fruits of any kind they eat freely, and nothing in the 
green-food line seems to come amiss to these active little 

I'isiis to Members' Aviaries. 187 

Visits to Members' Aviaries. 

Bv Wkslev T. Page, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

On August i8th the writer commenced a tifteen days' 
vacation among three members' aviaries. Two days were 
spent with Mr. H. E. Bright at Woolton, Liverpool, eleven days 
with Capt. G. E. Rattigan, S. Devon, and two days with Mr. 
vShore Baily at Westbury, and I now propose describing their 
aviaries and birds in the order given above. 

Mr. Bright's Aviaries and Birds: Mr. Bright gave 
a detailed description of his aviaries, with photos, in Bird 
Notes for March and April 1921, and thereto I must, in the 
main, refer my readers as to the aviaries themselves; certainly 
this description does not at all flatter the aviaries. 

'FJie Main, or Large Aviary (No. i). — This is an admirable 
aviary in every respect, fully equipped for the comfort of the 
birds, and I was very pleased to note that Mr. Bright had 
fully gripped the main essential of a really good Foreign Bird 
Aviary, viz : that the shelter is fully as important as the flight. 
This will be realised when I state that the shelter has a ground 
area of 27 feet by 25 feet, and is fully 15 feet high at the ridge 
of its span roof. The flight is 52 feet by 30 feet, and about 
15ft. high at the ridge. The shelter is a substantial building, 
being constructed of glazed bricks for a height of 3ft. all 
round, and on this low wall the wooden superstructure is 
erected. It is well lighted by windows at the front and along 
one side, and one large skylight and four smaller ones in the 
roof. As you enter the shelter a portion about 8ft. wide is 
partitioned off by a wire netting screen, and at the end of this 
portion are two decent flights against the back wall — several 
large cages hang on the wall for new arrivals, etc. — apart from 
these fixtures this portion forms one large flight, in which at 
the time of my visit certain overflow birds were disporting 
themselves. This portion is termed the birdroom for the 
purpose of these notes. The other portion of this building, 
some 19 X 25 feet, forms the shelter proper. Here the bulk 
of the food vessels are placed, also very many tree branches 
are fixed reaching from floor to roof, and forming a thicket of 
perching accommodation some 6 x 25 feet. The roof of this 
building overhangs into the flight, forming a verandah, which 

i,S8 I'isits to MoJihcrs' Ai'iarics. 

is tileii, and makes a pleasant observation post in any weather. 
Under this veranchdi were several nests, one containing- several 
lusty young- Blue Robins (.Sialia sialis), judging by the noise 
they made. The flight is planted with numerous trees and 
shrubs, and the roof's standard covered with various climbing- 
plants, mostly hops. Grass and other herbage irregularly 
cover the open ground, the eartli beneath the bushes being 
mostly bare of growtli; a happy combination wliich fully meets 
the nui-iierous collection of birds which occupy this practical 
avian paradise. 

Herein I noted the following species: — 

FiNCiiKS : Cuban (J'lio)iipara canora). Zebra (I'acuiopyg'ui castaiiotis). 
Long-tailed flrass (i'ocphila aciiticaiichi), Masked (irass {P. pcrsonata), 
Lavender (Lai^oiiosticla cacnilcsccus). Cutthroat (Ainadiua fasciafa). Red- 
headed (.1. cryl'r.roccphaia). Cheslnut-hreasted [MiDiia rastaucithorax). 
Ptctoral (.1/. pcclonilis). 

Do\'i:.s : Diamond {(.icopclia niiicata), t'eacefui (G- plac'nhiu Isabeliinc 
{Turtur is:ibel!ina), (ieoffroy's (I'cristera gcoffroyi), I^alm (I'ltrlur sciicgal- 
ensis), Masked (Ociia capci/sis), Plumed (jround {Loplinpliaps Iciicagiistcr). 
Uwarf Ground (Chaiiiacpcha gnsecla). 

Fruit-Pigeon.s : Lilac-crowned {I'tilapus coroniilatits) and a lovely 
pair of uncertain species. 

Cardinals : (jreen {Cube matrix cristata). \'irt;inian (Cartiiiuilis 
cardinalis), and Pope {Paroaria doiiiinica). 

Whydahs : Red-collared (Peiithctriu ardciis). Paradise {Stcgamtra 
paradisea), (jiant {Chocra procuc), and Queen (Vidua regia). 

Wkavi'Irs : Orange (Pyroiiiclaiia fnu!cisc(Uni). Napoleon (/'. afra). 
Taha {/'. talia). Crimson-crowned (/'. flaiiiDiiccps). and Red-billed {(Jitclca 

Man.\ikin.s : Rufous-backed (Spcniicstcs iiigriccps'i. Silverbills 

(Aidonosyiie cantans), and White Java Sparrow {Mitiiia oryaivora). 

Waxbills : Avadavat iSpomeginthus atnandava). (lolden-breasted {S. 
sttbflaznis), (Jrange-cheeked (S. Jiieipodus), Grey {Estrclda ciiicrca), P)lue- 
breasted (li. angoleusis). Cordon Bleu (E. phocnicotis). 

I'lUNTiNcs : South American (Species iiiccrt). Nonpareil {Cyanospiza 
ciris). Indigo (C. cyaiica). Red-crested ImucIi (Coryphospiiigus cristatiis). 
Rainbow (Cyauospisa leclaiiclieri). and Rock (h'rijigiUuria tahapisi). 

Gkosbkaks : iSlue {Guiraci cyanca). Yellow-bellied (Mvccrobas 
melanoxantlius). Large (species nicert) and Bluish (Spcrmoplnla caouicscens). 

F.TCKTUAS : Pekin Robin (l.iotlirix lutciis), IJaltiniore Oriole (Icterus 
galbula). I'.lue Robins (Siaiia siuiis). Migratorv Thrush (Turdus inigratorius). 
Scarlet Tanager (h'hanipliocoelits brasilus). Pectoral Tanager (Euplionia 
pectoralis). Chinese Ouiil (E.xcalj act aria cliiiiciisis). While-cheeked Bulbuls 
(Otoco)upsa leucogeiiys). 

Yoljxc, Birds on the wing and fending for theiuselves. 

Visits to Moiibcrs' Aviaries. 189 

Many young birds had perished, ahnost as soon as they left the 
nest, owing to the prevailing cold, wet weather, but I noticed 
the following in some numbers : 

Peaceful Doves lieoffroy's Doves 

Masked Doves Cutthroats (a small tiock) 

Diamond Doves Zebra Finches (a small flock) 

Isabelline Doves 

The sound of young calling for food was incessant from 
all parts of the aviary, and if the remaining portion of the 
season be fairly fine and sunny the above will be added to 

Spfxie.s Np:sting and Fekding : 
Virginian Cardinal Geoffroy's Dove 

Blue Robin White-breasted (spec, inccrt)* 

Cuban Finches Palm Doves 

Zebra Finches Ijlue Grosbeaks 

Cutthroats Long--tailed Grassfinches 

I am not describing these episodes, nor the young birds 
fully, as 1 wish Mr. Bright to do this later. 

In this fine aviary I watched the parent birds, from the 
verandah, collecting gentles and other insects, then ofi to the 
nests to meet the wants of their offspring, their arrival being 
heralded by the squalling of their young — sweet sounds for the 
aviculturist — till their lusty appetites were satisfied. The 

panorama of bird life was most fascinating, as one species after 
another flashed into the picture : the wee Chinese Quail foraging 
amid the grass and herbage, or scampering hurriedly across 
the verandah tiles to the shelter for seed; the flight of the lovely 
and many-hued Lilac-crowned Fruit-Pigeon (as brilliant as the 
Gold-fronted Chloropsis), the mannerisms and characteristics of 
the many species, the harmony of their song — cooing of doves, 
trilling of finches, liquid notes of Pekin Robin, etc.- -making a 
complete whole of absorbing interest, a pleasing and interesting 
picture burnt into the memory beyond the power of time to 
eradicate — but time and space alike forbid lingering, and the 
pen of Mr. Bright must fill the gap of descriptive detail. 

*\ could not get to Brit. Museum nor Zoo Library, so sent a rough sketch 
to the former authorities and they believe the species to the Phlogoevas 
margaritae from New (niiuea 

A letter from. Mr. Bright, dated Se])tcmber jotli, states that this pair have 
two fully pledged young almost ready to leave the nest. — W.T.P. 


I'isits io Members' Avianes. 

In the Birdroom (part of shelter) 1 noticed flying at large 
a pair of Red Rosella Parrakeets {I'latycercus eximius), a 
single Mealy Rosella (P. palUdiccps], and a pair of Green 
Cardinals (G . eristata). In the two smaller flights were pairs 
of Bauer's (I'latycercus conariits). and Adelaide Parrakeets {!'. 

Adjoining tills Aviary (No. 1) were three other flights, 
Nos. 2, 3, and 4, respectively. 

N j. 2 Aviarv. — This aviary is really spacious, and has an 
open-fronted lean-to shed at the back; like No. i there is an 
abundance of living cover and ground herbage, and there are 
few species which would not feel inclined to reproduce their 
kind when located therein. 

Here I saw the following species : 

I pair Red-shouldered Jilackhiriis (Agelaiiis p/iocuiccits). 

I Orange-headed Troupial 

1 Migratory Thrush (Turdus inigratorhis). 

I pair Brazilian Pigeons (Coluviba spcciosa). 

The pair of Brazilian Pigeons are. I believe, new to 
aviculture; they are very handsome, though not exactly brightly 
coloured, but they strike the eye at once and arrest one by 
their beauty. 

General colouration dark, rich, vinous-brown (almost 
cinnamon), with the whole head grey, picked out laterally, with 
fine distinct black lines; this, combined with a red beak, gives a 
colour harmony that must be seen to be fully ap])reciated. This 
pair of birds were brought over privately by Maj. A. E. Snape, 
when returning home from Brazil last year. They have just 
come into adult plumage, and should breed next season. 

i\o. 3 Aviary. — This is similar to No. 2. but -lot so wide, 
lieing approximately 30 x 15 feet, with a shelter at the far end. 

Here were but two pairs of birds — a pair jf X'irginian 
Cardinals {Cardinalis cardinalis), which have fully reared one 
young bird; and a pair of Crested Doves (Ocyphaps lophutes). 
v/hich have nested but not reared any young this season, the 
nest being drowned out during heavy rair. 

No. 4 Aviary. — This is a replica of No. 3, and a fine pair 
of W'liite-crested Jay Thrushes {(iarnila.v leuculuphus) 
enjoy sole occupancy, yet up to the present have made no 

I'isits to Members' Aviaries. 191 

attempt to go to nest. They are bold, audacious bhds, full of 
character and activity, and are most interesting" to sit and watch, 
for they court observation. Their song^ (laugh?) is very 
similar to that of the Laughing- Kingfisher, but not quite so loud ; 
however, it certainly is not inaudible! 

The Upper Aviaries: No. i and 2 are merely open wire 
flights, with small cupboard-like shelters, for parrakeets. No. i 
was unoccupied, while No. 2 housed a pair of Pennant Parra- 
keets (Platyeercus elegans); these were a pair of fine robust 
birds, in good health and vigour, but heavily in moult. 

These two aviaries were separated from a range of 
converted Pigeon Houses, forming aviaries 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 of 
the upper series. These have, as yet, no outer flights, but 
these are in contemplation and will, I opine, be uii fait accouipli 
for next season. 

Pigeons, a former ]iol:)by of Mr. Bright's, which is not entirely 
No. 3 was occuj)ie(l by a small flock of Bald-facecl l^imbler 
relinquished. In the house are a goodly array of challenge 
cups, etc., trophies of Mr. Bright's prowess with these birds in 
the past. 

No. 4 contained a pair of Stanley Parrakeets (Platyeercus 
ieterotis), a Migratory Thrush (Turd us migratorius), and a 
Geogroy's Dove (Peristera geoffroyi), all in the pink of 

No. 5 was the home of several pairs of blue-bred Green 
Budgerii^-ars (Melopsittaens uuduJatus) and several of their 
progeny; also a pair of Cockateels (Calopsittacus novac- 
hollandiae), which have reared young this season. 

No. 6 housed fine pairs of Diamond Doves (Ceopclia 
ruiicafa). and Dwarf fi round Doves (Chamacpclia grisea). 

Lastly No. 7 confined a handsome pair of Blue Jays 
(Cyauocitta cristata) whose full beauty one had to imagine 
as thev were in full moult, and they needed to be in an open 
flight for the play of light to bring out their gorgeous beautv 
in full measure. 

This brings my description of these fine aviaries and birds 
to a conclu-sion. The social side of my visit will not interest 
my readers, though it certainly did our two selves, as we yarned 
of avicultural experiences generally — many avian battles were 

192 Breeding of the Nezv-Guinea Quail. 

fcniLilit o'er ai^ain. I spent two days and three nights at Woolton 
Tower and bade ,qood-bye to my host and hostess on the Monday 
morning at Lime Street Station, Liverpool, where 1 entrained 
{o\- Xewton Abbot. To he eontinucd. 

The Breeding of the New-Guinea Quail 

{Synaceus plumbeus). 
Bv W. Shore Baily, F.Z.S. 

My first introduction to these attractive Httle birds took 
place two years ago at Hamlyn's. Whilst look around his 
cages I noticed in one of them a rather sombre-looking bird 
brooding an egg. I recognised it as a Quail of sorts, but as 
it was a species I had not seen before, I decided to buy it. 
Having" been kept for so long in a small cage it was very tame, 
and it would come on one's hand for mealworms when called. 
It was quite a charming little pet. I kept it indoors all winter, 
where it laid one or two more eggs. In the spring I turned it 
into an outdoor aviary, giving it, as a mate, a cock Common 
Quail, but although the latter paid her every attention, she would 
have nothing to do with him for a long time. At last, w'hen 
she did make up her mind to suffer his attentions, she suddenly 
succiuubed to an attack of pneumonia. 

'I his Spring the London Zoo offered me another pair, 
and I was very glad to get them. They were extraordinarily 
wild, and, on being turned into the aviary, in which there was a 
good deal of cover, they promptly disappeared, and it was only 
occasionally that I caught a glimpse of them for a moment. 

About the middle of June I felt sure that the hen was 
sitting, and a careful search revealed the nest, which was very 
well hidden in a clump of grass. This contained seven eggs, 
somewhat smaller than those of the Californian Quail, and very 
large for the bird. These were covered with fine spots, and I 
have occasionally seen those of the Californian bird marked 
very like them. 

( Jn June J4th I surprised the hen with three young ones, 
apparently about a couple of days old. The four eggs left in 
the nest had all young ones just ready to hatch; something had 
probably disturbed the hen, causing her to leave the nest too 
soon. I saw no more of either the young ones or their pairents 


O ^ 




Notes on Jungle and Other Jl'ild Life. 193 

until Inly 2nd, when T surprised them together scratching' in 
the run. I again saw them a week later, and again on the 15th; 
on the last occasion they got up at my feet and flew strongly 
across the aviary. Shortly after this I went for my summer 
holiday, returning for one day on August loth. Suspecting 
that the hen was again sitting, I was hunting- through the long 
grass, when I had the misfortune to step upon and kill the 
young cock. He was practically in full adult plumage, and I 
could only tell him from the old bird by the difference in the 
colour of the eye, which in the adult is crimson, and in the 
juvenile reddish-brown. 

At this time the hen was undoubtedly sitting, although 
1 could not find the nest in the time at my disposal, but on my 
return on August 21st, I found it under a tuft of grass on the 
edge of the pond, and congratulated myself on not having 
stepped on it, when looking for it on my first visit. Every 
egg had apparently hatched, and a few days afterwards 1 caught 
sight of five little ones. At the time of writing, August 30th, 
they are quite nice little birds, but still only very occasionally 

The cock bird is rather bigger than the Indian Jungle 
Quails and is plum-coloured all over; the hen is mottled much 
like the European Quail, but much darker in ground colour. 
They are nice aviary birds. 


Notes on Jungle and other Wild Life. 

By Dr. Casey A. Wood, M.B.O.U. 
Continued from page i6t;. 
The approach to the Falls was exceedingly interesting 
and attractive. Charles VVatertcn (Wanderings in South 
\mcrica), the naturalist word-painter, says of it : — " He who can 
distinguish the beauties of uncultured nature, and whose ear 
is not shut to the wild sounds in the weeds, will be delighted 
in passing up the river Demerara. Every now and then the 
maam (tinamou) sends forth one long and plaintive whistle from 
the depths of the forest, and then stops; whilst the yelping of 
the toucan and the shrill voice of the bird called " pi-pi-yo " 
(Gold or (ireenheart Bird) are heard during the interval. The 

[94 Notes (>)i Jungle and Other Wild Life. 

campanero, or Bell Bird, never fails to attract the attention of 
-the passeng-er; at a distance of nearly three miles you may hear 
this snow-white bird tollini^' every 4 or 5 minutes, like the distant 
convent bell. From six to nine in the morning the forests 
resound with the mingled cries and strains of the feathered race; 
after this they gradually die away!" 

In this connection I must point out that few are the birds 
whose notes or calls are similarly interpreted by even a majority 
of careful and competent observers. The fact reminds me of 
the differences of opinion expressed on viewing the newly-painted 
portrait of a friend; each of us sees it differently. And so with 
bird notes; each of us hears them differently. We had a 
concrete example of this truth as we five sat in our boat on the 
upper Potaro listening to and watching carefully the vocal 
performance — for such it deserves to be designated — of numer- 
ous Bell Birds (J^avosoria alba). They are snow-white beauties, 
about the size of a large blue jay. and have a curious, long, 
black, erectile, pipe-stem-like wattle, partly covered with white 
feathers, attached to the centre of the forehead. After listening 
for an hour or so to the bird's double-note, or " tolling " call, 
each of us was asked to say what well-known sound it resembles. 
None of us thought it recalled Waterton's " distant convent 
bell;" one said " it's exactly like the sound caused by a single 
stroke on a triangle;" another " one stroke of a blacksmith's 
hammer on his anvil;" still another " a single blast of a police- 
man's whistle, heard a hundred yards away;" another "one 
blow on a medium-range tube of the xylophone;" and fifthly, 
a stroke on a loud dimier gong." J. J. Ouelch (Chubb's 
Birds of BritisJi (hiiana. Vol. II.. p. xxxi.) adds something to 
his confusion of similes by giving it as his opinion that — the 
campanero's call varies with age and sex. 

So numerotis and so beautiful were the brids we saw on 
tliis trip that the necessarily brief references to them in this 
letter might better, perhaps, not ha^•e been made, partly because 
the tale may be fatiguing and partly because you may think that 
those mentioned are the chief ones to excite wonder and admira- 
tion, although the truth is that there are dozens of others equally 
lirilliant and even more remarkable. Just consider a few of 
the latter — the cotingas, for instance, of which the scarlet 
variety, ablaze with reddened areas from head to tail ; the purple- 

Notes oil Jungle and Other Wild Life. 195 

breasted— throat and breast of a deep purple, wings and tail 
black, and the remainder of his body a beautiful shining blue! 
Finally, the Pompadour Cotinga (Xipholcna punicea) is entirely 
purple except that his wings are white edged with brown. 

Visualize, also, the toucans and the toucanets. One 
thinks chiefly of their enormous bills, but even these are 
gorgeously painted in tints that are repeated in their still more 
brilliant plumage. Then the iridescent macaws (those studies 
in splendid pigmentation) as well as the other highly tinted 
parrots and parrakeets; likewise the lovely trogons and 
jacamars, in addition to flocks of snowwhite egrets, scarlet 
ibises, eagles, hawks and water birds — all these form but a 
small fraction of the colonial avifauna. 

Kaietour (Patamona word meaning Old Man's Fall) is 
really pronounced Ky-too-eh, but as the last syllable is accom- 
panied by a sort of subdued click, which none but an Indian can 
indicate, the generally received spelling is about as nearly 
correct as we are likely to get it. 

The fall was discovered in 1870 by Barrington Brown, 
Government Surveyor. Sir Everard im Thurn {Amongst the 
Indians of Guiana) visited it during the dry season of 1878. He 
then remarked that in his opinion the entrance to the Kaietour 
gorge — at Amatuk — furnishes the most beautiful scenery of this 
lovely tropical river ; and all our party agreed with him. " If," 
says he, '" the whole valley of the Potaro is fairyland, then the 
Kaietour Ravine is the penetralia of fairyland." Of the fall 
itself, seen close at hand and from above, he exclaims " Then, 
and only then, the splendid, and in the most solemn sense of the 
word, awful beauty of the Kaietour burst upon me. Seven 
hundred and fifty feet below, encircled by black boulders, lay a 
great pool, into which the column of white water, graceful as a 
ceaseless flight of innumerable rockets, thundered from my 
side. Behind the fall, through the thinnest parts of the veil 
of foam and mist, the great black cavern made the white of the 
v.ater look yet more white." 

This was during the dry season, when comparatively 
little water rolled into the deep gorge. However, a second 
visit was made when the Potaro was in flood, at the end of a 
rainy season, with an entirely different picture: — 

196 Notes oil Jungle and Other Wild Life. 

" It was then beautiful and terrible, but now it is 
sometliins;- which it is useless to try and describe. Then a 
narrow river, not a third of its present width, fell over the cliff 
in a column of white water, and was broug:ht into startling- 
prominence by the darkness of the great cave behind, and this 
column of water, before it reached the small black pool below, 
had narrowed to a point. Now an indescribable, almost incon- 
ceivable vast curtain of waiter — I can find no other phrase — (some 
400 feet in width) rolled over the top of the cliff, retaining its 
full width until it crashed into the boiling water of the pool, 
which filled the whole space below^ and at the surface of this 
pool itself only the outer cave was visible, for the greater part 
was beaten and hurled up in a great high mass of surf and 

There are several projecting rocks from which mile upon 
mile of the river's course at the bottom of the canon can be 
seen from above. Unlike the cliffs of the Yosemite and Niagara, 
the deep water-worn cleft of the Potaro is completely and perma- 
nently verdure-clad with vines, mosses, trees, shrubs, bromeliads 
etc., from the water's edge to the plateau above. The constant 
fight for life in the tropical forest, with its everlasting spring- 
time, leaves few areas free of plant growth, and this marvel 
adds greatly to beauty and charm of '.ropical panoramas. The 
abrupt walls of the Kaietour gorge also bear thousands of 
nany-coloured flowers, while up, down and across the abyss 
fly macaws, Amazon parrots, cassiques (tropical orioles), eagles, 
hawks and numerous other birds. I saw many swallows 

skimming the surface of the foaming waters, but, although they 
are reported as flying past the wall of falling water into the 
dark cavern behind it, none of our party witnessed that 

The bed of the river below the great fall is dotted here 
and there by a number of round and oval islets that recall the 
wick'^H Rishop Hanno's island on the Rhine except that the 
castellatCLi super-structures of the Potaro resolve themselves, 
by the aid of a glass, into the usual trees and vines. 

To be eontinued. 

Birds zcliich have been Bred in Caf'tii'ity. 197 

Records of Birds which have Bred in Captivity. 

By Dr. E. Hopkinson, D.S.O., M.A., M.B., F,Z.S., etc. 


.^9. LONG-TAILED WHYDAH, Diatropura progne. 

90. RED-COLLARED WHYDAH, CoUostntthus aniens. 
And Hybrids. 

91. WHITE-WINGED WHYDAH, C. a.bonotata. 

92. JACKSON'S WHYDAH, IJrcpaiioplectcs jacksoui. 

Abroad, See note, B.N. 191S, 156. 


94. CRIMSON-CROWNED BISHOP. Pyromclana fiamviiceps. 

Abroad. I think also a recent success in England, but have not 
the record. 
And Hybrids. 

95 BLACK-BELLIED BISHOP, P. iiigrivciitris. Abroad. 

9b. GRENADIER BISHOP, 1'. oryx. 

cjj ORANGE BISHOP. P. fraiiciscana. 
98. KAFFIR FINCH, P. capciisis. Abroad. 
90. TAHA BISHOP, P. taha. 
100. NAPOLEON BISHOP, P. afra. 

joi. rOKl'LRHliAD WEAV1-:R, Qitclca crythrops. Abroad. 

103 TWO-COLOURED MANNIKIN, Lepidopygia bicolor. Abroad. 
And Hybrids 

104. RUFOUS-P.ACKED iMANNIKIN, L. nigriceps 
loq BIB FINCH, /-. nana. 

iy8 Birds zvhich liavc been Bred in Captiz'iiy 

And Hybrids. 

And Hybrids. 

— hybrid X BENGALESE. 


MAGPIE MANNIKIN, Aiiianrcsthes fruigilluidcs. 

And Hybrids. 

X SILVERIULL (prolwbly .AERICAN). llri-ht, 191;. 
Sec B.N. igi/, 245. 

108. QUAIL EINGH, Ortyi^os/^ica pulyzoua. 

loq. W. AFRICAN OUAIL I-INCII. O. atricoUis. Abroad. 


And Hybrids. 
FIREFINCH X SPOTTED !■ IRb:FINCH. First breeder Lucas, 1917. 

See B.N. 1917, 250. 
SPOTTED FIREFINCH, Lagonosticta rufopicta. Abroad. 

In France : Mayer. See B.N. 1920, 254. 
GREY-BACKED FIREFINCH. L. polionoia (?). Aliroad 

In France : Mayer. See B.N. ]g20. 254. 



And Hybrids. 


And Hybrids. 

no PAINTED FINCH, liwblcma picta. 

And Hybrids. 

Hirds 7i'/;;V/; Iio'i'c hccii Hrcd in Captirity. 199 

MELBA FINCH x CORDON BLEU . Aljioad. In France, Dccoux, 
1919. See A.M. 1919. no. 

118. AURORA FINCH. Pytciia plioenicoptcm. 

uq. ZFHRA 1-INCH. 
And Hybrids. 
ZEIiRA I'INCH X illClilLXO I'. Al.road 

X ST. HELENA WAX BILL. Abroad teste Paoe. 

And Hybrids. 

121. black-rumpi<:d bk"heno finch. 


And Hybrids. 

123 ZEBRA WAXBILL, Spnraci;iiitlii!s siibflm'us. (A real record required). 


And Hybrids. 
JAVA X CUTTHROAT. (Record needs fuller details, etc.) 

126. MAIA FINCH. Abroad. 

127. TRICOLOURED MANNIKIN, Mioiia lualacca. Hybrid record only. 

128. CHOCOLATE MANNIKIN, .1/. atricapilla. 
And Hybrids. 
CHOCOLATE M. x MAJA. ? PAbroad only 

129. CHF.STNUT FINCH, .1/. castaneithorax. 
And Hybrids. 
Brijjht, B.N. 1Q17, 244. 

130. YELLOW-RUMPED FINCH, .1/. xanthoprymna. 

200 Hirds icliich have been bred 'ui Captivity. 

Ami llyl>rids. 


132. PKCTOKAI. I'lXC'll, n. pcct oralis. 

133. STKIATI-'.!^ I'lXC'll, I'rvloiicha striata. 
And Myhn'cls. 

STRiA'iM';i') V. X i'.1':.\'(;ales1':. 

134. iii-:\c;al '-K. 

And Hybrids. 
(Sec r.S. (11.) p a. above). 

DEN(;ALi':si': x sharp-tailed finch. 

bi=:n(;ali:s1': x sharp-tailed i-ixch. 
x striated finch. 


Of the ,-(b()ve all except "■ \'<\h I'incli " nred fuller records. 

H\lirid I'lcnoalese x Xulme<'- I'inch. 

135 SIIAKI' T All.i:!) I'-IXCH. 
Aii.l Nvbri.N. 
SHAKl'-T \l',i:i) I'LXCH x IU':X( iAI.l'.Sb:. 

136. CHFi\l\\ I-IXCII. .\uicinosyne luodcsta. 
i?7. INOIAX SlIAl'killLL. 

Birds z>.'hicli liai'c been Bred in Caf^tiz'ity. 201 

And Hybrids. 

And Hybrids. 
AFRICAN SIL\'I':R1ULL x OLIVE FINCH. (Note: I'loccidac x 

x NUTMEG FINCH. See P..N. 1920. 178 
x BENGALESE. Abroad. 

:<,Q. SYDNICY WAXRILL, Aci^intha temporalis. 

ip RII1T)U.S-TAIL1:D GRASSFINCH. HatliUda nihcauda. 

|i. LONG-TAILED GRASSFLVCH, Poephila acuticanda. 
And Hybrids. 

14J. PARSON FINCH. P. cliicta. 
And Hybrids. 

X I'.ENCiALhSE. Aljroad. 

U3. .MASKED (;RASSFINCH, P. pirsonafa. 

144. GOULDIAN FINCH. (ISlack- and Red-headed) 

145. PIN-TAILED NONPAREIL. Erythnira prasnia. Abroad. 

And Hybrids. 


149. CRIMSON I'-LNCH. Neoclnnia phaetun. 

151. GRF,Y WAXI1H.L. 
And Hybrids. 
GRI<:Y WAXBILL x CRTMSON-RUMPED W. Pstnlda riiodnpyi^a. 

153. lav!:nd1':r vvaxbill. 
j 54. cordon blf.u. 


202 Bints a'/';;r// luii'c nccii Bred in Laptiviiy 

And Hybrids. 

156. SCALY-FK0NT1':D weaver, Sporopipes sqttamifrons. 
See P.S. (D.) page above. 
l''RONTAL WEAVER, 5. frontalis. Abroad. 

1^7. P.Ul'FALO WEAVER. Abroad. 

158. CHESTNUT-BACKED WEAVER, Melauopteryx castaneifusca. 

159. RUI'OUS-NECKED WEAX'liR. Uyphantorms cucnllatus. 
And Hybrids. 
H. spUonotHS. 

ibo. Notliing- to add to tliis record. B.N. 1920, 253. 

162. BLACK-HEADED WEAVIlR. Sitagra melanoccpluila. 

163. CABANIS' WEAVER, 6". cabanisi. Abroad. 

164. LITTLE MASKED WEA\ER, .9. luteola. 

i6v Bl.ACK-FRONTED WEAVER, i\ velata. 

iW). HALF-MASKED WEAVER, 5'. inteUina. 

167. CAPE GOLDEN W1':AVER, .S'. capeiisis or olivacca. 

ifi8. MADAGASCAR WE-AVER, Foudia inadagascarlensis. Abroad. 
169. BAYA WEAVER. Abroad. 

170. BENGAL BAYA. Abroad. 

171. MANYAR WEAVER. Abroad. 

To be continued. 

A Java Sparroiv Episode. 203 

A Java Sparrow, {Munia oryzivora) Episode. 

Bv Wksley T. Page, F.Z.S., AI.B.U.U. 

I have always had a hkini;- for this, sol-called, clumsy and 
heavily built species. It has a very handsome and striking- 
appearance in a large wilderness aviary among a mixed series 
ot birds, moreover, it is nearly always in the picture. This 
liking began in the early days of my avicultural experience, and 
i<- has lasted through the trail of years right up to the present 
time, though the freshness of early acquaintance has passed. 

I have bred a goodly number of them one time and 
another — I am writing only of the wild Grey Java Sparrow — 
though it is a shy breeding species in captivity, unless it is 
crossed with the White variety, when the reverse becomes the 
case. But it is to record a special episode that 1 am penning 
these notes. In 1916, among a consignment of Indian birds, I 
received quite a few Grey Java Sparrows, and yielding to the 
aforementioned liking for the species I put what I believed to be 
three pairs into my large wilderness aviary, and, so far as I 
know, not a sngle youngster has been reared till the present 
season — in fact, I do not think any of the pairs ever made any 
attempt to go to nest, which is quite in accord with the tradi- 
tion of the species. 

On Septemlier 2nd. going into the aviary to have a 
look at my birds, on my return from a fortnight in lovely 
Devon, I was surprised to see two young Java Sparrow's on the 
wing, and a short search revealed the nest in a Hartz travelling- 
cage in the covered part of the flight; there may be more, but 
I have not seen others as yet. The point of these notes is 
that one of these youngsters has an entirely black head and 
neck, while the other is quite normal ; hereby hangs a tale ! 

In the course of years I have successfully reared over a 
hundred of this species, and )icvcr before have I had a black- 
headed youngster. The normal juvenal is similar to that of 
the adults, but much Hghter and with the different colour areas 
not sharply contrasted as in the adults. In colour, the juvenal 
beaks vary considerably, some being quite blackish witn pinkish 
patches gleaming through, others almost white, streaked with 
blnck and pinkish tints showing here and there. 

204 P.ditorial. 

I have said 1 never had a l)lack-headed youngster before — 
true, but many years ago I possessed an aduh exactly similar 
to my present young bird. 

In the " green " and palmy days of yore a good few 
black-headed specimens used to be seen among the dealers' 
stocks of this si)ecies, and many dealers used to sell these as 
hens, and in my greenness I was " had " on one occasion, and 
1 came away with two, said to be a pair, one with head and neck 
shining black, and the other a normal white-cheeked specimen; 
they never paired, nor did I ever see either of them carrying 
nesting material — later experience has taught me they were two 
males. Later I procitred a certain, white-clieeked hen, and both 
n"iy birds cotn ted her; she chose the while-cheeked cock, and 
afterwards presented me with my tirst brood of young (irey 
Java Sparrows, all of whom had white cheeks in the juvenal 
plumage, though not so pure a white as tliose of their parents. 

The black-headed cock above referred to remained with 
me five years; when I picked it up dead it never changed at all. 
so, apparently, these black-headed specimens are merely a 
colour variation of the species. It has been many years since 
I saw a black-headed specimen among dealers' stocks. Thus 1 
am greatly interested in my young grey Java with the black 
head and neck, and await its first two moults with much interest 
?nd curiosity. Will it remain as it is, or moult out a normal 
specimen ? 


Aviculture in : We have received from our 
member T. Z. Takano a very interesting communication from 
which we quote the following items. 

They have an avicultural society in Japan — " Tori-no-Kai," 
which translated is The Japan Cage Bird Club. The organ of 
the club is " Kaidori " — " Cage Birds," which is issued at 
irregular intervals. Two copies have been sent us. and as soon 
as we can secure a translation, extracts, at any rate, therefrom 
will be publislied in this journal. 

The Ja])an Cage Bird Club has seventy members, most 
of them being either enthusiastic aviculturists or famoits orni- 
thologists. Some of them have many aviaries, breeding 

Editorial. 205 

successfully Parrakeets, Partridge and other game birds, etc. 

Recently Crown Partridges were imported, but many 
died owing to the cold climate. 

African birds are very rare in Japan, but Australian and 
Indian are, at times, freely imported. 

In Japan insectivorous birds a' e kept by a special paste, 
;onsisting of ; bean and rice powder, dried fresh water fish, and 
rice bran. Firstly : green salad mashed, then add the moistened 
powder. The quantity of fish powder is regulated by the 
species of birds it is required for. 

Mr. Takano also sent your Editor a copy of the " most 
ancient avicultural book in Japan," Yobnko-dori, " which was 
published in 17 10 by So-sei-do — to add to his collection of 
avicultural books." We hope, when a translation has been 
secured, to summarise it in Bird Notes. 

We shall be grateful if Mr. Takano will send us detailed 
accounts of Japanese successes in breeding birds in captivity; 
also Field Notes of their native birds, with photos if possible. 

A Rare Dove: Our member Mr. H. E. Bright is to be 
congratulated on the possession of a pair of Phlogocnas mar- 
garitac. which we believe to be new to aviculture (sec page i8() 
ill this issue). When visiting Mr. Brig"ht last month it was 
difificult to get a close or long enough view, so that we were 
unable to place them, but the richness of their colouration 
caused us to assume them to be Fruit-Pigeons. However, we 
made a rough sketch, and later sent this to the Curator of the 
Birdroom, British Museum, and they believe them to be as 
above. This shows them to be a near relative of the Bleeding- 
heart Pigeon (P. luzonica) from which, however, they differ 
entirely in deportment and colouration, and to which we have 
given the trivial name of White-breasted Pigeon or Dove. The 
l^'leeding-heart Pigeon spends, in captivity, most of its time upon 
the ground; the White-breasted is more aboreal and during two 
rlavs we did not see it upon the ground at all. The general 
colouration is rich vinous-cinnamon, refulgent with a ])urplish 
sheen; upper eye-streak, lower eye region, whole of the throat 
and breast white, narrowly margined with black; the whole of 
their appearance being very handsome and gorgeously beautiful. 
Tlipy have successfully nested, and two fine young birds are 

2o6 Correspondence. 

now (Septeml)ei" 24) on the wini;. The juvenal phiniaj^e is 
blackish cinriamon, reHeved with one or two huffish streaks, no 
white sliowins^" at all at present. VVe are not commentins^ further 
at the present, as Mr. Brii.;ht will i^'ive a detailed account of his 
success in a near issue. 



.Sir, — Four young budgerigars have flown from the nest — the first a 
(Jreen ; the second a Yellow the following Saturday; the third a Green last 
Thursdav, and the fourth, another Yellow, to-day. 

I was much surprised at getting Yellows, as they were supposed to 
be a very ordinary Cireen Budgerigar. I think there are some more eggs 
''n the nest. 

The funny thing about these birds breeding is that my sister's 
children had the above pair of birds for two years in their nursery, and they 
never made any attempt to go to nest. Last winter they and their parents 
went abroad, and the budgerigars were given to me ; I kept them in the 
dining-room during the winter, and put them into mv outdoor aviary at the 
end of May, when they went to nest at once, with the above result. 

Manston Rectory. Dorset : RE( ilNALD E. P. GORRINGE. 

August lb, IQ22. 

Post Mortem Reports. 

P.\RRAKEF.T : Capt. J. S. Reeve, Leadenham. — E.nteritis. 

Jay : C. Dell, Saltwood.- — Pneumonia. 

Dunlin : M. R. Tomlinson, Midlothian. — Pneumonia and Nephritis. 


00 CO 

00 00 
„0 On„o 0„ 





^U !aigbt5 !^cservc6. October. 1922 


— THE — 

The Manchurian Eared Pheasant. 
( Crossoptilon manchurium.) 

By W. Shore Baily. F.Z.S. 

There are five varieties of this handsome pheasant, all 
inhabiting- the mountains of China and Thibet, where they are 
found in the forests up to an elevation of io,oog feet. Naturally 
they are very hardy birds, and make most suitable occupants of 
our aviaries. 

Unfortunately only the above species seems to come over, 
and these not very frequently. 

I think it was three years ago that 1 got my birds from 
Hamlyn, and he was, if I remember rightly, offering five or 
six pairs at the time. 

The first season the hen laid several eggs, but did not 
attempt to sit. The eggs were placed under a hen. but only 
one hatched out. This grew remarkably cjuickly and made a 
fine bird, which was duly disposed of in the autumn. 

ihis season I had better luck; the hen Pheasant built a 
nest in a privet hedge and started incubating ten eggs ; these I 
removed to a broody hen. and on June loth six hatched out. 
They Avere pretty little things, about the size of Orpington 
chicks. From the start they refused nothing in the shape of 
food, although they showed a decided preference for live-food; 
they were also very fond of green-stuff, particularly lettuce. 
They grew apace, and started feathering very early in the same 
manner as do the Tragopan chicks. The most remarkable 
thing about these birds, however, is their extreme tameness. 
They are now practically full-grown, and they will, if permitted, 
fly upon my head and shoulders, and I am sure that if I were to 
let them out of their aviary they would follow me anywhere. 

2o8 The Cockateel at Liberty. 

Unfortunately they have no discrimination, and in my absence 
they would be equally likely to follow any -stranger who 
happened to pass by. When they were quite small, I put them 
into a paddock, with the hen confined in a coop, as is the usual 
custom with gamekeepers when rearing common pheasants. 
This did not aiiswer with these birds at all, as they evidently 
followed someone who was passing their coop on the way to 
the house, and lost themselves in the shrubberies. I thought 
myself lucky to find them again. One found its way upstairs 
mto one of the bedrooms, and the last one found was heard 
crying outside the kitchen door at ten o'clock at night. 

In a country park, or isolated grounds, they would be 
a great ornament, and would do well, as they could look after 
themselves with dogs and cats, and would run but little risk 
from vermin other than foxes. However, one very rarely 

hears of them being kept this way, but Mons. Delacour tells me 
that his birds do well under these conditions in France. 

According to Abbe David : — 

" The brown Crossopfilon. which is known by the name of Hoki in 
" Pekin, is resident on some of the wooded parts of the mountains of 
" PechiH, but for some years past it has become very rare, and it cannot 
" be long before it completely disappears, partly on account of the constant 
" persecution it is subjected to, and partly from the destruction of the 
" woods which form its headquarters. It is an extremely gentle and 
" sociable bird, living in large flocks, and subsisting chiefly on grain, 
" buds, leaves, roots and insects. It seems well adapted for domestication, 
" the more so as it is easily fed; but in captivity one must provide the 
" shade of a park and the neighbourhood of a clear stream of water — that 
" is, similar surroundings to those it is accustomed to in its wild state." 

The Cochafceel at Liberty. 

By the Marquis of Tavistock. 

In articles which I have written on parrakeet keeping I 
liave always given Calopsittaciis novac-hollondiac a very bad 
cliaracter as a non-stayer at liberty. I am not sure, however, 
that I have not done the bird an injustice, and that my previous 
failures have not been due to my making a very elementary 
mistake — that of keeping the mate of the bird at liberty in a 
place where it could not be easily seen and visited. 



A Visit to an Indian Jheel. 209 

Hearin.i^, some time ago, of a person who had kept a 
male cockateel and his family at liberty for a considerable time, 
cnly losing- them when he unwisely released the old hen also, 
' thouglit I would make one more experiment to see if, after 
nil, the cockateel does not belong to that class of swift-flying 
parrakeets, the males of which will stay so long as their mates 
are in confinement. 

Accordingly I placed a pair in a suitable aviary with 
plenty of tall trees at the back of it, and after a week or two 
released the cock, having taken the precaution to keep him 
without food since the early morning. His behaviour at first 
was not promising. He was soon on the wing at a great 
height looking at any moment as if he might dash away and 
travel for miles, but the hen did her duty as a call bird, and 
tl'ough he flew as swift and wild as any bird I have released, 
he kept circling back over the garden and never really went 
t.T away. Most of the afternoon and evening he drifted about 
the sky, often hanging in the wind like a gull, a method of 
^iir^ht uncommon in the parrakeet family, and as far as I know 
confined to this species. Next day he was still about, and in 
di f course came and fed on the top of the aviary. He now 
seems to have quite settled down and treats me :o frequent 
exhibitions of his beautiful flight, which is only surpassed in 
speed and grace by the Polytelis family. As it is, he rises 
higher, and keeps longer on the wing than they do. When in 
the air he is usually pursued by a crowd of indignant swallows, 
who seem to mistake him for some kind of hawk, a not 
unnatural mistake, for he is decidedly hawk-like in the shape 
of his wings. When settling down in a tree he always 

selects a dead branch, never one which has thick foliage. 

If he continues to prosper I shall get a second pair and 
have another cock at liberty, cockateels being amiable birds and 
not inclined to annov their neiehbours. 

A Visit to an Indian Jheel. 

By Hugh Whistler, F.Z.S. (Indian Police). 

In the Gurdaspur district of the Punjab there is a famous 
duckjheel known as the Keishopura jheel, which, during the cold 

210 A Visit to 0)1 Indian Jhccl. 

weather, for years past has been visited by numberless sports- 
men. It has long been my ambition to visit this place and 
examine its capabilities from the point of view of the Naturalist 
rather than of the sportsman. At length the opportunity came 
and I motored over to Gurdaspur on the nth September, 1922, 
in company with Mr. C. H. Donald. F.Z.S. (Warden of 
Fisheries), and spent the night there. This gave us the 
opportunity of visiting the jheel that evening and again in the 
early morning. The jheel is some three or four miles north 
rf Gurdaspur, and extends for miles. We were, or course, in 
the time at our disposal, only able to examine a very small 
portion of it. For convenience sake I combine the observations 
of the two visits into one. 

the approach to Keishopura is along a rough unmetalled 
road fringed by fine Sheesham trees through a wide cultivated 
plain, and at the time of our visit in the " Rains," when 
vegetation is lush and green throughout the country, the jheel 
was not noticeable until we were almost at the edge. It is 
growing year by year more closed with weeds and rushes and 
that pest the Water Hyacinth, and in the portion that we 
visited no open water was visible. Belts of tall bullrushes 
and reeds alternated with patches choked with grass and lotus. 

All the country round about was full of Yellow Wagtails 
i'T various stages of ]^lumage. belonging to several races of 
Motacilla flai'a. A flock of some 200 white birds, probably 
Spoonbills (Platalca Jciicorodia) could be seen in the distance 
flying" over the jheel. 

As the car drew up on the road at the edge of the actual 
marsh we could see a variety of bird life close to us, so we 
strolled down to the water's edge to enjoy this before joining 
llie boatmen who were to pole us about the water. 

Along the grassy margin Paddy birds {Ardcola grayi) 
were fishing, here standing motionless with head hunched into 
shoulders, there stalking warily towards some luckless frog 
with such a stealthy movement that it would liardly be possible 
to be slower without being stationary. Our approach disturbed 
tlie anglers, and they took to flight with that sudden flash of 
white wings which comes as an evergreen surprise. I know 
no sudden transformation of a dull bird to a conspicuous one 
similar to it, save in the case of the Blue Roller (Coracias indica). 

A I'isit to an Indian Jliccl. 2II 

His chani2:e Iroin a sombre tigure on a branch to a brilliant 
harlequin in blue will remain an ever new delight and surprise 
to the end of my service in the east. Here and there amongst 
the Paddy birds was a meditative pair of Red- wattled Lapwings 
(Sarcogra)uiinfs i)idiciis) who refused to pay us the conii)]iment 
of alarm. 

As we neared the water we witnessed the usual scurry of 
Water Hens {CaU'uiula cJilurupus) to the shelter of the rushes 
jmd the tangles of huge lotus leaves. Some of them had been 
feeding on the grass, recalling" bygone memories of many an 
English lawn. As the Waterhens took to flight they disturbed 
a couple of graceful Pheasant-tailed Jacanas (Flydrophasianns 
cl(Criiigits) who liad been feeding" with them. 

Recent rain liad caused the water to o\erflow into por- 
tions of some small patches of sugarcane, and they had become 
ideal cover and feeding" ground for the various birds. 
'. ventured into one of them in pursuit of a party of Striated 
Babblers {Argya carlii). l)ut my |)rogress in the thick rustling 
cover was too noisy, and the Babblers kept out of my clutches, 
always chuckling and squeaking" a little ahead. However, the 
pursuit was of value as it revealed the presence of a party of 
Blue-throats {Cxa)iccuJa snccica) who must have just arrived 
cm passage. 

Time was short, so we abandonded this fascinating ground 
and made for the boats. • These were merely shallow, flat- 
bottomed trays, square at the stern and sharply pointed in the 
bows, admirably adapted to the shallow weed-grown water and 
tor pushing" a way through the clumps of rushes. We settled 
ourselves in separate boats, sitting" on a pile of grass on the 
bottom, and were poled along by the lightly clad owners, who 
stood upright in the stern and manoeuvred their flimsy craft with 
a long pole and exceeding" skill. 

The boatmen, of course, wanted to take us after the few 
Pochards and Teal which were said already to have arrived, 
but we explained that we were after humbler fry and wanted 
first to punt al)out the reedbeds to see what they held. 

We moved first through a comparatively open area where 
there was only thick water grass about a foot above the surface. 
A patch of this was filled with fish traps. These were in the 

.312 .1 risif to ail Indian JIiccl. 

form of small funnel traps of reed stems roughly covered over 
with weeds, and set in gaps, left a series of parallel fences 
about five feet apart, of neat little reed screens. A small 
inferior fish is all that is caught, and this is used by the fishermen 
(or food; it is too poor for sale. A small boy was setting 
numberless nooses of horsehair in some reeds near by, for any 
small water l)ird that might be caught ; all species go into the 
pot alike. 

1 liese patches of watergrass proved to Ijc full of the 
Eastern Baillon's Crake {Porcaiia piisilla) which the men said 
had only just arrived. As the boats moved along the little 
Crakes rose from the grass in all directions flying weakly for 
some ten to twenty yards and then flopping back into the cover. 
In one or two places where flooded patches of rice were near 
enough to afford good feeding they were very numerous. 

At length we reached the belts of Bullrush and found that 
they had their own particular fauna. The most noticeable 
species was the Striated Weaver (Ploccus Jiuuigar). These 
birds were very abundant and breeding in small loose 
colonies. As we poled through the rushes we came on the 
nests in all directions. These are built in rather a curious 
manner. The tips of some twenty reeds growing a small 
distance apart are bent over inwards so as to form the radii of 
an irregular circle, and at the centre, where they meet, a typical 
Weaver's nest of fine shreds of reed is constructed on the ends 
of the reeds and holding them all together. The nest is not 
sking from the reeds, but they pass in and out through the 
walls of the structure. The nest is thus in the centre of an 
elastic framework which gives easily to the wind and holds the 
nest well clear of the water. In shape the actual structure 
is much the same as that of the common Ploccus baya of dry 
land, but the entrance funnels are much shorter — only two or 
three inches in length. The breeding season was apparently 
■ust beginning, as 1 could find only one or two nests 
V ith eggs or chicks. The majority were half-built, the 
strips of material still green; many half-built nests were, 
however, dry and faded, and it appears as if many, for some 
cause, are abandoned by their builders — perhaps through 
dissatisfaction with the spring of the supporting reeds. The 
Weavers were flying in twos and threes all over the place, and 

A I'isif to ail Indian Jhcd. 213 

the attractive little warble of the cocks issued from every patch 
of cover. Vet I found it diftlcult to secure specimens as they 
settled low in the reeds, and were therefore invisible more than 
a few yards away. To shoot them frying' would be certainly 
to lose them among-st the dense reeds. The ei^gs are pure white. 

As the boats moved slowly on we disturbed other denizens 
of the reeds; various small warblers fhtted here and there 
or clicked unseen in the shadows. Ever and anon the grass- 
hopper-like song of a F'antail Warbler {Cisticola ciirsitoria) 
sounded overhead as one passed over with his mounting flight. 
Jn addition to the birds that have already been mentioned we 
flushed many little Yellow Bitterns (Ardcita sinensis) and Purple 
(rallinules (Porphyrio )}iclanoccphahi). The tiny Bitterns 

looked very neaf with their straight, strong flight in contrast 
to the Gallinules who rose trailing their long legs to fly but a 
short distance and then drop heavily into the reeds. A couple 
of Purple Herons (Ardca purpurea) were seen flying in the 

Here and there stray Kites (Milvus govinda) and Marsh 
Harriers (Circus acruginosus) were beating over the jheel, and 
i saw one of the latter badly mobbed by a Pheasant-tailed Jacana 
whose chicks were probably in the neighbourhood. Once there 
was a sharp scurry, and a young Pallid Harrier (Circus pallidus) 
in the ringtail phtmage drove some bird down in the reeds in 
front of me, but rose with empty talons. 

The Coots (Fulica atra) had apparently not arrived, as I 
only saw one. A hurried glimpse of a passing bird added a 
Water Rail (Rallus aquaticus) to my list. 

Here and there in the reeds could be heard the dull booming 
call of the Crow Pheasant or Concal (Ccntropus sinensis), an 
ungainly black and chestnut Cuckoo which the novice in India 
always assumes must be a game bird. 

Duck were conspicuous by their absence. 

Although they are not Avater birds one cannot omit to 
mention three species who are almost always found in the 
neighbourhood of water in India. The Blue-tailed Bee-eaters 
(M crops pliilippinus) were hawking here, there and everywhere, 
over reed bed and lotus, along the road and over the fields. 
These birds collect in hundreds at night to roost in the bull- 

214 Happenings in Our Aviaries. 

rushes, and then their calls sound like the chirping of 
innumerable crickets. 

The Wire-tailed Swallows {Hirundo sinithii) were 
common about the edge of the jheel. and with theiu were a few 
Common Swallows (Hinindo rustica). 

I'he best of things must end. and it was time to return 
to the car. As we landed the boats a Kingtisher {Alcedo hispida) 
was disturbed from his perch at the water's edge. We 
lingered for a moment to watch his larger relative the Pied 
Kingfisher (Ccrylc rudis) hover and dive; twice he plunged and 
emerged with empty beak. The third time brought luck, and 
as he flew' off in triumph with a fish we turned towards the car, 
also with our spoil. 

Happenings in Our Aviaries. 

By Dr. E. Sprawson, M.C, F.Z.S., etc. 

(Continued from page i6j). 

Following on my notes to you in August some of our 
hopes materialised and some did not. 

RuFOUs-TAiLKD ( iRASSFiNCHEs (BafliUda riifieauda). 
These did very well, having brought up their hrst family of 
four; they exceeded expectations on September 13th and 14th 
by bringing out of their box-nest five more babies which, in 
spite of the weather, they brought u}) to independence. We 
caught them up for the winter two or three days ago. but we 
have since lost one. The parents are now (October nth) 

sitting again, having commenced to on the 5th, but. of course, 
it is too late now, and we shall take them in soon. However, 
they have done quite well this year. We have never seen the 
adults go through the courtship performance the ]\Iarquis of 
Tavistock writes about, but several times during August we 
saw one or two of the young from the first nest — young males 
evidently — and still, of course, in their immature plumage, fly 
the length of the aviary, bearing a grass stalk and making the 
noisy, flapping and slow flight he describes- -flying towards 
ether young of the same species. 

FiREFiNCMKs { La gonostieta minima ). This species also 

Happenings in Our Aviaries. 215 

brought out two more young — the young cock from the first 
nest, unhke his father, is now showing the white dots on his 
sides as he is coming into adult plumage. These parents also 
are now sitting again — of which more anon. 

GouLDiAN FiNCHKS (FocpliHa gouldiac). Of these, one 
nest did not materialise beyond the state wlien I last wrote — the 
other hatched out five chicks and brought four of them up to 
independence; the four were of very different ages, or rather 
degrees of development, when they left the nest. One of them, 
though not the smallest, seemed a very backward youngster — 
we lost it a day or so ago, so we sent it and the young Rufous- 
tail to the Natural flistory Museum, South Kensington, where 
it seems they had no skins of innnature young of either of these 

Both pairs then went to nest again, but this time there 
was a good deal of quarrelling while choosing nests, the 
result being four out of five infertile eggs in one nest, and three 
out of five in the other. The one pair left their single baby 
to unkind fate from the start. The other pair fed well for over 
a week and then, or possibly on account of the cold weather, 
they too stopped feeding, so that on Saturday last we found one 
young one dead, and the other with empty crop and rather cold. 
Seeing the parents would have nought to do with it we put it 
by way of experiment into the firefinch's nest (as I mentioned 
above, they are sitting) and, to our surprise, they took to it and 
seem fearfully proud of it. I don't for a moment suppose we 
shall rear it, but it is still going on well after four days' care 
b; the Firefinches, who promptly drove away the parent 
Gouldians when the young one began to call for food. It is 
rather amusing — the Gouldians always feed their young mainly 
on canary seed; the Firefinches give none, but feed on Indian 
millet and insects — still the young one seems to be doing very 
well on it; also young Gouldians simply yell for their food, 
whereas young Firefinches are almost silent. The Firefinches 
seem to think this yelling on the young Gouldian's part 
unseemly and somewhat of a reflection on their care of it, so at 
the first sign of a yell they cram him with food to keep quiet ! 
Beyond the above we have Red Avadavats (Sporaeginthus 
ainandava) sitting, but too late one fears. The nest is a very 
neat globular grass structure about .six inches off the ground. 

Ji6 Notes OH Jungle and Oilier inid Life. 

Though so near London, we are infested with Owls here; 
would that some member would inform us how to keep them 
away — they have only actually injured one of our birds so far, 
but. too often, in the morning one finds a bald head, the result 
of being frightened on to the wire by owls in the night, and a 
bird without feathers on its crown looks hideous till it grows 
them again. 

The cock Rufous-tail — the parent of the above men- 
tioned young is one of the seventeen bred in 1916 by Lady 
Smiuelson, from whom we obtained it in that year. 

Later (October 17) : The young Gouldian in the Fire- 
finches' nest died two days ago. South Kensington reports 
a yellow and diseased liver " — probably a fatty one — its 
cliange of diet evidently did not agree with it. 

The Avadavat's eggs turned out to be infertile; the 
Rufous-tails had six fertile eggs in their third nest, which, as 
too late for this year, will also repose in South Kensington. 

Notes on Jungle and other Wild Life. 

By Dr. Casey A. Wood, M.B.O.U. 
Continued from page ig6. 

Second in splendour only to the Falls themselves are the 
lo\ely mist and other meteorologic effects produced by the 
roaring mass of falling waters as they are dashed into foam 
on the rocks below; indeed it is only by watching the ever- 
changing river valley from sunrise to sunset that one can 
appreciate the dissolving views to be seen in and about the 
Kaieteur Valley. I was so impressed by their weird beauty 
tnat I proposed (to myself) to name this million-year-old 
canyon the Gorge of the Enchanted Mists. I am confident you 
will agree, when you visit it, that the title is not undeserved. 

In the early morning (we generally rose before daybreak) 
I he spray and fog filled most of the depths and overflowed the 
margins of the gorge; soon, under the influence of the sun's 
rays the silvery curtain was drawn and several miles of glim- 
mering but placid stream was seen above the Fall, shortly 
followed by a sight of the reddish water plunging, in several 
divisions, over the rocky ledge. Nothing more of the Fall 

Notes on Jungle and Other U'Ud Life. 217 

itself was visible, but far below one was able to identify, if 
dimly, two or three cataracts, swirling-, boiling" and tumbling 
over the rocky bottom and separated from one another by half- 
miles of comparatixely quiet water. 

About 500 feet from the floor of the ravine several small 
waterfalls become visible, one near the Great Fall bearing that 
universal but often appropriate name, " The Bridal V^eil." 
And now, while the boiling, roaring maelstrom beneath is 
swathed in a giant roll of cotton — fog", the upper half is revealed 
in all its feathery glory, giving" a wholly new impression of the 
repuussee wall of water. This scene persists for perhaps 
twenty minutes, when the deeper mists roll aside and the whole 
breadth and height of Kaieteur, pillared on either side by great 
colunms of paper-white fog, bursts upon the astonished visitor. 
Soon cue upper fourth of each lateral column joins its fellow, 
making" a Roman arch that frames the tremendous wall of 
falling water. 

Again the scene changes, and the arch becomes a round, 
an oval, or a square frame, through which the greater part of 
the falling water-mass is on exhibition, as in a giant picture 

Another and not uncommon scene results from the 
uniform thinning" of the cloud-veil that just previously obscured 
the entire fall. Then the appearance reminds one strongly of 
those stage effects obtained on looking from a darkened 
auditorium through clieesecloth clouds; one sees dimly and in 
weird fashion the objects beyond. Upon an infinitely grander 
scale is a wonderful and rapidly dissolving" a])i)arition of a huge 
yellow-brown mass of water behind the white but translucent 
veil of mist. 

Finally, a " close-up " view of the Falls is to be obtained 
by walking along the margin of the chasm quite to the lateral 
table rock that almost overhangs the falling water. If your 
n.ervous system is in good order you may lie prone upon your 
stomach, with head and neck projecting well into space, and 
look down, down. 900 feet along, indeed almost parallel with, 
the immense sheet of water that rolls past to where it crashes 
upon the jagged rocks below and rebounds from them fifty 
leet in the air. Tt is an awful and impressive sight. Don't 
try it unless you are sure of foot and clear of brain! At the 

2i8 Nutcs uii Jungle and Oilier (' iUI Life. 

same time, no view of the Great Fall can i,nve one as true an 
idea of the mighty plmige taken by that 4O0-foot-wi(le mass of 
roaring waters. 

One of our party, jjerhaps the most athletic pedestrian 
and hill-clisber of the outfit, could not l)e persuaded to 
ai)])roach within 20 feet of the table rock. lie said it " gave 
him the creei)s "' even to watch me as 1 lay staring down into 
the depths of the abyss. Such a state of mind argues no lack 
of bravery, any more than the ability to look the fall in the face 
shows the opposite. In both instances it is simply a state of 
mind — probably congenital — comparable to the impulse some 
folks feel to jump off a high tower or from a belfry, while others 
love to dangle their feet from the loftiest pinnacle of a cathedral. 

From this near point of view the rainbows of the Fall 
are generally seen to best advantage. They are often double 
and sometimes trij^le, while the arcs are wonderfully complete. 
Aloreover, monochron^e bows --usually rosy-red — were seen 
during our visit — due, of course, to cloud reflections. 

J he whole of the Potaro canyon also unfolds itself from 
this point and directly in front for a distance of ten miles. It 
reveals a deep and gradually widening valley, green-clothed, 
with a thin median ribbon of silver water ])eeping out of the 
vegetation here and there; the stream sometimes at rest, some- 
times stirred into foam as it rushes into ra])i(ls and i)Ours over 
rocks not yet worn into a smooth river bed. 

As the shadows of the afternoon lengthen in the canyon, 
and the evening sounds of bird, fiog and bat (there were plenty 
of the last-named under our rest house rafters) began, the 
change of scenery on the giant stage of the Kaieteur became 
marked and rapid — but these are incapable of description (at 
least by me) because they must be seen to be realized — just 
like the colour-wonder of the ( ireat Canyon of the Colorado. 

All the foregoing has to do with the Potaro at half-flood. 
-Not only is a new Kaieteur born at low water but there is a 
third renaissance, they tell me, when the river overflows, as in 
June after prolonged rains: so that fully to appreciate the 
charms of this region one should visit it at various seasons, 
when all three conditions ])re\ail. and remain a week or so on 
each occasion. 

To be eunclndcd. 

Records of Hirds z^'liich liai'c Hvcd in C'af'tn'ity. jk; 

Records of Birds which have Bred in Captivity. 

Bv Dr. E. Hopkixsox. D.S.O.. AI.A., M.B.. F.Z.S.. etc. 

(Continued from f^age 202). 

172. BISHOP TANAGER, Tanagra episcopus. 

173. WESTER.\ PAL.M TANAGER, T. palmanmi mchinoptcra. 

T74. SCARLET" TANAGER, Rhainphocoeltts brasilicnsis. 

YELLOW-RUMPED TANAGER. R. icferoiwtus. First breeder, 
I'.rook, 1917. See P).N. 1917, 197. 

175. BLACK TANAGER, Tachyphoniis riifus. (Record omitted in tht 
Bird Notks List, 1918, p. 268, and also the next). 

176 MAGPIE TANAGER, Cissopsis leveriaua. 

In Page's list, but the only record I know is " Zoo. 1912, where the 
young died after leaving the nest, so unless there is another record, 
this cannot yet appear in the list of successes. (See P.S. (C) p. above) 

177. REDAVINCiED BLACKBIRD. Ai^elaeus phocniccus. 

BR()WN-HP:ADED troUPIAL;^ a. froutaUs. Shore Bailv, 1920. 
See B.N. 1920, 160. 

178. PURPLE CRACKLE, Quiscalds qiiiscala. Abroad. 

t8o. ANDAMAN STARLING, Spod'wpsar andamanensis. 
And Hybrids. 

181. MALABAR MYNA. S. nialabaricus. 



183. COMMON MYNA. Acridothcrcs trisfis. 

i«4. INDIAN MYNA. A. gingianls. 

192. EASTERN BLUE ATAGPIE. Cyanopolins cyaneus. 

193- SPANISH BLUE MAGPIE, C. cooki. 

194. OCCIPITAL BLUE PIE, Urocissa occipitalis. 



198. SKYLARK. 


WHITE-CHEEKRD FINCH-LARK, Eremopteryx smitki. 

220 Records of Birds zchich have Bred in Captiz'ity 

[•"irst breeder, Shore Baily, 1917. See B.N. 1917, 133. 

-Also at Zoo, 1917. See B.N. 1917, 175. 

{P. lencotis in the accounts in B.N., but ahnost certainly the 
S. African Svntlii, NOT the East African leucotis). 




206. GREAT TIT. 

207 PLESKE'S TIT, Cyavistes pleskei. Hybrid record only. 

209 INDIAN WHITE-EYE, Z. palpebrosa. 

210. NATAL WHITE-EYES, Z. virens. 


212. WHITE-EYEBROWED WOOD-SWALLOW, Artamns superciUans. 

214. TAILOR-BIRD, Stitona siitoria. Abroad. 


217. BLUE WREN, Malurns superbus. 


210. CAT BIRD. 


And Hybrids. 


223. TICKELL'S OUZEL. Mertila unicohr. 

224. ARGENTINE BROWN OUZEL, Scmiwenila jitcvatra. 

225. WHITE-THROATED GROUND-THRUSH, Gcocichhi cyanonota. 


22q. AMERICAN ROBIN. Turdiis migratorius. 
And Hybrids. 



230. SONG TMRUS1I. 1 know no record but tlnl of Paee but surelv 
this .-nd t1u' m.-u-kbird HA\'K been bred. " 

Visits to Members' Aviaries 













PIED BUSH-CHAT, Saxicola caprata. Abroad. 





And Hybrids. 

248. RED-WHISKERED BULBUL, Otocompsa emeria. 

249. WHITE-EARED BULBUL, 0. Icucotis. Zoo. 1922. 

To be covtimied. 


Visits to Members' Aviaries. 

By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 
Continued from page ip2. 

Corrigenda : On pa.t^^e 188 line 5. for " roof's standard " read 
roof standards. Page 191 transpose lines 16 and 17. 
Capt. G. E. Rattigan's Aviaries and Birds : On arrival 
I was most cordially welcomed by my host and hostess, and that 
evening T did the aviaries and birdroom. Here I had more 
leisure for observation, for I spent eleven interesting and 

222 risits io Mcnihcrs' Ai'iarics. 

pleasant days at Fluder House. Kingskerswell, which is situated 
about midway between Torquay and Newton Abbot, the weather 
on the whole beinj^ fine, but dull and unsettled. 

Capt. Rattigan's aviaries have already been described in 
this Journal, and except for the addition of a Parrakeet aviary, 
o^ which more anon, they are unaltered, save for the develop- 
ment of plants and shrubs — the whole effect is very pleasing", 
ihe birds happy and contented as shown by the breeding results, 
which are good considering the abnormally cold, wet summer — 
there have been some later results, of which we shall get details 
later from Capt. Rattigan's pen. The two small photos 
illustrating these notes give a fair idea of the flights of the two 
large aviaries, and show clearly their natural character. These 
are only summer aviaries, so the shelter sheds are of but 
moderate dimensions, their occupants migrating to the birdroom 
for the autumn and winter months. Results have certainly 
proved them to be very practical aviaries for the conditions 
under which the birds are kept. If the birds occupied the 
aviaries all the year round the shelter sheds would require to be 
T5ft. X 12ft. instead of the 8ft. x 6ft. they are. 

77/r Large Apiary: This is divided into two sections, 
cne for finches, waxbills, etc., and the other for larger birds, 
<ind quarrelsome individuals of the smaller species. Each 
section has a flight 27ft. x 24ft., and a shelter shed 8ft. x 6ft. 
The flights are planted with sufficient herbage, bushes and 
shrubs to provide ample cover for the ground and arboreal 
species which occupy them, yet are sufticiently open to allow of 
the birds being easily observed. In front of these two aviaries 
I spent many hap])y and interesting hours watching the doings 
of their inmates. 

Many birds were nesting, incubating or feeding young, 
and under these conditions the competitive instinct of the birds 
came out very clearly, as also did a sort of live and let live" 
spirit which seemed to govern the action of most of the birds, 
but did not obliterate the former trait. If anything this aviary, 
though a roomy one, contained too many pairs for a breeding- 
aviary, as well as fairly numerous unmated individuals — these 
latter I noticed mostly kept together species by species, though 
making occasional " intrusive calls " to the domiciles of the 
mated pairs, thus causing a certain amount of " langwidge " 

Bird Notes. 

Larga Bird's Section of Capt. G. E. Rattigaii's Lai-ge Aviary. 

*' 1 

riin/os by Capt. G. E. Raltigan. F.Z.S. 
Lookiuy thiougli the fliylits of Capt. G. E. Ruttigan's Large 


yisits to Members' Aviaries. 223 

and light sparring; but, generadly speaking, amiability and 
general good nature prevailed. 

The Small Birds' Section contained quite a representative 
series of Ploceinc and FringiUine species, and I actually saw the 
following : 

1 pair Violet-ear Waxbills {Granatina granatina). 

2 pairs Quail Finches (Ortygospisa polysona). 

3 pairs Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia castanotis). 

1 pair White Java Sparrows (Mitnia orysivora, var. abla). 

2 pairs Cuban Finches (Phonipara canora). 

I pair Red-headed Finches (Amadina erytlirocephala). 

I pair Saffron Finches {Sycalis flaveola). 

I pair Diamond Finches {Steganopleura guttata). 

1 pair Lavender Finches {Lagouosticta caerulescens). 

I pair Grey Singing Finches {Serlnus leucopygia). 

1 c? Green Singing Finch (.S". icterus). 

2 S Lined Finches (Sporophila lineola). 

2 pairs Masked Grassfinches (Poepliila personata). 
I pair Long-tailed Grassfinches (P. acuticauda). 

1 pair R. H. Gouldian Grassfinches {P. gouldiae). 

2 pairs Rufous-backed Mannikins (Spcrmestes nigriceps) 
I pair Bronze-winged Mannikins {S. ciicnilata). 

I pair Black-headed Mannikins (Munia atricapiUd). 

I pair Chestnut-breasted Finches (M. castaneithorax) 

I pair Linnets {Linota caunabina). 

1 pair Bullfinches (Pyrrhula etiropaca). 

2 r{ I V' Avadavats (Sporacginthus anianda^'a). 
I pair Orange-cheek Waxbills {S. mclpodus). 

1 pair Cordon Bleus [Estrilda plwenicotis). 

1 pair Diamond Doves (Geopclia cuneata). 

I c? Nightingale (Daiiliiis lu.';cii!ia). 

I S Grenadier Weaver {Pyrovielava oryx). 

I cT Orange Weaver (A franciscana). 

I c? 2 9 Red-billed Weaver {Qiielea quelea). 

T r? Queen Whvdah (Vidua regia). 

There were also young Cordon Bleus. Cuban and Zebra 
Finches on the wing, mostly still being fed by their parents. 
Young birds, as soon as able to fend for themselves, are caught 
up arid removed to the birdroom. 

Species which have successfully reared young: 
Cuban Finches Cordon Bleus 

Zebra Finches Rufous-backed Mannikins 

Quail Finches Linnets 

Long-tailed Grassfinches White Java Sparrows 

Pleasing Features : Certainly not the least pleasing were 


Visits to Members' Aviaries. 

the Cordon Bleus and Lavender Finches, yet not a whit behind 
them were the Violet-eared Waxbills; the soft, dehcate beauty 
of the two former, and the more decided beautiful colouration 
of the latter held one almost speechless, as the eye followed 
them flashing- about in a setting of living-green. Their vivacity 
< nd almost ceaseless activity held one entranced — it is doubtful 
if the Lavenders are a true pair, for both birds had mostly a 
piece of grass or hay in their beak as they flashed about from 
one point of vantage to another. " Handsome is that hand- 
some does," so of this beautiful trio the palm must go to the 
Cordon Bleus, for they have bred freely, one pair having fully 
reared three broods of three, two and tv.o respectively. 

The so-called sombre species, too, made a brave display 
if hot of such elegant form as the waxbills. Who can truly 
call the Chestnut-breasted, Bronze-winged and Rufous-backed 
Mannikins plain or sombre ? With this trio it is the Rufous- 
backs that have fulfilled the purpose of life, viz : to reproduce 
their kind — quite a few have they fully reared, the older of 
which were to be seen in the birdroom in parti-coloured gar- 
ments, in the intermediate stage of passing from the juvenal to 
adult plumage. 

Another quietly coloured species that has done its duty 
in this respect is that quaint little ground bird, the Quail Finch. 
Amid the grass and herbage they found a quiet retreat, built 
their home and reared several families — more than one at any 
rate. Only close observation brings this unassuming, quaint, 
but exceedingly pretty little finch into the picture. 

Despite their lethargic reputation, the mannikins in the 
early part of the day and the whole of the evening (during noon- 
tide heat all species are more or less listless and dull) they were 
certainly neither stupid nor dull, quite the reverse, being full 
of vim, activity, and energy, incessantly on the go the whole 
time, and a pleasing picture they made too. Of course, their 
movements are neither so elegant nor so graceful as those of 
some of the other groups; pleasing and interesting they 
certainly are was the comment I made as I watched these 
particular individuals in a state of restrained liberty amid 
'A natural setting. 

Grassfinches : These and Mannikins are nearly akin, in 
fact. Dr. A. C Butler has well called the former " brightly 

I'isits to Members' Ai'iarics. 225 

coloured Mannikiiis " — during" the portions of the day, when all 
diurnal creatures are active, grassfinches do their bit to make 
the world go round — these also were active during the morning 
and evening hours, adolescence only being evident during the 
early afternoon — I must make two exceptions, viz : the Alasked 
(jrasstinch and (iouldian Finch; both these are certainly 
lethargic species, the latter especially so, for in spite of bizarre, 
piebald colouration, it was, to the writer, the one dull and 
uninteresting species in the aviary; they had not gone to nest 
(a recent letter from Capt. Rattigan informs me that they have, 
since my visit, nested and brought forth one young bird), a;nd 
the only things they seemed to wake up for were to feed, bathe, 
and preen their plumage, and except at these brief periods their 
bright colouration was not sulKicient to lift them from the dull 
and uninteresting". Of course, to the student, all bird-life is 
interesting", whatever the colour of their garments or their 
characteristics may be, but I have written as they appeared to 
me, as I sat meditatively observing them, with an eye to Copy 
tor Bird Notes, during my ten days' visit. 

As 1 have already said young birds are removed when able 
to look after themselves, so that only one or two instances of 
family parties were in evidence, viz : Cuban and Zebra Finches, 
Cordon Blues and Rufous-backed Mannikins, and fascinating" 
l)ictures they made, too, foraging in their family groups amid 
the herbage, then as the parent birds picked something up, 
came the plaintive, querulous call of the young to be fed — how 
the Zebra Finch family group forced themselves into 
notice, as they backed away from their parents and yelled 
" blue murder" for grub. How keen at live-food time was 
the competition to obtain the largest supply among the various 
species, both parents filHng their beaks and making alternate 
visits to the nests while the supply lasted. I must pause, as 
this description is getting too lengthy though one would fain 

Large Birds' Scetion : This was occupied mostly by 
Cardinals and quarrelsome individuals ejected from the Smaill 
Birds' Section. It contaiined the following species : 

I pair Green Cardinals {Gnbernatrix cristata). 

I pair Gre}' Cardinals (Paroaria cucnUata). 

I pair Virginian Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). 

I pair Lilac-crowned Fruit-Pigeons {P til opus coromilatus) 

226 Visits to Members' Aviaries. 

I pair Necklace Doves {Tiirtur tigrivus). 

I pair Californian Quail {Lophotyx califurnica). 

1 (S Pintail Whydah (Vidua principalis). 

This section, like the previous one, also has plenty of 
natural cover, yet the nests I saw therein were either on top 
of or inside wooden nest boxes, but there were two nests in 
bushes, in which young had been hatched but not reared, 
presumably owing to heavy rain storms at that period, so that, 
apparently the Green Cardinals had reasoned the matter out and 
decided that in this deuce of a climate it was folly having too 
airy a mansion, and their wisdom came in for my warm 

Here, too, the competitive instinct was very apparent 
when insect supplies were given out — there, after throw-ing 
down a few insects, Capt. Rattigan stood, shooing off the other 
cardinals while Mr. and Mrs. Green got enough for their babies, 
but all the " shooing " in the world did not prevent the Greys 
and Virginians getting a look-in — directly one of tlie (greens 
was off guard or the aviculturist one ceased " shooing." Of the 
two avicultural onlookers one cussed the Greys and Virginians 
as unworthy pirates, the other silently applauded their successful 
pertinacity. I was glad later to learn that Mr. and Mrs. 
Green successfully reared their babies. It is astonishmg how 
sc>on wild species adapt themselves to altered conditions. 

Equally interesting, too, to note that the offspring of 
uncannily tame parents possess all the wild instincts of those 
born in their native wilds, and, as soon as they have found the 
full use of their wings, after making their exit from the nest, 
<'ire as wild and unapproachable for a time as those freeborn. 

These three species of Cardinals, etc., made quite a nice 
picture in their semi-natural quarters, and. though not always 
amiable species when kept together, they maintained a sort of 
amiable tolerance towards each other, as a rule. 

The (irey Cardinals also successfully nested and reared 
young, but the Virginians forsook their offspring when a few 
days old, but Capt. Rattigan succeeded in ])ringing up two In- 
hand-feeding them with soft-food and insects. 

The Budgerigars' Aviary : This aviary, an enclosed one, 
is mainly given up to Budgerigars, of which it contained quite a 

Visits to Members' Aviaries. 


few — old and yount^" — it also housed a few other species, for 
which there was no accommodation elsewhere, viz : 

I 9 Green Cardinal (G". cristata). 

I pair Barbary Turtle Doves (7'. risorius). 

t 9 Red Mountain Dove {Geotrygon montana). 

I 9 Orange Bishop {Pyronielana franciscana). 

These do not call for further comment, save that all were 
ir tip-top condition in every way. 

The Farrakeet Aviary : This is a new structure, and an 
excellent aviary, too. The back and one end consist of concrete 
built dog" kennels of which there are three, each one forming' 
a roomy shelter, and all have outlets to the same roomy flight, 
which also is well sheltered by a thick shrubbery bordering the 
lawn. It contained the follow^ing : 

I pair Pennant's Parrakeets (Platycercus elegans). 

I pair Peach-faced Lovebirds {Agapornis roseicapilla). 

I pair Blossom-headed Parrakeets (Palaeornis cyanocepkala). 

I pair Cockateels {Calopsitfacus novae-hollandiae). 

I 9 Green Cardinal (G. cristata). 

I J Pope Cardinal {Faroaria larvata). 







A . 













Ground Plan Capt. Rattigan's Parrakeet Aviary. 
A. — Open doorways to Shelter. 

These converted dog kennels have made a really capital 
parrakeet aviary, and I opine young will be reared therein. The 
floors of flight and shelters are concrete, so that it is fairly 
secure against rats and other vermin. 

JAizun Birdroow : This is a small wooden portable 

building, for the purpose of breeding and flighting canaries. 
The only alien it contained was an exquisite Crimson Finch. 

228 Visits to Members' Aviaries. 

Barn Birdroom : This is a large room, some 40ft. x 
20ft., lofty, and well-lighted. It is really a combined store and 
birdroom. Along the entrance end and part of the front are 
a number of iron bins, and in these the various seeds and meals 
are stored. The centre of the room is occupied by two roomy 
flights. Into this room come the bulk of the birds during 
the autumn and winter months, also the young birds when able 
Lo fend for themselves. However, it contains a goodly 

number of birds all the year round, and some species are bred 
in the flights and cages each season. 

In the flight cages round the sides of the room I noted : 

Cornish Chough Hand-reared Thrushes 

Yellow-wing Sugarbird Hand-reared Virginian Cardinal 

Young Zebra Finches Greenfinch 

Yorkshire Canaries Young Grey Cardinals 

Hand-reared Blackbirds Pekin Robin 

Young Cuban Finches Canaries 

Young Cordon Bleus Red-headed Finch 

Young Rufous-backed Mannikins Nightingale 

Young Blackcap 

In Centre Flight No. i : This contained a good number 
of young birds. I noted the following: 
Canaries Siskin-Canary Mules 

Young Quail Finches Red-headed Finch-CuUhroat Hybrids 

I pair White Java Sparrows Young Zebra Finches 

I pair Crimson Finches Silverbill 

Also cock Blue Budgerigar mated with a blue-bred Green, 

with a brood of young in the husk, among which was one Blue. 

Centre Flight No. 2 : This contained but few birds, viz : 

1 pair Green Cardinals, feeding young. 

2 (S Blue-bred Green Budgerigars 
I (S Greenfinch 

I S Chaffinch. 

This brings my description of this practical accommoda- 
tion to a close — I have purposely refrained from going into too 
close detail as to the doings of the birds, as I hope Capt. 
Rattigan will spin the yarn himself. 

I must mention, in conclusion, that in the spring Capt. 
Rattigan released a few weavers, which he had found trouble- 
some in the aviary, and they stayed fairly well about the paddock 
and garden. A pair of Rufous-necked Weavers (Hyphantornis 

Stray Az^iary Notes. 229 

ciicuUaiiis) nested in the shnil)l)ery aloni^' one side of the lawn 
and broui^ht tip three youny birds successfnlly. Some of these 
weavers are still about, and I saw several, including an Orange 
Weaver, in full colour, but it was only a glimpse I caught of 
this brilliant species — most of the " at liberty " birds were in 
eclipse plumage and not easy to detect amid the very ntimerous 
avifauna of the garden. 

The last morning of my visit came, and amid almost 
tropical rain I passed to the station and entrained for Westbury, 
Wilts., but this accotint I must leave to another issue. 
To be continued. 

Stray Aviary Notes. 

By Herbert Carr-Walker. 

This has been almost a futile breeding season, and 
successes few and far between, yet I have achieved a success 
which I have tried to gain for many years past, but hitherto 
failure has always dogged my efforts. I have always been bent 
upon breeding British Bullfinches, and this season my desire 
has been achieved. 

I can find no one in this part of the world (Yorks.) who 
has successfully bred them, though a friend of mine has tried for 
twenty years to do so. I believe the cause of so many failures 
is the dif^culty of getting the right food for them in the early 
stages. The first intimation I got that they were nesting was 
noticing the cock bird very busy collecting small flies 
from the wire-netting, and I at once suspected he was feeding 
young, and on this assumption arranged for a daily supply of 
all kinds of wild grass seeds. A little later tw^o exceedingly 
strong young birds left the nest. They have now moulted and 
taken on their black-caps, but both are females. Needless to 
say I am much gratified. 

I see in September Bird Notes that Dr. Hopkinson has 
included tlie Spice Finch x Silverbill hybrids, which were bred 
here, in his Hst. It may be of interest to give a few notes of 
this 1920 episode. I still have two of the hybrids, and very 
pretty birds they are, too — could they be put to any useful 

230 Stray Aviary Notes. 

l^nrpose [siicli hylji-ids are rarely fertile when paired inter se. 
but mated to either of the parent species fertile eggs are usuallv 
produced. — Ed.] ? Their nest was of the usual globular typr 
with entrance hole at the front, and, so far as I observed the male 
parent took entire charge of the young- as to feeding and 
protecting them — the Silverbill (African or Indian form? — Ed.), 
a newly imported bird, died soon after the young made their 
exit from the nest. The cock Spice Finch died recently wdiile in 
the moult. An interesting feature has been that the Spice 
Finch and his family have been inseparable, right up to the 
tmie of his death — where one went the others alw-ays followed. 

Tlie outstanding" feature of this season in my aviary has 
been the breeding of the Cutthroats [Aniadina fasciata) — did the 
inclement weather suit them ? My two pairs fully reared a 
score of young birds. Some seasons I have not reared a single 
youngster of this species ! 

The article on the merits of the Shama as a song bird in 
tliis Journal a few issues back, tilled me with a desire to possess 
cne, and during' the summer I acquired a newly imported 
specimen. He is now through the moult and in perfect condi- 
tion. \viiat satisfactory birds tney are! My bird i-as always 
been finger-tame with me, and his song a perfect delight; the 
variety of it, with a wonderful rang'e of notes, make it the 
most fascinating bird I have ever kept. He will sing under 
any and all conditions, in day or artificial light, and is at his best 
with people about him. Shyness or fear he is a stranger to. 

Tn him I have found another favourite bird. 

[Re breeding Bullfinches : P or many years past I have 
not kept this species, but in the comparatively early days of my 
avicultural experience I bred them quite freely, but it was only 
after a number of failures that success was attained. So far 
as I know very few^ Bullfinches are reared in captivity. Quite 
a few hybrids have been reared — such have appeared on the 
.'how bench at various times, fairly regularly too — by crossing 
with some other species of indigenous finch. linnet, redpoll, etc. 
T attributed my success with the Bullfinch to unlimited green- 
food — grasses and other garden weeds, sprays from rose and 
fruit-trees. I did not supply any live insects, and their quarters 
nurely a roomy i)acking-case-cage. — W.T.P.] 

Sitcccssful Breeding of tlic Isabcllinc Turtle Dove. 231 

Successful Breeding of the Isabelline Turtle Dove. 

(Turtur isabeUiniis). 

By H. Bright, F.Z.S. 

The lsal:>elHne Turtle Dove bears a strong resemblance 
o the Wild Turtle Dove (1\ turtur). but is of a warmer colour- 
ation and presents an even more pleasing appearance. 

Dcseription : Entire head, back of neck sandy -brown 
(isabelline); upper back fawn-colour; lower back, rump, and 
upper tail-coverts dark fawn-colour, the feathers of the lower 
back with dtisky centres; wings cinnamon-brown; under parts 
vinotis-brown; abdomen and ventral region white; tail: central 
feathers dusky-brown, broadly tipped with brown, remaining 
feathers blackish-brown, Ijroadly tipped whitish fawn-colour 
On the sides of the neck are two blackish patches variegated 
with fawn-colour, and the neck is flushed with refulgent vinous 
pink. Bare skin round the eyes red; legs and feet red. Total 
length 11^ inches, of which the tail meastires nearly 5 inches 
(approx. 47-^in.), 

The female is slightly duller, more slenderly built, and the 
ashy-wash on the sides of body and back more distinct than in 
the male. 

Juvenal plumage, very similar to adults, but paler, and 
*he underparts are sandy-brown; no neck ])atches. 

It is a native of N.E. Africa, and is a very pretty and 
handsome dove. 

1 obtained these 1)irds from Mr. Rogers, of Liverpool, 
who, 1 believe, got them from the Giza Zoo at Cairo. There 
were four of this species among various other doves, and I 
liked them so well that I brought them away with me. On my 
arrival home, the weather l)eing warm and fine, I selected what 
T felt sure were a true pair, and turned them into my large 
aviary — I had no hesitation in doing this, as the birds were in 
I)erfect condition and plumage. 

The outward difference between the sexes being infinit- 
esimal, I first picked out, as a hen, the smallest and slimmest 
bird of the four, and then took the largest and boldest of the 
other three, and felt pretty sure that T had picked out a true 
l-vair, and later events proved this to be correct. The other two 

2T,2 Successful Brccdiiii^ of the Isabcllinc Turilc Dove. 

I put into another aviary, and 1 feel sure they are both of the 
same sex, as they have never shown the least inclination to pair, 
nor make any attempt to construct a nest. I believe them 
:o be males. 

The pair in the large aviary settled down almost at once, 
and in about a fortnight I saw the cock driving" the hen about 
and displaying to her, but, at first, she took but little notice 
of him — she evidently had not fully got over the importation 
journey and change of home, but the male persisted, and a little 
later I saw her carrying small twigs into a clump of elder 
bushes, in the forks of which they constructed a fairly substan- 
tial nest of stout twigs for the base, and finer twigs on top. 
The hen laid almost inunediately, and in due course hatched 
out two squabs, which were fully reared. They remained in 
'he nest until they were fully feathered, and there was barely 
room for both. I looked at them several times and began to 
v/onder when they would venture out, for they appeared as well 
grown as their parents. Eventually I saw one young bird 
perching" in the elder quite close to the nest. When at last they 
began to go about the aviary they were able to do so as easily 
■is their parents. This is quite different to most species of 
doves, as the young mostly leave the nest at a very early age, 
and, being somewhat helpless at tirst, losses are not uncommon, 
and I was gratified that the Isabellines were wiser than most 
of their kind. 

The parent birds soon brought them over to the seed tray, 
and they started at once to pick up seed for themselves. 

Without loss of time the hen laid again in the same nest, 
and brought out another pair of strong young doves as before. 

They at once went to nest again, as before occupying 
the original nest, and brought out another pair of equally strong- 
young birds, though the weather was then quite cold, with 
much rain. 

Just before the above pair was hatched I wanted to send 
a pair away to a friend, and had great trouble in picking them 
(;ut, owing to the adult hen l)eing in moult and the earlier 
youngsters with the adult plumage all but complete. 

When the young left the nest they lacked the dark bodv 
markings and neck patches of the adults and their plumage 
generally was paler than tii;it of their parents. 

Correspondence. 233 

This species are no trouble in the aviary among the other 
thirty or so z'.mW doves of various species, only showing a 
little temper when their nest was too closely approached. The 
young were equally amiable, and did not interfere at all with 
their parents' subsequent nesting operations, nor with the later 
young birds after their exit from the nest. 

When Mr. Page was here on a visit in July last he rather 
thought this species had been bred at the London Zoo, but 
subsequent enquiries prove that they have not yet had the 
species in their collection, so, apparently, this is the first time 
Isabellines have reared young in England. 




Sir, — I have recently lost two Australian finches at liberty from, what 
appears to be, an unusual cause. Some days ago I noticed a Crimson Finch 
with a large grey tick, about the size of a pea, on his cheek. The bird's 
eye on the same side was quite closed up. I caught him in the evening, 
and with some difficulty removed the tick. I then let him go but never saw 
him again, and he is clearly dead. 

Not long afterwards I noticed a Diamond Finch that seemed ill. It 
did not show the ordinary symptoms of chill, pneumonia, or egg-binding, but 
had a dazed appearance. I caught it up and found it in excellent condition, 
but it died the same day. The aviary attendant found another large tick 
on its head, which had escaped my observation, owing to its resemblance in 
colour to the bird's plumage. 

It may seem unlikely that a single parasite could kill a healthy finch, 
although a man would certainly feel seedy if he had a creature the size 
of a cat hanging on to him and sucking his blood ! 

On the other hand certain diseases fatal to cattle are conveyed by 
the bites of South African ticks, while in Australia there are ticks whose bite 
i^ fatal to carnivorous animals ; so it may be that British ticks are capable of 
killing small foreign birds. 

Havant. (The Marquis of) TAVISTOCK. 

Sir, — The following report confirms my idea that the birds were 
killed by ticks : 

" The Diamond Finch was undoubtedly killed by the tick you mention, 
"which. I presume, from your description to be a sheep tick. This 
" beast had bit the bird in both eyes, also on various parts of the head, 
" the whole of the head being covered with blood. The body was quite 
" free of wounds, and was sucked dry of blood. When I am mounting a 
" ram's head, I have often been bit by them, and I can tell you get an 

234 Correspondence. 

" interesting and lively time until you get rid of them, so I pity the poor 
" little bird who gets one en it. — F. Kirby, F. Z.S.I." 

I wonder if British birds are ever attacked ? 
■Tavant: Odtoher 6th. 1922. (The Marquis of) TAVISTOCK. 

Nesting of the Cape Turtle Dove (Turtiir capicola.) 

My fellow member Mr. Guy Falkner wrote me in the 
late summer of 1921 if T would accept a pair of this species; he 
liad brought a few back with him when he returned from Africa, 
which at the time were on deposit at the London Zoo (I believe 
they have since been presented to the Zoological Society), and 
as I had never kept this species previously, I accepted his offer 
with much pleasure. They duly arrived, in the late autumn of 
last year, I think, and I became quite interested in them. 
On arrival I put them into my large aviary, where they passed 
the winter without mishap. 

In appearance they are very like the common Barbary 
Turtle Dove {T . risorius), but are much greyer in tone, and of 
slightly more slender build. As I find it difficult to get them 
sufficiently near to make a close description of their plumage I 
am quoting same from the British Museum Catalogue. 

" Adult male. — Pileum leaden grey, lighter on the forehead, and 
" shadint- into vinous-grey on the sides of the head, neck and chest, 
" anterior part of the cheeks and throat grey; ;i l)Iack line on the lores, 
" not always well defined; on the hind neck a broad black collar, partly 
"edged above and below with grey; back, inner upper wing-coverts, 
"innermost secondaries, and scapulars grey-brown; passing into leaden 
"grey on outer upper wing-coverts; lower back and rump grey-brown 
"along the middle, leaden grey on the sides; upper tail-coverts grey- 
" brown ; middle of abdomen buffy white; under tail coverts white; 
" primary-coverts and quills blackish, with pale narrow edges; under wing- 
" coverts leaden grey; central tail feathers brown-grey; the lateral ones 
" black on the basal half ; the terminal half it white on the outer feathers. 
" grev on the innei ones; tail underneath black on the basal half, white 
" on the tcrnn'nal one, the outer feathers have the outer web white ; ' iris 
"brown, bill black; legs pinkish-red." Total length 10.5 inches, wing 6, 
" tail 4.6 bill 0.55, tarsus 0.85." 

" Female. — Similar to the male." 

" Yovng. — Duller and with pale edges to the feathers of the upper 
" parts." 

" Habitat. — Cape Colony, extending into Natal and Southern 
" Transvaal." 

Brit. Mns. Cat. Vo! 21., pp 425-6 
To be continued. 

"^Vll flights 5\c5<irvc6. ^ovambcr, 1922 


— THE — 

Quail Finches, (Ortygospiza polyzona). 
Bv Capt. Ci. E. Rattigax, F.Z.S. 

So far as 1 am aware there has been no instance of the 
successful breeding" of Quail h'inches since they were bred for 
the first time on record by that extremely clever aviculturist, 
Mr. Reginald i'hillipps. At all events, no record ot such an 
event, if it occurred, appears to have been published. A very 
delightful account of Air. Phillipps' success appears, from his 
pen. in tne Avicultural Magazine of May 1908. Third Series, 
\'^ol. I., page 2)7- to wliich I would refer my readers. Aly own 
experience with these charming" little birds differed in some 
respects from that of .Mr. Phi]]ii)s. llie Ouail Finch is unlike 
most of the mannikins, in which family it is, rather unhappily. 
T think, included. (Note. — 1 say unhappily because it certainly 
does not resemble the mannikins either in appearance or habits, 
and it is anything l)ut dull and lethargic, all of which terms 
have been applied with some justice to the other species of 
mannikins. Nor do I know of any other mannikin possessing 
a red bill). The sexes are easily distinguished. A rough 
description of the plumage is : — Cock : Brown above, outer tail 
feathers edged with white; throat and cheeks black; a large 
vvdiite spot on chin; a broad white orbital ring; below greyish, 
barred black and \\'hite and passing to chestnut on lower breast. 
Beak red; feet brown ; irides hazel. Female : Altogether duller; 
breast and sides barred brown and white, and it lacks the black 
on cheeks and throat. 


Habitat. — From Abyssinia to Eastern Cape Colony and 
on the west from Senegal to Angola. JVild Life. — Shelley, 
m Birds of Africa, quotes Stark as follows: — "These pretty 
little birds are usually met with in small flocks on open, grassy 

236 OiKiil /''niches. 

fliits. Here tliey feed on the .ground, under the S'rass. on 
frdlen seeds. 11 distur])ed, they rise suddenly with a curious 
metallic " chirp," Hy a short distance and settle ai^ain directly 
en the .ground without tirst perching;" on 1:)ushes or weeds, but 
they sometimes rise with their usual sharp cry, and fall ag^ain on 
the spot from whicli they rose." Mr. T. Ayres i^ives the 
fcllowini^" account of a nest found near Potchefstroom on the 
30th April : — " The nest was a very rough structure, placed on 
the ;^"roimd amonj^st the j^^rass, and not easily seen from its 
heiui^" composed of dead blades of "rass; it was hned with a few 
coarse feathers, and in shape much like the nests of some of the 
Sunbirds, with a projectin,^' cave over the entrance, but all very 
rou^'h. The et^g's were five in number, and pure white. 


I procured my first pair of these birds in 1921, and this 
pair nested, and reared two youngsters for me that year. Not 
wishing to disturb them, I left them unmolested, and though 
I knew the position of the nest, it was not until after me young 
had flown that I searched for and found the nest, not, however, 
without some considerable difficulty. This nest, which extern- 
ally exactly resembled the others described hereafter, contained 
one infertile egg, pure white, and a roimded ovate in shape. 

This season (1922) 1 commenced operations with two 
pairs. These were turned out into a large naturally-planted 
aviary, together with a mixed assortment of other small 
foreigners on the 8th April. The weather for the next few 
days was sim[)ly vile. On the tSth April, quite a nice day for a 
change, I noticed a cock Quail Finch flying around in a some- 
what undecided manner with bits of grass, or rather fine, dead 
grass. The next morning I found him visiting a clump of 
maidenhair bush, and on closer examination I found traces of 
the commencement of a nest. This was completed on the 20th 
April, though feathers were continually added by the cock even 
after the young had hatched. Incidentally, the cock alone 
seems to do all the fetch and carrying of materials needed 
for the construction of the nest, though I fancy the hen lends 
her aid to the construction thereof. The nest so far from being 
an " untidv structure " was very neatly and compa:ctly built, 
and was composed of fine grass cosilv lined with feathers. 

Quail Pinches. 237 

About the shape and size of a cricket ball, or perhaps a shade 
larger, it was about a foot from the i^round, about the middle 
of the bush and very well concealed. It was beautifully woven 
together and, I should say, waterproof. When a])proachin,g- 
I't the old birds would always circle around for a few seconds 
before ali.ghtini;-, as they always did finally, on the top of the 
bush. There another slight pause took place, and finally a rapid 
little run down to the nest. This was the procedure invariably 
adopted, and they always alighted upon exactly the same spot 
on the bush and always after a sHght pause followed the queer, 
hurried little zig-zag run down into the nest. The first egg was 
laid on the 2Tst April, and the clutch of five eggs completed 
on the 25th inst. Incubation commenced with the laying of the 
first egg, and both sexes share in the duties of incubation, one 
relieving the other about every two hours. No attempt at 
raising a second brood has ever been undertaken by any of my 
birds. The eggs did not hatch until the 10th June or 19 days 
later, by which time I had almost made up my mind that they 
were all duds. The young, four in number, were jet black in 
colour, sparsely covered with greyish down. All went well 
uV the 20tn May, when, on making my usual rounds of inspec- 
tion after tea. I found to my horror that the poor little quail 
finches had been thrown out of the nest and were lying as thougli 
dead about two feet away on the ground. I picked up three 
of them ; the fourth had vanished without trace, but they felt 
quite cold and appeared to be lifeless except that the blood was 
still slowly oozing from a nasty wound over the base of the bill 
rf one of them. This fact encouraged me to hope that there 
might yet be some slender chance of saving them. I therefore 
took them inside the house, and after wrapping them in warm 
cotton wool, held them over a stove. My efforts were soon 
rewarded, and in a surprisingly short time I had the satisfaction 
'•f seeing the little things begin to show^ signs of returning to 
life. I placed them, still wrapped in cotton wool, in a small 
cardboard box and left them near the stove. In about an hour 
and a hailf they had completely recovered and began to gape 
hungrily for food. I noticed that their crops were crammed 
V'ith millet seed, which was plainly visible, and appeared to 
contain nothing else. The old birds are fond of mealworms, 
but none were supplied to this aviary during this period, and 1 

2T,^ (Juail /■i)iclics. 

belie\e the youni; to have been entirely raised on seed, and 
ahnost entirely on dry seed, for there was very little seeding 
L'.rass available in their aviary at that time this year. Now the 
qnestion arose : should I return the youni^sters to their parents. 
who had probably deserted the nest lonii" since, or entrust them 
to a canary to rear? With some considerable misgiving I selected 
the former alternative and, having replaced the youngsters, sat 
near by to await events. An hour passed, and although one or 
other of the parents alighted occasionally in the grass near by, 
neither seemed in the least inclined to venture a nearer approach. 
-U was now growing dusk, and fearing the little birds would 
('ie of chill or starvation, I decided on a bold course of action, 
which was no less than to catch up both parents and introduc': 
ti em one after another into the nest with the object, of course, 
of showing them that their prodigals had returned home. 
I successfully carried out this manoeuvre and, after introducing 
ench parent, held my hand over the entrance of the nest for 
al out a minute in order to gi\-e it time to recover from its fright 
and to realise the presence in the nest of the young birds. 
I'lie lien dashed out as soon as I had removed my hand, but the 
cock slaved in tlie nest for al)out a couple of minutes later, and 
[ liad hopes! Xor did tliey prove x'ain, for about 20 minutes 
],''ter it was just liglit enough to see the little cock bird alight 
'Ml the maidenhair bush in the usual spot, and, after a very long 
and nerve-racking pause, toddle down quickly into the nest. 
Mv relief can l)e ]:)erhaps better imagined than described! 
I ','1(1 tlie plan failed I had decided upon caging all the family 
v\i together and hoping for the best. The three young birds 
filially left the nest on the 27th May, or 17 days after hatching, 
''"hey were very strong on the wing and have never looked back 
-ince that nearly disastrous day. 

The second i>air, which occupied the same aviary, com- 
inenccd operations on the 28th April. The nest was completed 
^.'1 the 29th, and the first egg laid on the 30th April. The nest 
was placed on the ground in a small tuft of grass in a rather 
bare patch, about three feet behind a small cump of bamboos. 
F.xcept that it was not quite so neatly made and was lined with 
one or two fronds of bamboo besides the usual feathers, this 
nest exactly resembled the one already described. (It would 
ajipear that the lining of the nest varies slightly, for last year's 

(J nail I' niches. J39 

nest contained a lining; of rabbit's fur in addition to feathers). 
The chUcli in this instance, however, only numbered three. The 
ei:g-s hatched on the i8th May, or 18 days after the layin.y- of the 
first c,Lj",i.i'. Tlie incubation period of this species appears to 
d'ffer rather unexi)ectedly from that which is usual for other 
small birds. The younj^- left the nest on the 4th June, but were 
very weak on the winLi', and, I think, left the nest a bit too soon, 
owing-, probably, to the fact that I runi^' them in the nest on 
the previous evening". However, they throve well, and were 
soon almost as strong and lusty as the youngsters from the hrst 
nest. One pair of these youngsters went to our Editor's 
aviaries, where I hope they may do as well for him as their 
parents did for me; a second pair is booked to a well known 
J'^ench aviculturist. 

Quail Finches are really charming and, in my opinion, 
n.ost attractively coloured little fellows. The cock esi:)ecially 
i^' a regular little dandy and keeps his plumage as spic and s'pan 
as possible. They are. of all birds, the most peaceably disposed 
and law abiding" citizens in a small mixed collection of various 
species, both towards all other birds, as well as their own 
species. Except during the actual excitement of the breeding 
season I have never seen them take part even in the smallest 
squabble. As this period approaches, however, the little cocks 
grow more and more excited, and later possibly assault all and 
sundry who venture to approach the vicinity of their nests with 
much angry and excited chirruping". At such times the two 
cocks frequently engage in pitched battles, rising into the air 
vvuth shrill metallic chirps of indigmation. There the contest 
is continued for a few seconds, after which each returns to his 
own territory none the worse for the encounter, and from thence 
each bursts forth into a comic little paean of victory. My old 
birds seldon"! alight anywhere save on the ground, though when 
disturbed they will sometimes perch on the top of an old ivv-clad 
stump in their aviary, but one of my young hens, now in an 
inside flight, perches as frequently i:p aloft as ui)on the ground. 
Mr. Phillipps' description of their love song is, T think, a verv 
ril)t one, so I am taking the lib?rtv of quoting" it /// c.vtcuso. 1 le 
^vrites as follows: — " When T was a boy. there was a certain 
cottager's garden which had in it a large cherry tree, and vear 

240 Oitail Fi)ichcs. 

by year, as the season of the cherries came rouiiih in order 
10 frighten away the birds, the old man used to fix up in the 
tree a clapper arrangement which was worked by a diminutive 
windmill. As the sails revolved, two heavy, loosely-hung 
pieces of iron were banged against an empty gunpov/der 
cannister — a common object in old muzzle-loading days — with 
results w'hich were more audible than musical ; and I do not 
know of anything which reminds me so much of this ingenious 
contrivance of the old cottager as the staccato song of the Quail 
Finch, which goes somewhat as follows : — Click clack click dike 
cluck deck click cloih cluck dick deck clack cluck 
dike cloike, etc., etc. Now if this score be read slowly, it 
may appear a little tedious; it should be galloped through, as 
when a gust of wind whirls round the arms of the windmill, 
and great care must be exercised lest a slur or a false note be 
uttered; and as the wind is uncertain and unequal, so the song 
bursts forth at one time with startling suddenness; at another 
just for a little spell; at another for a prolonged period, accord- 
ing to the spirit of the moment. I am conscious that no 
com.bination of words which may be found in any dictionarv 
can adequately describe this unrivalled composition — but it has 
only to be heard to be appreciated ! " With the latter sentiment 
T am in thorough accord. Towards evening all the Quail 
I^^inches grow very restless and fly round and round the aviary, 
making a tremendous clatter. Their usual flight is a curious 
sort of bobbing motion, and they often drop to earth with 
surprising abruptness. But they sometimes make use of a 
much more rapid and what one might term purposeful flight, 
when the bobbing motion is almost entirely absent. The love 
dance is very curious. The little cock faces the hen and draws 
himself up very straight and to his full height, and then rapidly 
vibrates his wings " singing " hard all the time. The wings 
are kept half open and held out stiffly, and then follows this 
otremely rapid, vibrating motion, almost a sort of shivering. 
I have sometimes seen a large moth go through a very similar 
sort of vibrating motion with its wings, and of a truth the bird 
•♦ such moments more resembles a large moth than a bird. 
Usually it stands quite still but occasionally it will pivouette 
slowly and almost on tip-toe as it were around the hen with its 
feet apparently only just touching the ground. In fact it is 

Siicccssfitl Breeding of the Whiic-brcasicd Duvc. 241 

propelled, at such moments, more by its \vintj;s than by its 
feet, for such is the extraordinary pitch of nervous excitement 
into which the little chap is thrown that the fever is even 
communicated to its leg's which shiver like those of a man 
with the palsy, and are, 1 am sure, quite incapable of performing' 
their usual functions. I have covered a lot of space in trying 
to pay some tribute to the attractive qualities of this little bird, 
and yet feel paiiifully conscious of the fact that I have altogether 
and signally failed to do it justice. I can only hope then that 
some abler pen than mine will one day be dedicated to its 

Successful Breeding of the White-breasted Dove. 

( PhJogoenas margaritae). 
By H. E. Bright, F.Z.S. 

Mr. Page has already given a description of these l^eautiful 
Doves or Pigeons, so I cannot do better than quote him. He 
calls them: " a near relative of the Bleeding- Heart Pigeon, 
" from which, however, they widely differ in deportment and 
" colouration, and to which we have given the trivial name of 
" \\ nite-breasted Dove or Pigeon. The Bleeding-Heart 

" Pigeon in captivity spends most of its time upon the ground, 
" and during two days we did not see the White-breasted 
" u])on the ground at all. The general colouration of this 
" S])ecies is rich vinous-cinnamon refulgent with a purplish 
" sheen; upper eye-streak, lower eye-region, whole of the 
" throat and breast white, narrowly margined with black; the 
" whole of their appearance being very handsome and 
" gorgeously beautiful " — 1 have, since Mr. Page's visit. 
discovered a point of importance which we both niissed when 
locking at the birds. It is the means, in my pair at all events. 
o: distinguishing the sexes. In the male bird the white eye- 
streak meets over the base of the beak ; in the hen bird there is a 
narrow dividing line where the dark colour of the head runs 
rght down to the beak, cutting through the white. I noticed 
this while looking at the hen as she brooded her young. .She 
was very tame at this ]')eriod. and allowed one to come within a 

24- Succi'ssfitl Brccdiiii^ of llw li'liifc-hreasted Dove. 

foot of the nest without her Ijeing' disturbed, or causing" her to 
leave the nest. 

Tliey came over in a consignment of Australian birds, 
though their native habitat is New Ciuinea; 1 was assured they 
were a true pair. l)ut was much amused later on, when talking 
to their owner, to hear that he thought they were two cocks; 
he had evidently not noticed the above mentioned difference. 
They had been well cared for on their long journey; and were 
ir good condition, except that one had its wing cut short right 
across the primary flights. 

On arrival I gave them their liberty in my large aviary, 
thinking they would ])e all right, but found the cut-winged bird 
cHml:)ed u]) as high as possible, and then went bump on the 
floor of the aviary when anyone was near, so I had to cage it 
i;ntil the flights were renewed. Ths took some weeks, but 
may have induced the inclination to breed. When the power of 
fiiglit was restOTed, the weather being fine, this bird was given 
i*^s lil)erty, and the two l)irds evidently enjoyed the reunion. 

The desire to nest was innnediately manifest; a site was 
soon chosen, a well-sheltered spot in a creeper growing thickly 
.»!■ one of the roof-standards of the out-door flight. Here they 
constructed the usual flimsy dove nest, consisting of a few thin 
twigs loosely put together. 'J'he hen sat closely, but the cock 
was very wild and used to dash off when anyone came near the 
aviary. I am convinced one young bird was hatched out. but 
1 never saw it. though 1 saw them feeding for a few days and 
then they deserted the nest and 1 found only an egg there ; both 
V'est and egg were of typical dove-type. I think the cock must 
liave dragged out the young bird in one of his wild rushes. 

Almost at once they went to nest again, selecting a pre- 
cisely similar position for the nest, but this time it was the 
corner, creeper-clad post, l)y the door of the aviary, and, I must 
-ay, 1 had very faint hopes of any young being reared in such a 
position, considering the wildness of the cock bird. However, 
fortune favoured me and all went well. The apology for a 
nest was duly completed, and two eggs deposited therein. The 
hen was very steady, sitting closely, in fact, never left her eggs 
or young except on one occasion when they were just about 
readv to flv. and T alarmed her bv undue curiositv — I badlv 

Sitcccsslnl Hrcvdiiig ol the W liitc-brcasicd Duvc. 243 

wanted a look at her family. She got nervous and dashed off 
wildly, and simultaneously out flopped first one and then the 
other of the two young" birds. It was a cold, damp evening, 
so I thought I would try and put them back in the nest — I had 
tried this on several occasions with the young" of other species 
of doves, but always found them jump out again — but had very 
slig"ht hopes they would remain in the nest ; however, this time 
1 g'ot both of them and put them in tog"ether, keeping" my hand 
over for a little time, then taking" it away quickly when I saw 
the hen coming" back. I slipped away, and the hen came right 
on to the nest and settled down for the night previous to this 
one youngster came very near to disaster, for, when they were 
about four days old, the cock bird, in or.e of his wild rushes, 
drag'ged one of them out of the nest; fortunately it was found 
and returned to the nest in time. After the former episode 
the young" remained two more days in the nest, althoug"h one 
of them was well able to g"et about when T disturbed them ; the 
younger one is less fully feathered. 

After leaving the nest I never saw a sig'n of them for a 
full week, then I found one, and a few days later saw the other, 
but it was days later still before the parent birds brought them 
into the bird-house, where the birds are fed. 

i\'ow ((Jctoljei 23.) tlicy coirc regularly, and I have seen 
tliem feeding" on several occasions They are rather unusual 
looking" birds, being" smoky-black all over, except for a slightly 
grey shade on face and breast. There is hardly a trace of the 
beautiful purphsh sheen of the old birds, and no white markings. 
Their beaks are light horn-colour, but quickly beginning to turn 
darker. What I take to be the young hen is a little lighter in 
colour and a little greyer on face and breast than the other one. 
which, I presume, is a cock, also at present a little smaller. 

Although my birds spend very little time on the ground, 
I think they have a very decided look of the Bleeding" Heart 
Pigeon. The only sound I have heard them make is a very 
'unmusical grunt. The cock made this noise continually when 
tlriving the hen to nest. 

They still go about with their two young, which are 
very wild, and have evidently tinished all breeding operations 
for this season. 

244 Sitcccssfitl Hrccdiitg of the W hitc-hrcastcd Dove. 

I have found them quite i^ood tempered with other doves, 
of which there are a i^ood numljer in the aviary, not interfering^' 
with them in any way, nor have the other doves molested them. 

[As Mr. Bri.^ht quotes me, 1 may l^e permitted to add a 
few hues — the description quoted is a very sketchy one, and 
even at that was taken under g'reat difficulty, for they were 
very wild, aiid a near ap])roach was impossible — and the coloura- 
tion of some parts was only perceptible durin,^' their wild dashes 
from one part of the aviary to another, so, for comparison 
nuri)oses, I append their description as !..;"iven in the Brit. Mus. 
Cat. \'o\. xxi., taken, of course, from skins: — 

•■ Adult Male: Upper part of head, upper hind neck, and a sub- 
" ocular hand from the liase of tlie lower mandi1)le to tlie nape of the 
" neck black : lores, sides of the foreiiead, superciliary strii)e, tliroat and 
'■ crop region pure white; feathers of lower hind neck, mantle, upper back, 
■■ scapulars, and upper wing-coverts brown-black with beautiful ])urple 
" edges; rumj) l)rown-black with purple reflections; lower breast, abdomen 
" and under tail-coverts slate-black, the feathers on the sides of the 
"breast with purplish edges; cjuills, primarx-coverts and under wing- 
■ covcils brow^n-black : under surface of the quills slate-lilack ; tail black; 
'•bill black; feet dull brown-red; iris black (D'Alberlis). Total length 
" aliout 9^ inches, wing 5^ inches." 

Some of the discrepancy is the difference between life 
nnd death, the remainder is accounted for by the difference of 
having a skin in the hand and desci ibini.;' the bird as it disported 
in the aviary. Under the play of lii.;ht the colouration was as 
described at the beginning' of these notes — purple edges 
becoming merged under the conditions into a general sheen, 
which appeared as it flew to be strongest on hind neck, lower 
back and sides of breast. When at rest under the shelter roof 
very little purple could be seen from the nearest point it allowed 
:■'' to approach. I congratulate our member, not only upon 
liie possession of a rare and beautiful species, but also upon his 
hick with and management of them — it is a niedal well 
earned. — W. T. P.\(;e. I 


1 5^^^"- r 

Weaver's 4 Wi?yt<at?'s A^v^ar^y 

fir^cp €.5rr-a.l\ S'lrds A^\iary 

jSryall 3i'^ds' Aviarv 


SrnaW ^f'di ^^iar\/ 

PttjcIT Bir<is' /^vi'ar^^ 



SiyjHjirjj'/liia'y ^ 

7 Sbt'Tci- 



T A r H 


>< i-S i9 


1 ov 

! ,, ... 

MLS 10 


QrOUIVD PtfiNjt}}' 5)»«^<j^lyi/(ymrii 

9^^raw^ Ic itAttt, 

Visits to M outers' Az'iorics. 245 

Visits to Members' Aviaries. 

By Wesley T. Page. F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 
{Continued from page 22p). 

Mr. Shork Baily's Aviaries and Birds: On my 

arrival at Boyers House I met my host and hostess; it was still 
raining-, but after tea and avicultural gossip, we walked through 
the aviaries in waterproofs — do I hear? " What mad fools those 
aviculturists are " — well, we do not mind, gibe on, dear reader, 
it you draw any satisfaction therefrom — we would not deny you 
this pleasure for worlds! Then came dinner and a long talk 
before retirement for the night. 

Aviculture here is upon a large scale — there are twenty 
aviaries, not one of them small, and several are huge enclosures, 
besides the pheasant runs, crane and pea-fowl paddot-ks. and 
the waterfowl on the lake — one clear day was all too short to 
take them in, and there was altogether too nuich to visualise 
them for future use. effectually and mentally, even with the aid of 
notes — as it is. I missed the pheasantries altogether except for 
the Crossoptilons. Therefore, though my description must 
necessarily be crude, it cannot be crow^ded within the compass 
rf one instalment, nor justice be done either to the accommoda- 
tion or the large series of birds, and. of course, in so short a 
period I did not glimpse all of them — however, if my readers 
are as interested in my notes as I was during the few hours I was 
jotting them down amid the birds, this description will not have 
been written in vain. 

The aviaries generally have a rough natural character, 
plenty of herbage and bush cover, yet all have an open 
appear-ance — there are, however, plenty of retreats and natural 
cover for the birds. For the roof-standards willow, silver 
poplar and elder poles (green-wood) were used; most of them 
have grown, and, though cut back annually, they form thick 
bushes, with plenty of stubby forked bi-anches for nesting sites — 
tins intensifies the rouglr natural aspect of the aviaries, there 
being only the wire netting above one's head and round the 
sides to remind one the birds are enjoyingf only restrained 
liberty, and some of the aviaries are so huge that even this 
nnpression is lost. The accompanying ground plan and photos 
of the weaver aviary will enforce what I have written, and the 

24() risits to Members' Ai'iancs. 

careful thought that has been expended upon tlieir planning, 
also how effectually extension has been carried on, so as to 
form a complete whole. The numbers on the ground plan are 
mine and may not accord with those Air. Shore Baily uses; they 
were given as 1 walked round, so as to enable me to localise my 
notes, which latter mostly consisted of a list of the birds 1 saw. 
With this introduction I will now ask my readers to accompany 
MS in our wahv through the aviaries. 1 may say all this accom- 
modation runs along one side and the back of the lawn, thick 
shrubberies shutting them out of vision from the house windows. 

Aviar\' No. i. — Aviaries Nos. i to 8 are constructed 
round the stable and garage yard, the shelters of Nos. 7 and 8 
being the ])ortioned-ofT stable. No. i stands alone, a roomy 
aviary fully 15ft. high — this is given uj) to a pair of African 
Spotted Eagle-Owls {Bubo inaciilosiis) which have already been 
described by their owner — they are handsome l)irds, in psrfect 
condition, and should ultimately breed. 

Aviaries 2 to 8 form one range on the op]>osite side of 
the yard, and consist of a long shed with wire-netting front and 
partitioned off into the respective divisions. They are roomy 
:ind form very effective parrakeet aviaries. 

No. 2: This contained several Pearly Conures {ryrrliitra 
i'crlaia), a rare and pretty species, which next season should 
win our member yet another F.B.C breeding medal. 

Their description from Brit. Miis. Cat. is as follows: 

" Adult: Green; a dull frontal Ijand, another on the lower pari of 

" hind neck; cheeks, ni)]ier hreast, sides, vent, outermost upi)er tail-coverts, 
bluish : pileimi and najie hrown ; cheeks more or less greenish on the 
upper part; ear-coverts brown-grey; throat and breast lirown, with lighter 

" edges; feathers of the breast with two cross-bands- — a broader one light 
brown, and a second one narrow and 1)!ackish at Up: a brown-red patch 
on middle of abdomen, sometimes scarcely visible, .and always more or 
less hidden by liie green edges of the feathers ; b;istard-wing and ))i-imary- 

" coverts blue: first primary black, the remainder deep blue, with a 
narrow brighter edge on the outer webs; secondaries blue, with the outer 
webs green ; tertials green ; bend of the wings and smaller under wing- 
coverts red, the greater ones blackish, sometimes some of them reddish; 

" quills underneath blackish with a slight olive tinge; tail above brown-red, 
but redder at the base of the inner web of the feathers; bill horn-brown; 

" feet dusky. Total length 9.5 inches, wing 5, tail 4.6, bill o.hs, tarsus 

•' 0.42.— B.L.C., Vol. p. 22--8." 

T quote the above as the light was not good, and tmder the 

I'isits to .]J cinbcrs' Ariarics. 247 

sl.;ulo\v of the roof one could not rce nnu-h, neither were they 
steady enough to allow close, continued observation. 

No. J : Similar dimensions but empty. 

No. 4 : This aviary contained a flock of blue-bred Green 
Budgerigars {Melopsittacus iiiidnlatus) which had not proved 
(most aviarists have had similar experiences this season) as 
prolific as usual. 

No. 5 : This enclosure was given up to Cockateels 
iCdlof^sittaciis novac-hoUandiac), and contained adults and 
young birds. 

No. 6: Empty. 

No. ~: This contained a pair of Maximilian's Parrots 
{Pionns iJia.viDuliaiii). and a pair of hybrid Necklace-Senega:! 
l-)oves, which are fertile inter sc. 

No. 8: Here were housed a fine pair of Azure Jays 
(Cyonocorax cacriilcus), as beautiful as Fairy Blue-Birds, but 
as Mr. Shore Baily has already described this handsome species 
(B.N., 1922, p. 47) I need not linger thereupon, with so mucli 
I0 describe. They were in perfect health, and one wonders 
that they have not bred. 

No. q: This aviary consisted of a roomy run and 
shelter, and contained a small flock of young Manchurian 
Crossoptilons (CrossoptUun niaiicliiiriciiiii) — see last isstie of 
B.N. — I bespoke a pair of them, which have just come to hand, 
and are very strong, handsome birds — they do full credit to Mr. 
Shore Baily's skilful rearing. 

\'Ve now pass on to the naturally planted wilderness 
aviaries, one or two of which are merely summer quarters for 
their occupants. All have streamlets of running water 
meandering through them. 

S}iiall Birds' Aznary No. 10: This is about 20ft. square 
approximately, well planted with privet and various evergreen 
shrubs, with a nice shelter in one corner. It contained : 

5 young- Peacock Pheasants (I'olyplcctron cliiuquis). 

1 p.'iir Saffron Finches {Sycalis fiavcola). 

I pair Lilac-crowned Fruit Pigeons (Ptilolnpns coroniilatus). 

1 pair Grey Cardinals {Paroaria cucullata). 
T c? S.A. Dick-cissel (Spisa amcricayjd) 

2 African Thrushes (species incerf) 

j^X I'isits to McDihcrs' A'l'inrics. 

All were in iierfect health, apparently contented and 
liai)py. The young" I'eacock I'heasants were birds of the 

year and a hne quintet. 

S))iall Hirds' Ai'iarx No. ii : Similar to number ten. but 
with no shelter. Here were housed: 

I pair New Guinea Quail {Synaccus plmnhcns) and Im-qocI of 3-oung. 

1 Kcd Mountain Dove (Geotry'^oii Dioutana). 

I pair Cordon i'leus {Estrilda phoenicotis). 

i pair iUack-cheek Waxbills {listrilda crythroiiota). 

1 pair Grey Singin.t^tinclies (Serinus leucopygiiis). 

Algerian Chaffinch mated to English Chaffinch. 

I pair African Rock Buntings {Fingilla taUapisi). 

I pair Pope Cardinals [Faroaria larvata). 

\ S Black-headed Siskin (Chrysomitris icterica). 

A very pretty crowd they formed too, dispersed amid 
liiC living greenery; especially interesting were the family party 
■ •( New Guinea Quail — this is a rare species, and with it our 
member gains another F.B.C. breeding medal— at the least 
movement the chicks scattered and became invisible amid the 
ground herbage. Vide a past issue of current vol. of B.N. 

Small Birds' Ai'iary No. 12: A roomy natural aviary 
some 40ft. by 15ft. It contained: 

I pair iMonaul Pheasants {Lopliophonts iiupcymnis) with one egg. 
1 pair Red-collared Wh.ydahs (Pentlictria ardois). 
I pair Cuban i-'inches (Phonipara cmwra). 
• pair Rock Buntings (Frivgilla tahapisi). 

The Monauls formed a gorgeous spectacle as they moved 
about the aviary: the hues of their iridescent plumage change 
with almost every movement and beggar description. The 
other species are beautiful but well known : the Rock Buntings 
are rare, though odd specimens have occurred for some years 

Small Birds' .Iz'iary iVo. ly. Similar in size and 
character to number twelve. Disporting about the aviary were : 

1 jjair Mislo wSeed-finches {^ycalis Intcivoitris). See .Sept. B.X., |). \yq. 

I pair Zebra Finches {Taoiiopygia casfanotis). 

Goldfinch mated to Sikhim Siskin (C". tibcfoiiux). 

I ])air Brazilian Finches (species hiccrt). 

As Mr. Shore Baily has already told the tale of the breeding 
if the Misto Seedfinehes (another medal record), there is little 
for me to add — they are of unpretentious appearance and do 
not make as good a show as do many of the freely imported 

J'isits to Members' Ai'inrics. 249 

species. The Brazilian (for want of a better name) l-'inches 
are new to me, and. 1 think, rare in this country as Hve birds. 
The few particulars I mana.yed to glimpse concerning them 
are — frontal-band, throat, and mmp brick-red. rest of plumage 

Small Birds' Az'iary No. 14 : A replica of the foregoing, 
but it has a good shelter (Nos. \2 and 13 have no shelters). In 
this aviary the growing" cover is excellently arranged, nice open 
spaces, yet ample cover; it was easy to ])ick out the birds, though 
this aviary had but few occupants, viz : 

^ pair Talpacoti Doves {Chamaeplia talpacuti). 

I Scaly Dove {Scardafella squamosa). 

I pair Buffalo Weavers {Textor niger or scncgaloisis). 

T pair Rock Buntings {Fringilla taliapisi). 

3 S. African Buntings (Fringillaria impetuani). 

1 Bearded Tits {Panurus bianuicits). 

I cf (jreen Singingfinch {Seri)Uis icterus). 

The Talpacoti Dove is usually a free-breeding species, 
yet in apparently ideal surroundings this pair has not reared 
any young this season, so far as my notes go — one, however, 
could hardly expect any self-respecting bird to go to nest in 
such weather as we ha\'e experienced this past season. The 
Buffalo Weavers are uncommon and new comers — these formed 
part of a consig-nment of African birds brought over by Dr. E. 
Hopkinson early in the summer — they have settled down well, 
but up to the time of my visit had made no attempt to go to 
nest. 'Hie S.A. Buntings were either on the wing or skulking 
in dark corners while I was in the aviary, so I got no oppor- 
tunity to note details of their plumage. 

Finch and Small Birds' .Az'iary No. 75: A still larger 
aviary and beautifully arranged, though it contains no shelter, 
the birds migrating elsewhere for the winter months. One 
would have expected, considering the space, excellency of 
natural cover, and the fewness of the occupants for so large 
an aviary, that every pair would have gone to nest and found 
all the live-food they required for the rearing of their young 
• V. the aviary. But, owing probably to the inclement season, 
tilings have not worked out that way. 
Here I saw : 

2 King Ouzels (Turdus torqiiatns) 

T pair Cliineolo Sono'-Sparrows {Zonotricliia pileata). 

I \r.\\r Misto Seed-Finches {.Sycalis Intcivcutris). 

250 I'isits 1() M t'Dihow' .\riancs 

3 o Paradise Whydahs {Stegaiiura paradisea). 

I Q Crimson Tragopan {Tragopan satyra). Male died. 

I pair Diamond Doves (GcopcUa cuncata). 

The only family party I saw was that of the Chinj^olo 
Song-Sparrows, and I watched them delightedly. ( iarbed in 
blackish-brown, brown, and white, yet their shar]ily-contrasted 
colour-pattern made them noticeable and pleasing birds ; they are 
also songsters worthy their name. Misto Finches have bred, 
but I did not see any of the young in this aviary; but, if I 
recollect aright, they had a brood in the nest. 

IV cavers' and Whydahs' Ai'iary No. lO : This is a huge 
nnd beautiful aviary, as will be seen from the photo which 
illustrates these notes. A pleasing feature of all these wilderness 
aviaries is the miniature streamlets of running water which 
Txieander through them, with, in the larger ones, clumps of tall 
reeds and willows on their banks. At the bottom of this 

aviary there is a large shelter-shed (a roomy aviary in itself), 
Mith open front, and a good depth of shingly gravel over the 
floor. Round several of the roof-standards were climbing 

rampant brambles, carrying masses of fruit. Again the birds 
vere few for the space, but all the more charming to watch for 
tliat — they were almost as free as in their native wilds. I had 
an hour of delighted interest in this aviary, and the memor}' 
thereof will not soon fade. I noted the following : 

.\dult pair Manchurian Crossoptilons (Crossoptiloii viiiiiclniricuin). 

■ pair Cape Sparrows (Passer arciiatiis) and young". 

T pair Yellow-tliroated Si)arro\vs {species iiicert.) from I'.rit. I^. .\frica. 

1 pair Shore Larks {(Uocorys alpestris). 

I pair Snow Buntings (Plectroplicnax iih'olis). 

I cf Abyssinian Weaver {Hyphantoniis melanoccpliala). 

I c? and 2 9 Bramble Finches {Fringilla montifr'ingiUa). 

1 9 Weaver (species inccrt.) 

JVadcrs' Az'iarics i/ and 18: Description left over till 
next momn. 

i\o. IQ\ A roomy aviary at least 13ft. high, occupied 
i)v a fine pair of Bengal Eagle Owls (Bubo bcngalcnsis) which 
have been fully described in past issues of " B.N." — they are 
now fully adult and an extremely fine pair. 

No. 20 : A replica of above, containing a very fine [vair of 
Falkland Island Eagie-Owls (Bubo z'iri;;inianus falklandi 

(To be continued). 

'> r o 

IS c 

August, ScpicDihcr and October hi My A'Z'iarics. 251 

August, September, and October in My Aviaries. 

By W. Shore Baily, F.Z.S. 

My summer holidays caused an unavoidable break in 
the notes on the happenings in my aviaries. 

August joth. — I returned for one day and found that the 
ycung Twites had f^own ; the Crimson-crowned Weavers 

Photo by IV 
Twite at Nest. 

Sliore Bail\i. F.Z.S. 

(Pyroinclaua fammiccps) had hatched two young ones, but these 
l^ad been drowned in a heavy rain storm; the Red-billed Weavers 
(Quclca quclca), whose nest was more sheltered, had two well- 
ftathered young ones in the nest; the Egyptian Quail {Cotoruix 

2^2 .\i(g,usi, Scf'icniher and October in My A7>iarics. 

conininnis) had brought off a g-ood brood of little ones; two 
young I'inamous were lieing reared in a foster-mother. The 
JMumbeous Quail (Syitaccus plumbcus) were also sitting again, 
l)ut in looking for the nest, I had the misfortune to step upon 
and kill one of the first young ones — a very handsome little cock. 
.\ugust 15th. — I again visited the aviaries and found that 
ilie Plumbeous Quail had hatched out five young chicks; my pair 
(>f Pope Cardinals {Paroaria larvata) were sitting, as also were 
my Red (iround Doves {Gcofry^^oii uwniaua). Nothing else 
liad occurred of much interest. 

Au^s;iist 2()tli. — Returned from holiday and found that 
Calif ornian Quails {Lophortyx calif or nica) had a nice lot of 
young chicks running about, and that the Rufous Tinamous 
{ Rlixiichotiis rufcsccns) were again incubating. 
August 22nd. — Hybrid Dove left nest. 
August 24th. — Cuban Finch {Phonipara canora) sitting. 
August 26th. — Second pair of Calif ornian Quail brought 
off a good hatch. 

August 2/tlj. — Pope Cardinal sitting again. Her first 
nest of eggs failed to hatch. 

August 28th. — Nine Rosey-billed Ducklings {M ctopiana 
pcposaca) hatched. As it was so late in the season, I trans- 
ferred them to a foster-mother, where they are doing well. 

August 2gth. — (Guinea-fowl hatched seven young ones. 
These were a second brood. They met with a trag'ic end, as. 
when they were a few- weeks old they got through the wire 
netting into the Adjutant Storks' paddock, and were promptly 
swallowed by these birds. 

August ^oth. — Mahali Weaver (Ploccpasscr mahali) 
finished constructing a large nest. This was almost as large 
ar, a football, and much the same shape; it had an entrance hole 
m the side. The interior is roughly lined with sheep's w^ool. 
and the 1)ird uses it to roost in at night. I have no hen with 
him, but he badly wants a mate, as he is alw-ays singing and 
displaying to the other birds in the aviary with him. 

August ^ist. — Had a visit from our Editor. Mr. Weslev 
T Page. and. needless to say, had several long chats on birdy 

September ist.— -*Caha.n\s' Weaver {Hyphantornis vclatus) 

* Daniara Weaver Bird — Anderssotis Birds of Damara Land. — Ed. 







O. ^t = 

^ I 

C " 

/^ <o 

Aitgitst. Scl'toJibcr and Octubcr in My Ai'iarics. 253 

sitting- again. This is the third time, and on each occasion the 
ep'gs have been infertile. 

September 2nd. — Saw a large flock of Fieldfares flying- 
over. This is very early (the earliest record) for this part of 
the country. 

Scptoiiber V'd. — Cape Sparrow (Passer arcuotus) laid. 

Sepfonber 4th. — Buffalo Weaver and Scaly Dove died, 
from the result of a very cold night I suspect. 

September jith. — Red (iround Dove ((/'. iJiuntana) sitting 
again. In every case this season they have deserted their eggs 
just as they were on the point of hatching. 

Septonber 6th. — Second pair of Cuba h^inches (P. eanora) 

September 8tli. — Hybrid Doves hatclied one young squall. 

Septeniber Qtli. — Rats invaded Waders" aviary, and before 
we could catch them they killed a troop of Quail, hve Knots, 
and my only Reeve. 

September intJi. — Xecklace Senegal Dove liatched out 
cue young squal). 

September i^tli. — Had a visit from Dr. Hopkinson. He 
had met with very many of my Ijirds in their wild state, and he 
was able to name for me some brown buntings 1 have had for 
years, which no one who had seen them previously had been 
able to do so. The birds were Fringillaria impetuani, and I 
hope one day to be able to record their successful l)reeding 
in my aviaries. 

September lOtli. — Cape Sparrows hatched. 

September i8th. — Tinamou gave up sitting— eggs infertile. 

September 20th. — Hybrid Dove left nest. 

September 21st. — Young Yellow-rumj^ed Serin (Serijiiis 
a}igolensis) on the wing. This youngster must have been at 
least a month old, and probably more, when T first saw it. 
f never found the nest, and the young bird nmst have lain very 
low. Probably this was the reason it survived, as, where there 
are many birds in the aviary, these little finches have but a small 
chance of surviving. 

September 2.////. — Snow P.unting (Plectrophena.r ji'n'alis) 
(bed. These birds do not seem to live long in an a\iary. 1 
have had quite a flock, but none of them have lived more than 

254 Aiti^iist. Scl^icDibcr and October in My /Iviarics. 

two years with iiie.* One would have thought that there 
sliotild be no (hfficuUy with stich liardy birds. 

September 25th. — (Jiant Whydahs (Cliera proenc) shed 
their tails, both on the same day. 

Septejiiber 2jth. — Necklace-Senegal Dove hybrid left nest. 

September 2Qtli. — J'lunibcous (_)iiail (.V. plitmheits) laying 

Or/o/'rr.-- 1 )uring this month we aim to get most of the 
l/irds caught up and placed in their winter quarters. Where 
the aviaries are large the only way is to trap them, and this is 
often a lengthy process, as the birds once they have seen their 
companions being captured, get shy of the traps and will refuse 
to go near them. I have more than once had birds die of 
starvation rather than enter them. In the smaller aviaries we 
catch them up with a hand net, and not always without 

October ^t;/. — Cuba lynches {J\ canora) sitting again 
It was very late but T gave her a chance. 

October ^^th. — Young Ca])e Sparrows {f\ arciiatits) left 
nest, but the early mornings were very cold, and they did not 
long stu'vive. 

October 12th. — Pope Cardinals (/'. larvata) laid again — 
eggs removed. 

October lOtli. — Cuba I'lnch (/'. canora) hatclied out. 

October 20th. — Lilac-crowned Fruit-Pigeon sick. In 

SI, ite of every care it died ten days later from ])neumonia. Wc 
had a Aery hea\y frost, following a wet night, and this proved 
too much for the hen, although the cock was not affected. 
These birds would always roost oittside, unless at roosting time 
the weather was very wild and wet. 

October :;otIi. — I'ook Cuba Finches and their yoting 
iiiside. \'erv nice little l)irds. 

1 had a cock wliicli lived 7^ years in my avia'^y 'j"t ^^ was an exception ; 
its male died nine months after arrival.— Ed. 



Notes 0)1 Jungle and Other Wild Life. 255 

Notes on Jungle and other Wild Life. 

By Dr. Casey A. Wood, M.B.O.U. 
(C'ontinued from ["ogc 218). 

It is, of course, a yreat temptation to talk about the 
wonderful orehids of the Guiatws, but who am I to discuss, even 
• n the haphazard fashion of this informal letter a subject that 
has been treated many times by a dozen competent botanists ? 
For example. Rodway {Timchr'u Xo\. VIII., 1894, p. 1-270) 
nearly thirty years ag"o described in his interesting fashion 
about 300 varieties. 

Since that date possibly a hundred new species have been 
identified and described. ( )f these 400 species I have seen in the 
jungle, botanic t^ardens and elsewhere, about 50 varieties in 
bloom and 100 more flowerless; and have owned and become 
somewhat familiar with about thirty species. So you perceive 
how experienced an orchidist I am! However, I happen to 
know that few South American orchids are easily collected, and 
how many of them love to blush and bloom near the top of a 
g'iant fig or a tall Eta palm, practically inaccessible to the 
ordinary climber, even if he survives the onset of regiments of 
ferocious ants lying in wait to " eat 'em alive " who venture 
aloft. Moreover, the rootlets of these aerial plants, often inter- 
twined with " bush ropes " or lianas, frequently harbour 
scorpions, tarantulas and centipedes that do not respect the feel- 
ings of an intruder. Tlie rarest and most interesting are not, as a 
rule, found on the banks of accessible rivers and creeks, but are 
to be sought in the depths of the forest, in distant swamps and 
:n the far interior, where the white man is seldom or never seen. 
It is, accordingly, to the Indian, the bush negro, and the bovi- 
ander that one looks for the usual supply of these curious plants. 

They are brought to Georgetown and generally find a 
ready purchaser. 

I started an orchid garden at the Zoological Station last 
year, but soon exhausted the local supply, so far as species 
was concerned. I also found that the natives brought in of 
other varieties plants that were fated to bloom " next month." 
The majority of these grew and flourished as plants, but forgot 
ro burst into flower at the appointed date. However, I took 

256 A'utcs oil Jungle and Other Wild Life. 

much pleasure in watching' my plants grow, in their various odd 
fashions, and had a good time with them. Most were epiphytes 
and, wired to an old stump or tree, or suspended in improvised 
containers from any overliead sup])ort, flourished exceedingly. 
\ few grow honestly and in approved manner from a bed of 
sand; but these were regarded as rare. 

Rodway has pointed out how often the species of a 
particular genus inhabit the different life-planes of the Guiana 
jungle. Take, for example, the genus Casctuin, of which 
('. discolor is i)robably the oldest form. This pale, yellow- 
green variety, with its hood-like ffowers, prefers sand-reefs and 
old charcoal pits. C. inacrocarpum- " has made a leap upward, 
and lodged itself in the lower branches of trees, often just 
above the surface of creek or swamp, while C". longifolinm has 
got to the top of the Eta palm and settled under its crown." 

After receiving in the neighbourhood of twenty bites for 
every ])lant at whose capture 1 assisted, 1 decided to collect no 
more until 1 was able to acquire by purchase something rich 
and rare in the orchid line. L'inally the opportunity presented 
itself, and I now rest from my labours, because, outside one 
of E's windows, and securely fastened to the jalousie thereof 
i.j one of the most beautiful, if not an exceedingly rare specimen, 
of Cattlcya z'iolacca sul^erba from the distant Rupununi. It 
licars, in addition to a number of buds of promise, five lovely 
rosy-purple flowers, each about five inches across and borne on 
the apex of a club-shaped bulb, the latter attended by two thick, 
rigid, shiny leaves. Even if we have no additional blooms, we 
rejoice in the present radiance of these glorious flow^ers, and 
when we leave the colony we shall present this rare plant to 
someone who will cherish its aristocratic loveliness and who 
will, 1 am sure, be rewarded by a renewal of its purple glory. 

And now it is time to say farewell to both South America 
and to you: and if we three never meet again, I hope two of 
iis had a good gossip about the "' thing's that are." 


P.S. — The normal human being delights in the experience 
cf a " one-man" comi)anionsliip of whatever sex or species. 
That is the reason for admiring" the attachment of tlie soldier 
for his horse, of the hunter for his dog. J-fe who goes through 

Notes on Jitiii^lc and Other Wild Life. 


life without knowing" the single purpose affection of a collie or 
an Airedale for his master has missed something. To be fully 
aware that some one animal believes in you " through and 
tlirough " and, clinging to you alone, or to you before all 
others, hangs upon your words and lives upon your approval, 
not because you are wise, wealthy or beautiful, but sim})ly 
because " you are you " — such unselfish devotion is mighty 
rare in this unhappy world, and is well worth living for. 

This quality, best known among the canine race, is by 
no means confined to them ; and you would be surprised to learn, 
if you have not studied the subject, how developed it is in many 
species of birds. It is marked in parrots, not only in the 
larger species — Amazons, African greys. Macaws, etc., — but 
among many of the parrakeets. lorikeets, conures and others. 

Numerous individuals of these highly intelligent birds 
have made faithful and acceptable companions for their human 

Just why a parrot selects some particular man, woman or 
child as his " aflfinity " nobody exactly knows, except that 
domesticated lairds generally carry out, as far as possible, the 
inherited, daily programme of their wild state. Being mono- 
gamous (parrots mate early and retain the same companion 
until death parts them), roosting, feeding, flying, and living 
their forest life, strictly paired; it appears that when tamed and 
debarred from mating with one of their own species tney choose 
an.other, of the human race! 

Happy is the bird who has really found a mate for whom 
liis soul longs, and thrice unhappy if surrounded by uncongenial 
people who, knowing him not. have bought him merely on 
account of his beautiful plumage or his conversational powers 
without consideration of the all-important question " does he 
like me ?" — not, do I like him ?" 

When I was at the N.Y. Zoological Station, Kartabo, last 
year. 1 was fortunate in making the acquaintance of another 
one-man " bird, a fine, Indian-raised example of the Curassow 
(Crax nigra) or, as the Guiana natives call him, the Powee or 
Powis Bird, from his plaintive call of poivec-poivcc. He had a 
beautiful, black, iridescent mantle, white, downy underparts, 
and a highly ornamental, curly crest; and was about the size 
of a small turkey. 

258 Notes 0)1 Jioigle and Other Wild Life. 

Under the name " Craxy," lie roamed at will about the 
Station. We became great friends, and eventually he would 
allow none but me to touch him. We often took walks together 
and afforded much amusement to my associates when they saw 
this bird, witli dignified gait and an apparent sense of his impor- 
tance, strutting" along a jungle trail with his solitary human 
companion. As night came on he always waited about until I 
was ready to accompany him, a hundred yards away, to his 
favourite roosting tree — an immense wild fig that overhung" 
the Cuyuni River — at the very top of which, perhaps forty yards 
from the ground, he spent the night. Arriving at the tree, 
be slowly climbed and flew from limb to limb until I lost him 
from view amid the thick foliage and in the fast falling shades 
o^ the tropical night. At daybreak Craxy was wont to fly froni 
his tree, as straight as he could, to my tent, but, I fear, not 
always making" a good shot of it. At least I was several times 
accosted at breakfast with a remark like this : " That confounded 
bird of yours landed on my tent early this morning and woke 

me out of a sound sleep; the next time he does it ." ^ Jf 

course I apologised and explained that I, too. was waked by a 
chorus of powee-powec' s that did not cease until T rose and, 
pyjama-clad, led the hungry l)ird around to the cook and begged 
some favourite scraps for his breakfast. 

During" the day Craxy lived around the Station, occasion- 
ally visiting the laboratory, from which he was often 
ignominiously expelled by some investigator whose " material 
■ le had examined for the purpose of deciding whether it was 
edible or not. Otherwise his time was largely occupied in 
the useful work of exterminating" grasshoppers and other insects. 
At length the time arrived for me to leave Kartabo and for 
Craxy to be sent to the Bronx Park, for which he was originally 
slnted, and as only I could do it easily I had to commit the crime 
oT caging this free bird. Oh f how I hated the job! It was 
no trick at all to lure him into the wire enclosure provided for 
birds awaiting transportation, and then to close 'the door as I 
emerged, but " alas ,the silence in the trees "! The outraged 
bird would not even look at nie next day, and would not come 
at my call. I did not blame him, for had I not deserted and 
betrayed him? However, the day before I left we w^ere, I 
think, entirely reconciled, and I forgiven. During the night I 

Nesting of the Caf^e Turtle Dove. 259 

visited him in his cage, calhng softly, " powee-powee-powee." 
He came over, put out his lovely crested head and allowed 
himself to be caressed as in the old days. And now I am 
v/ordering if Craxy will recognise me when I visit him at the 
Bronx next month ? 

♦ — 

Nesting of the Cape Turtle Dove. 

(Turtiir capicola). 
By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

{Continued from page 2^4). 

Quite early in the present year I noticed the male courting 
the female, and driving her about considerably; a little later I 
noticed them together searching the different quarters of the 
aviary, evidently prospecting for a nest-site ; still later I saw 
them carrying small sticks about, but they were very secretive, 
though I know one or two abortive attempts were made to 
construct a nest ; then I missed one of the birds and concluded 
that incubation had begun — pressure on my time kept me from 
searching for the nest for fully a fortnight. When the oppor- 
tunity came I took a good look round for their nest, and at last 
I found it and then discovered that I had been passing it 
closely daily as I went in to the shelter to renew food supplies ; 
!t was about twelve inches above the height of my head. A 
slight rustling drew my attention to it. A roof-standard, loft. 
high, supporting the front of roof of covered part of flight, was 
encircled by a dense mass (about I2ins. through) of Polygonum 
creeper, at the height of 7ft., where the nest was placed, the 
creeper had been trodden flat and thereupon had been con- 
structed quite a substantial nest for a dove; the grow^th of 
creeper was much thinner above the nest, but sufflciently thick 
to conceal it effectually — the creeper grew thruogh the roof 
netting and formed a dense cone above it, leaving it well- 
sheltered as well as well-concealed; but for the movement of 
the birds I should not have discovered it. A look into the 
rest revealed two half-developed squabs, an ugly mass of pen 
feathers; a week later they left the nest, fully fledged, robust, 
but of weak flight. They spent two or three days upon the 
ground, mostly in the shelter, where I saw their parents feed 

26o Records of Birds zvliich lunw Bred in Ca/^tiz'ify. 

them several times. ( )n the fourth day after tlieir exit from 
the nest they were flying' strongly and followed their parents 
where'er they went. 

From subsecjuent nests J gleaned that the incubation 
period was fourteen days, and that the young left the nest on 
the fourteenth to sixteenth day after hatching. 

In all at least four clutches of eggs were laid, the same 
nest being' used on each occasion. The eggs were white and 
almost as round as a marble, smallish for the size of the bird. 
Six young birds have been fully reared. 

These are handsome doves for the mixed aviary, of 
graceful contour and pleasing colouration, amiable witli other 
birds, non-interfering in every respect, yet quite able to keep 
nil comers from intruding upon the nest. 

So far as I know the young never went near the nest once 
they had flown, at any rate I never saw them. 

As soon as the adult hen was nesting again, the young 
were forsaken by both parents and had to look entirely after 
themselves, proving to be quite as amiable as their parents, yet 
fully able to take their own part — there were five other species. 
o<" doves in the aviary, some of them the reverse of amiable, 
but all the vouni>- which left the nest (six in all) have sur\-ive(l. 

Post Mortenis for the Month. 

For Rules 7'/(/r ]>;i,ijc ii. of Cm-cr. 
i-';u):2J. \\'hitk Java Sparrciw (?): from T. (). Harrison, Esq., 

Sumlerland. — .'\cuU' intlamniation of oviduct and cloaca ; a sofl-shellcd 

egg was present. The l)ird was otherwise in good condition. 
]6 : 10 -.22. Orakgi-: Wkavicu (M.ile) : from Mrs. Alice Chatterton, Ruisl'p.^ 

'i'lie liird was excessively fat. with fatt\- degeneration of the liver, and a 

terminal bronchitis. 

2o:io:2J. Mkai.y Roski.i.a (.Male): from T. (loodwin, F.s'i., London. 
.S.E. — The h'rd was very thin and wasted, with .an acute Catarrhal enteritis. 

October 31st, 1922. (^ H HTCK.S. 

o CC 

1 I 

5 § 2 


=^ Ph 

cc ^ 

I § 

^ o 


'HAll !^lgbt$ !J\(i$(trvc6. i>(iccmbcr. 1922 


— THE — 


Visits to Members' Aviaries. 

By Wesley T. Page. F.Z.S.. M.B.O.U. 
(Caiichtdcd from page 2§o). 

Note: Plate " In Weavers' Aviary," facings pag'e 251, 
should face page 250. 

CORRIGENDA: I^age 22~ line 16 for " roseicapilla " 
read roseicollis; page 248, lines 12 and 26. and page 249, line 14, 
for " Fn>igilla " read Fringillaria. 

TifK W'adkrs' Aviary : This is a really extensive and 
beautiful enclosure, a pond at either end, the top one being', 
except in the centre, a dense mass of reeds and rushes, and the 
lower one with a larg"e patch of sea-g'ravel in front of it, while 
down one side of the aviary meandered a shallow streamlet, 
its margins being- studded with reeds, flags and other bog" 
plants, and, in the writer's opinion, the whole formed an ideal 
home for Waders and Some idea of its beauty, 
practical character, and extent is indicated in the photo-plate 
illustrating- these notes. 

Wandering- about, or on the wing", apparently cpiite at 
home in their quarters, I noted the following- species : 

Spoonbills (Platalea Icuconxiia) 

Scarlet Ibis {Eudociiini.s- ruber). Godwit (I.'iniosa lappoiiica). 

Civcy Plover {Sqiiatarnla helvetica). 

Knots (Tringa camttus). 

Dunlin (T . alpina). 

RulTs and Reeves {Machetes pugna.v). 

Peacock Pheasants (Polyplectron chiiiquis-). 

Common Quail (Coturnix communis). 

Hybrid Senegal-Necklace Doves. 

Mislo Sees-Finches [Sycalis httcii'entris). 

j62 I'isils 1(> McDihcrs' .\7'ia)-ics. 

Slri|)(.' lioaded ( H'osbeal^s [I'lilinsplza :^iil(iris\. 

Twites (Lin at a flaviros/ris). 

(irey-licadcd Sparrows {i'asscr (lilliisiis). 

J'led-headed Hunting (Entbcriza lutcohi) 

Java Sjjarrows (Miiiiia oryzii'ora). 

Russ' Weaver {Qiiclca nissi). 

Mistlc-Tlirusli {Tiinliis ^'isriroriix). 

Ring Ouzels [T . torquatus). 

Shore I,;iri<s (Otocorys al/^cstris). 

Cabot's Tragopan {Tnii^^nf^ini caboti). 

W'liite-lireasted Water-Tlen (Aiiiatironiis pliooiicnra). 

All the roof supports, few silver poplar but mostly 
willow, have i^rown and make excellent cover and nesting" sites 
for the passerine species. 1 fain would describe, if 1 could, the 
shallow stream running" down one side of the aviary, startin,^' 
just to the left of the reed-bed pond at the top of. and disappear- 
iuij; at the bottom end of the aviary, amid the sea-i^ravel, findin;^' 
its way, of course, into the small lake-like pond of open-water, 
which adjoins (meets) the sea-gravel and has a background of 
reeds and other herbage, while stretching" away on the right is ri 
stretch of reedy, flag'g'y, weedy growth, and amid this T watched 
the waders pass to and fro — while many (most of them) ar " 
resident species; how seldom we see them, and how they differ 
in form and deportment from the more in evidence British 

There were other Rails (Water-Hens) in the aviary, but 1 
only caught a momentary glim]:)se of the White-breasted Water- 
Hen (an Indian species which, T think, Mr. Shore Baily got 
from me): they had an ample cover, and appeared and disap- 
peared as easily as does the English Moorhen at home on its 
n.ative heath. T have no note of the other species, as I only 
listed what T saw. 

Even now I've not described that streamlet running the 
entire length of the aviary, save to state where it began and 
ran to. It was a rtmning length of open and cover on one 
side the streamlet or the other: here a small cltnnii of willows, 
their leaves flicking the sitrface of the stream (not much water 
there though), there a bunch of reed, now a series of flags, and 
water dock does the needful, both for picturesque effect and 
l^iactical purpose. The birds certainly did wade and bathe here, 
pa;:serines as well as waders — what a foraging ground it was for 

l''isils to Members' Ai'iaries. ::6^ 

;ill of ihem. and what an amount of meaty food they i^ained there- 
from my eyes had abundant evidence. 

In this, thoui^'h a waders' aviary. Misto Seed-finches. 
Grey-headed Sparrows. Twites, Quail, etc.. have nested and 
successfully reared their youn.L;-. I)ut. so far as the writer is 
aware none of tlie waders have nested up to the present- - 
undoubtedly this is a pleasant experience for the future, for, 
with such accommodation, it is sure to come. 

It is beyond me to describe the internal natural lieauty 
of this aviary, but the photo-rejjroduction will .i;ive some idea 
of ])art of it — it would need at least half a dozen photos to 
eflectively H£iure the whole, and these would reqtu're to be in 
colour if they were to tell the whole story. 

The Lakk : A nice photo of this ])icturesque piece of 
water appeared in a back vol. of P>iri) Xotks, when it was well 
stocked; now it is very different ; the beauty of the spot remains, 
but the fine wealth of water-fowl is no more, for durino- the 
war the foxes broke throu!j;'h the fences, and all that are left of 
ihi' lart^'e flock of wnter-fowl are a comparatively few. mostly birds, as under : 

l';iir Ducks (Mctopiana prcposacu). 

|)riir Cliiloe Wigcoii (Mareca sibilatrix}. 

2 Cliilian Teal (Nettium favlrostris). Piotli drakes. 

(^ Yellow-billed Duck (Anas iindulata). 

{f Ked-headed Pochard (Nyroca ferina). 

Pair Common Wigeon (Mareca penclopc). 

(^ Upland Goose (Cliloepliaga viagellanica). 

Some Cliiloe W'iL'.eon hybrids. Moorhens, and 2 Common Ducks. 

Still, amid the quietude of the late afternoon and the 
beauty of the scene, they made a brave and interesting" picture. 
'J here was plenty to attract and interest, for, now they were 
sailing" buoyantly on the surface of the water, now beneath it 
wirh the onlooker expectantly watching" for their re-.ippea ranee, 
and anon in the air above it — as it were as a whole seeing them 
indulge in almost every form of exercise and activity under the 
^v.n. But, I fain would have had to write of re-prodtiction 
Ijrocesses — stop, tin's was not entirely absent, for in a coop on 
the lawn were a brood of some half-dozen healthy ycung Rosy- 
iiilled ducklings, only a few days old but promising" well. 

Thi: Paddocks : The^^ ^dioined the Waders' aviary 

264 I'isits to }f embers' Az.'iarics. 

and consisted of a meadow partitioned off into the three paddock 
enclosures, a stream crossed the left side of meadow with a 
paddock on either side of it. In the far one were fine pairs of 
Demosille (^ranes (Anthrapoidcs z'irgo) and Horned (ininea 
Fowl in the very pink of condition. 

In the next were pairs of T.esser Adjutant Storks 
{Lcptof'tiliis jaTaiiiciis), Black-wing"ed Peafowl (Pa-i'o DJiiticiis). 
and Upland Cieese (Chlocpliaga magcUanica). 

The peafowl were simply g"or!L;"eous, and a nice little 
troupe of their prog'eny were picking- up a living-, on their own, 
en the tennis lawn. 

\ must have a word en passant about the Adjutant Storks, 
wdiich were one of my private importations, and which I much 
regretted not having" the space to retain myself — I had a small 
paddock, 30-40 yards square, I could have given luem, but 
there was no pond, so I let them most reluctantly, depart for 
Boyers House, w^here they have done well, being now in full 
adult plumage and looking " very fine and handsome "' in spite 
of their vulterine bald heads and necks ; their plumage was 
spotless, and their colouration beatitiful l^lue-grey, black and 
white — they are to be found (seen) in every mood from gay to 
solemn, the sublime to the ridiculous, as also in every posture 
from dignity to the comic-ridictilous — at one moment advancing 
\\ith slow step, dignified and solemn mein. the next dancing 
for all they are worth as if to a full jazz orchestra! Rut 
enough, instead of writing prose, one needs the pencil of a 
lightning caricturist, then one could adequately tell their trup 
story, pages long, in comic pictures! " Not Solomon in all 
his glory was arrayed like one of these." 

Trulv. he was not ! 

The last paddock contained one of the finest jiairs of 
Upland (leese 1 have ever seen, and six young Pheasants 
( Phasianiis rolchicus). 

E.vliihitiiig Foreign Hinls. 265 

Exhibiting Foreign Birds. 

:^th and 6th Decemljer. lyjj. 
By Capt. Ci. E. Rattigan. T'.Z.S. 
l'\)REiGX Bird Section. Judge — Mr. C", House, 
1 am sendinj^- a few notes on the Foreis^n Bird Section 
<i the above show in the hope that it may be of interest to some 
o! the readers of " B.X.." more especially to former 
o.hibitors. It is to be hoped that the interest of former years 
in forei.iiii bird exhibiting- may once again be aroused, and that 
ill the near fnture our shows will even eclipse the wonderful 
displays of forei.^n s])ecies seen in ])re-war days. It is noi^ 
everyone, unhajjpily, who can afford to purchase the wonderful 
and rare species which from time to time tind their way over to 
this country. To the vast majority then, a bird show affords the 
only possible chance of seeing' such glories of nature in the 
flesh. A really good display of foreign birds is an education 
i.i itself, and a source of the keenest delight to masses of the 
general public. ^loreover, it gives birth to a desire in many 
•I visitor to such a show to himself or herself possess some of 
the fairy-like creatures exhibited. A real and wide interest in 
I'oreign Bird Keeping is thus awakened which, in turn, means 
many more jjotential members for the '' F.B.C." an end towards 
which it is obviously both the duty and to the interest of us all 
to strive. The main objection to sending foreign birds to 
shows is the, unhappily, very real danger invoh'ed of losing 
them through the carelessness, or lack of knowledge as to the 
proper treatment needed by their charges, of the stewards con- 
cerned. I have myself suffered severely in the past, so am well 
aware of the risk one runs under such conditions, a risk I 
should certainly not care to incur again. But. granted good 
and efficient stev\'ards who are genuinely devoted to the interests 
C't their charges, and all risk is practically eliminated, for I 
have never found that birds suffer to any extent on a rail 
jcurney, however long, providing, of course, that they have 
been properly packed for travelling, and water dishes and 
sticky food, etc., removed or ])roperly confined, dranted such 
conditions T always think that a person who still refuses to allow 

266 ILvliihiting f'orcign Birds. 

liis birds to be exiiibited. must ba\-e much (jf the miser in his 
make-up, preferring to selfishly gloat over his avian treasures 
to sharing his joy at their living beautv with others. Where a 
competent person is known to be in entire charge of the exhibits 
therefore, keepers of rare and even of the common, though 
often none the less beautiful, species should have no hesitation 
in sending of their best, and, as I have alreadv indicated, by 
such prblic-spirited action our society cannot fail to be 
immensely benefited. Would it not be possible for experienced 
members of the F.B.C. in different parts of the country to 
undertake such duties at their various centres ? I for one would 
have no hesitation in sending valuable birds to a show where 
they would be under the guaranteed and personal supervision 
of an experienced aviculturist. To set the ball rolling I 

guaranteed six classes at the recent Torquay show. To our 
members Mrs. Burgess and the Marquis of Tavistock my 
grateful thanks are due for their public-spirited action in 
sending such lovely and rare examples of their famous collec- 
tions, and, it is very largely through their generous support that 
tliis section of the exhibition proved the great success it was. 
The one solitary fiy in the ointment was that the task of deciding 
upon th'" merits of the rarities exhibited proved, unhappily, 
beyond the capacity of the judge. I will now briefly discuss 
the different classes in order of classification • — 

CLASS 227. BUD(iERlGARS— All Colours (7). 

1st and Special, Mrs. Burgess: A really fine pair Blues, 
\\onderful size, colour, and markings. One of the best pairs I 
have seen, and in faultless condition. 

2nd, Mrs. Burgess : Pair Yellows of a deej), rich colour. 

3r(l, Miss Blackl)urn : Quite the finest i)air of Greens 
' have ever seen, in the most ])erfect condition. Although 
pure Creens. several people mistook these birds for Blue-breds. 
because they showed considerable areas of blue. They were 
exceptionally large birds, and their feathers shone with the 
bloom of health. A real credit to their very enthusiastic and 
sporting owner. 

V.H.C.: M.C.; and C. Mrs. Burgess, with good 
examples of the jade (sea-green). Olive and Cream varieties. 
The latter was new to me. A very charnfing display of the 

Exliihifiiig Foreign Birds. 267 

various colour varieties, and a very popular exhibit with the 
public. There were quite twenty enquiries for the Blues, but 
the present hij^h price of these birds places them beyond the 
reach of most people. 


I and s]j.. Mrs. Bur.^ess : A fine cock Eclectus Parrot, 
a most striking;' and beautiful bird. thouL;"h. for a parrot of sober 
,yarb, beiiii^' a \ivid, metallic tureen of various shades, the 
primaries beini^' dark blue, and the sides and inner wint^-coverts 
scarlet. The female of this species is a truly s])lendid creature 
arrayed in a j^'arment of crimson vehet with a broad band of 
purplish blue upon the breast. 

2. The Marquis of Tavistock: A fine hen (iany-( iani^" 
C ockatoo. 

3, The Marquis of Tavistock : A lovely cock Gany-Gang'. 
j\ very attractive bird and, I should imaiiine. a most charmint^' 
r-nd intelli.ii'ent pet. It appeared to take a .great interest in the 
proceedings, and was a great favourite with the public, though 
'I was at the same time treated with the respect that its somewhat 
f(.rmidable appearance inspired. 'Jdie two birds formed a;i 
ir.teresting" contrast, the hen being" of a dusky grey colour, each 
ftather edged with lig^hter grey; whilst the cock is resplendent 
with the whole of the head and crest a brilliant scarlet. The 
ciest is strangely reminiscent in shajjc of the ancient Roman 
ITelmet. Of these two birds the hen is decidedly the larger, 
but I am unable to say whether such difference in size is a 
constant feature. Whether the decision of the judge v^as 
influenced by this circumstance I do not know, Init T could 
(h'scover no other explanation as to why he placed the hen in 
front of the cock, as both birds were in the same faultles-^ 
condition, and from the above it will be easily apparent that 
the cock is a very much more striking and attractively coloured 
bird than its mate. One derives a certain amount of quiet 
amusement from the comments of certain " know-all members 
(•\ tin oublic. The birds under discussion, for instance, were 
describefl bv a ladv visitor as being" so common in Xew South 
WaPs Cv;r> tint no one out there would dream of taking' the 
trouble to cau'e ore ! ! 

268 Bxliihitiiig Foreign Birds. 

Keserve, Mrs. Burgess : A nice example of the Bare-Eye 

V.H.C., Mrs. Burg-ess: A Vasa Parrot in fine form but 
not, in my humble opinion, a very attractive looking specierj. 

Reserve in this class originally fell to a hen Alexandrine 
Parrakeet, an amazing decision indeed from every point of 
view. Being entered in the wrong class, this placing was 
subsequently set aside. 


I and Sp., Mrs. Curry: A charming specimen of the 
Elossom-headed Parrakeet, put down' in the best possible 
condition, but an extremely kicky winner in such e.xalted 
company. 1 may add that the placings throughout this class 
were utterly incomprehensible to me. ( )ne can only suppose 
that the judge, not being familiar with the species before him. 
was forced to make random selections; Ijut even so, he was 
unlucky, for almost any other combination he might have 
chanced upon would have given better results than the one 
actually adopted. 

2, Mrs. Burgess: .A. magnificent Crimson-wing Parra- 
keet, and, like ahnost all this lady's exhibits, in the most perfect 
exhibition condition. The healthy appearance of these birds, 
and indeed of all the exhibits, was a real joy to behold, and 
spoke volumes for the aforethought and care lavished upon 
them by their owners. 

3, Mrs. Burgess : A nice Adelaide, but \evy nervous at 
first. It became nmch more at home on the second day. 

V.H.C.. Mrs. Burgess: BARRABAND'S PARRA- 
KEET : A veally lovely exhibit in the most exquisite condition. 
Not a feather ruffled, and carrying a sheen and gloss upon its 
plumage which I can only liken to that a well groomed 
thoroughbred carries on its coat. Would have been hard to 
beat in any company, and should, without peradventure. have 
occupied one of the premier positions here. 

V.H.C., Lord Tavistock: QUEEN ALEXANDRA 
PARRAKEET: A dehghtful exhil)it, and. like the Layard's 
m.entioned below, a 1:)eautiftil blend of softly harmonising 
colours seldom met with in this family of birds. Unhap])ily 't 

Exhibiting h'orcign Birds. 269 

looked very " soft " on arrival and during;' the judt^insi', and 
Dcrsisted in crouchini^- at the bottom of its cage with its head 
thrust into the farthest corner. This, of course, seriously 
compromised its chances. Later it seemed to grow even worse 
and sat with its head under its wing, and feathers all puffed 
out. I believe now that it was merely suffering" from a bad 
attack of nerves. However, this may have been, I was 

seriously alarmed at the time and in desperation flung in a 
handful of mealworms. It began to nibble these at once, and 
in about half an hour, to my utmost relief, was as lively as 
could be, and upon its perch looking out eagerly for a further 
supply. Curiously enough all its former shyness now com- 
])letely vanished and it took mealworms from my Angers without 
tlie least hesitation. One could only wish that it had been 
judged as it ai)])eared throughout the second day of the show. 

Also in this class were fine Red-rump and Pennant Parra- 
keets, but these, of course, were altogether outclassed here. 
The bird occupying the last and only cardless position was a 
T.ayard's Parrakeet, the property of I^ord Tavistock, and a 
native, the owner informs me, of Ceylon. This bird was 
probably the rarest one present, and, so far as T can ascertain, 
has seldom appeared on the show bench. This bird, like the 
Barraband. was an example of the pitch of perfection to which 
a cage bird can be brought by care and skilful management. 
Coloured in the softest shades of purple and green it is a bird 
of real beauty, carrying a sheen on its plumage comparable 
to a ripe peach. Apart from its rarity the bird merited the 
highest commendation, both for its superb condition and for 
the wondrous harmony of its softly blended colouration. How^ 
it failed so utterly to catch the judge's eye on this occasion is 
one of those things no fellow can understand. 


r and 2 Specials. Mrs. Burgess : A nice pair of Cordon 
Bleus, b'Jt the hen had lost a few feathers off its crown during 
the journey, and they were, I think, for this reason if no other, 
iucky to win here. 

2 and Sp., Capt. Rattigan : A nice Pin-tail W hydah in 
exhibition condition. 

270 llxJiihitiui^ Foreign Hirds. 

3, Mrs. C". j. Sliey : A very fine ( )ran^e Bishop. Mrs. 
Sliey is a famous exhibitor af pre-war days, and this bird 
amply demonstrated that her hand had lost none of its old 

No Reserve appears to have been awarded in this class, 
though the largest. 

V.H.C., Mrs. Curry, Mrs. Shey, and Capt. Rattigan with 
Cordon Bleus (hen bare on head), a Cordon Bleu, and Paradise 
Whydah respectively. A perfect pair Fire h'inches and lovely 
pair Green Avadavats signally failed to attract the judge, though 
these might with advantage have occupied the two premier 


I and 2 Specials, Capt. Rattigan : A hne ])air \'iolet- 
eared Waxl)ills. 

2. Ca])':. Rattigan: An excellent pair Masked (irass- 
linches. \'ery steady. 

3, Capt. Rattigan : l^erfect pair Long-tailed Crasshnches. 
but unsteady. 

Res., Mrs. Burgess: A purplish-blue tinted finch unknow:i 
to me. A trifle rough or should have stood at the top of the 
class. Pcrhnps the owner will be kind enough to furnish a 
few details concerning this 1)ird. \MLC. : A very fine Black- 
headed (/irosbeak. This bird is almost an exact re]ilica. as 
regards the distribution of its colours, of our bramblehnch. 
Should ha\e stood much higher. 

Also exhibited : Pairs of Cul:)an Finches, Rufus-backed 
Mannikins. and a fine Red-crest?d ]'"inch exhibited l)y Mrs. 
Burgess: the latter bird was in fnultless condition and very 
steady. Li my opinion it should have won. but was obviously 
unknown to the judge. 

I and 2 Specials, also .S]-)ecial for Best Cage Bird, Capt. 
Rattigan: A Superb Tanager, and. alth'm'^h 1 sav it who 
sliouldn't. the fmest both in rcenrd to size, colour and condition 
^ have ever come across. I h')nestlv think it well deserved 

Exhibiiing Foreign Birds. zjl 

its position in the class, thoiig'h the special for best cage bird 
ought to have been bestowed elsewhere. 

2, Capt. Rattigan : A very fine Shama. 

3, Mrs. Burgess: A lovely Green Sugarbird. A most 
charming- and attractive exhibit, again in faultless condition. 
There seem to be many different species of (ireen Sugarbirds, 
which differ consideraljly both in size, shape and colour. This 
was one of the large forms and of a dark green colour. 

V.H.C., ATrs Burgess: Pileated Jay: A truly magni- 
ficent bird, clothed in a garment of turquoise-blue, black, 
jrarple ard white i)lush. Attracted a tremendous lot of attention. 
One of the earlier visitors indeed is said to have described it 
a;' one of the Birds of Paradise! After this I thought perhaps 
it would add to the interest of the exhibits to have them all 
labelled, and my wnfe very kindly wTote out the names of each 
oi large slips of paper, which I had afiixed to the top of the 
cages. Also in this class : Lilac-crowned Fruit-Pigeon and 
Amethyst Starling. 

In conclusion T may add that this magnificent array of 
rare foreign birds j^roved of the greatest attraction to the 
public, few of whom had seen anything approaching such a 
display of avian beauty. There can be little doubt that such a 
collection of wonderful birds has never before been benched 
n the West if England, and I once again tender my sincerest 
thanks to all who helped to make this exhibition such a splendid 
success. Next year we hope with the kindly aid of members of 
tlie F.B.C. to do even better, and, seeing that all being well, 
cur esteemed Editor has most kindly consented to officiate. 
Exhibitors can safely count upon their birds receiving their 

Just as T lay aside my pen I learn that all the above exhibits 
reached their destinations safely. 

Records of Birds which have Bred in Captivity. 

By Dr. E. Hopki\son, D.S.O., M.A., M.B.. F.Z.S., etc. 

(Coiifiniicd from fagc 22/j. 

TJST 2. 

I\ci.(ircls of liirds which have been lircd in captivit\- wliicli requii-e fuller detail 

_7- kvcunis oj H'lrds ichicli hai'c bred in C'al'tirily. 

(il<l':i<:Nl'l\'CH X JAPANESE (iREENFlNCH. Vale. P.igc. 
X BULLFINCH. Vale Page. 
X CANARY. Vale. Page. 

C11IN1':S1': (iRJLl'.NFlNCH. 
CHl'NILSI': (I. X (iKl<:ENFINCH. Page. 

(•' Siberian "' (1. iii Page's list; obviously a slip! 

1',LACK-TAIL1-:D IIAW1<INCH. Enphom nicloiura. 
Abroad, teste Russ. 
Have onlv records of partial success in tbc Drilish Isles. 


HAWFINCH X liULLI'INCH (?) Longdon. igi(). Sec P.iun Notks. 

1917. 39- 




Hybrids (E). 


x CH.AFI'-INCH. Vale. 

X SISKIN. Vale. Page 

X LINNET. Vale. Page. 

X REDPOLL. Vale. Page. 

X CANARY. Vale. Page. 


SISKIN. Page. 

Hybrids (E). 
SISKIN X ( IREENFlNCH. X'.ilc. Page. 
X COLDFINCH. Wale. Page. 
X TWITE Page. 
X LINNET. Vale. Pace. 
X ST. HELENA S1':f:DEATI':R. Page. 
(I'-) See P.S. (E) n. 173 above. 

1 Ixbrids. 
CITRIL X CAXWRA' " in evidence at llie S. Ker.sin '.dh .Must'um 

I.I. \CK-lll':.\DI'.r) SISKIN. Spiiiiis ictcriciis. 
BLACK-Ili:.\Dl'.n S. X CANARY. Page. (See P.S. iV) 

]>. 17^ above). 
X CAPE CANAR^\ Page. (Tbis entr\ 
in Page's list almost certainly refers 
to Russ' " Srli\\arzkopfi>j"e Zeisig x 
Tbis is the Cicrman name 
of the AL.VRIO. The same mav 

also apply to the preceding entr\ and 
therefore invalidate it as well). 

Records of Birds which have hrcd in Captivity. 273 


MIMALAYAN SISKIN (or GREENFINCH). H ypaauitlil.s spUioldes. 

SIKlil.M SISKIN. Spinus tibetauus. 

? if the Ijicc'dinjj rccord.s of tliese two species are not confused). 

TWITI-.. Page 

TWIT!': X (;RI':1':NEINC1I. Vale. Page. 

X (iOLDFINCH. Page. 
X SISKIN. Vale. Pa^-e. 
X CANARY. Vale. Paee, 

LINNET. Page. 
X GOLDFINCH. Vale. Page. 
X TWITI-:. Vale. Page. 
X CANARY. Vale. Page. 
X BULLLFINCH. Vale. Page. 

X CUTTFIROAT. Amadina fascmta. (PLOCFJDAE!) 
RECORD. Croker, 1914. B.N. 1915, 261. 
(See P.S. (G), p. 173 above). 

ME.'XLY R. X CANARY. Vale. Page. 

Rl' DPOLL. Page.* The onlv attempt at a record I can find is A.M. iii. ^xi. 
kl':DPOLr, X GREI':NF1NCH. Vale. Page. 
X fiOLDFINCH. Page. 
X SISKIN. Vale. Page. 
X LINNET. Vale. 
X CANARY. Vale. Page. 
X P.ULLFINCH. Vale. Page, 
* I successfully bred thi.s species myself in 1915". — W. T. Page 

TRl'.l-: SPARROW. Page. 
X YELLOW S. Page. 


X YELLOW SPARROW. Abroad, teste 
Russ, and .see P.S. (H), p. 173 above. 

GOLDEN SPARROW. Passer eitclilonts. Abroad by Russ, teste Russ 


X CAPE CANARY. Abroad, teste Page. 

274 Records of Birds z^'hlch Jiavc bred in Capi'iv'ity. 

ANGOLA SINGING FINCH. Poliospiza angnlaisis. 
ANGOLA S. F. X CANARY. S. Africa. See 15. N. 1920, 71. 

(breeder not named). 
X CAPE CANARY. Abroad, teste Russ. 

GREY SING1N(; inNCIi. P. leucopygia. 
GREY S. 1'. X (;RI':1':N S.b". Pai^e. 

X CANARY. Vale. Page. 
X LINN1':T. Vale. Page. 
CAPE CANARY. Scrinus canicollis. Can find no record. See P.S. 

(I), page 173 above. 
CAPE CANARY x ALARIO. A.M. (n.s.) iv. 134. but ? this wav 
or 7'icc-7'crsii. Al)road, teste Page. 



GREEN SINGING FINCH. Page. "easily bred iai)road): first 

breeder Russ." teste Russ. 
X ALARIO. Page. 
X GREY S. F. Page. 
X CANARY. Vale. Page. 

SERIN FINCH.. Page. Sec also A.M. iv. 14. 
X CANARY. Vale. Page. 

CANARY. M;inv of the liy'irid records need ani])lification. 

SAFFRON FINCH. Sycalis flavcola. 
X CANARY. Page. 

^'b:LLO\VISH FINCH. Sycalis arrensis. Page. 

SCARLET ROSEFINCH. Carpnijacus erythrinus. 

"mentioned authoritatiycly by Dr. Russ. writes Dr. A. (i. ii'.itler. 
Wale in a footnote to his list. 

I'l'RIM.b: FINCH. 



Records of H'rds Zi^hicii lurz'c bred in Cafth'ity. 2y^ 


RI':r:D ['.. X Yl^J.LOW B. Vale. 

r.l.ACK-CRFSTl'LD BUNTING. Mcloplnis viclaiiictcnis. Onl\ 
of incomplete success. De Quinccy. See B.N. 191S. -fii- 

L\r.|(;() I'.UNTING. 

BOPI-: CARDIN.-VL. I'lvoana larvata. 

AKADlSb: WHYDAH. Abroad, teste A. G. P.utler .<;: Page. 

Rl^.D-BILLED WEAVI':R. Qnclea quclea. Page. 

I'IREFINCH. Lai^oiiosticta sencgala. 
FIREFINCH X GREY WAXBILL. Abroad, teste Page. 

X LAVENDER WAXBILL. Abroad, teste Page. 
" uncertain which \yav " Butler, A.M. n.s, iv. 350, 
X ZEBRA WAXBTLL: " Abroad, teste Page. 

Butler, as above. 

ROSY IILACK-BELLIF.D FIREFINCH. L. rhodoparia. ? does Russ' 
note (i. ]i. hji " a new ' rother Astrild ' " refer to this species? 

CUTTflROAT X lAVA SPARROW. Abroad, teste PaPc. 


Zl'.BRA W.^XBILL. .S-. subflaTus. Russ. Page. 
ZI'.BRA W. X FIREFINCH. Abroad, teste Page. 
X AVAD/WAT. Page. Russ. See P.S. {]). p. 17^ aboye 

ORANGE-CHEEK W. x ST. HELENA W. Abroad, teste Russ 
& Page. 

MATA FINCH. Muiiia luaja. Abroad Page and Russ 

X STRIATED FINCH. Page, (prol)ably = x Benoali) 
X CHOCOLATE MANNIKIN. Page ' (abroad) 
X CHESTNUT FINCW pj,o-e (abiWl), 

lyi^ h'ccovds of P.'i-ds wliich'c bred in C'of'tivity. 

X PARSON T'INCll. Page (abroad). 

(tliesc 4 also recorded A.M. n.s. iv. 352. A. G. Ikitlc 

CHOCOLATE MANNIKIN. Muriia atricapiUa. 
CHOCOLATK Al. x .MAjA. Abroad, icslc Russ X: Pago. 

CHl^STNUT I'INCH. M. castancithorax. 
CHESTNUT I'INCH x MA|A. Abroad, tesK- Page. 


teste Page. 
X STRIATED EINCLL Abroad, teste Page. 
X P.ENGALL Abroad, teste Page. (See 
also P>utler A.M. i. c). 

NUTMEG EINCH. .1/. puiictulata. 
NUTMEG X STRIATED EINCH. Abroad, teste Page (but ? 
X Bengali). 

STRIATI>:D EINCH. Uroloncha striata. 
X MATA F. Abroad, Page & Russ. 
X NUTMEG F. Abroad, Page & Russ. 
X AFRICAN SILV1':RP,ILL': Abroad, Page 

& Russ. 
X Py\RSON EINCH., Page .^- Russ. 

r?ENGALI. Some of tlie h\brid records need amplification. 

SHARP-TAILED EINCH. V. acuficauda. 
SHARP-TAILI'.D finch X .STRIAT1':D E. Page. 


CHERRY FINCH. Aidcmosyuc modcsta. 

INDIAN SILVERP.ILL. A. malahanca. 

AERICAN SHA'l'.RP.ILL. .1. caiitaiis. 
AFRICAN S. X INDIAN S. Page. Russ. (? wliicli \\:\v). 
X TAA'A SPARROW. Abroad, teste Page. 
X ZEP.RA FINCLL Abroad teste Page. 
X >L\IA IHNCII. Abroad, teste Page. 
X SYDN1':Y WANl'.ILL. Abroad, teste Page. 
X GREY WAX BILL. Abroad, teste Page.' 
X ST. HELENA W. See I'.utler A.M. n.s. iv. 
p. 3=;2, and for other Ploceid hybrids. 

P\RSON FINCLL PocphUa civcta. 

Records of Hirds -iCliuli liai'c br-.^d lu C'li'^iknty. 2/j 

PARSON F. X .MA|A MNCll. Abroad, teste Pag-e. 

PARROT FINCH. iirvlliruni psittacca. 
PARROT F. X I'1':AI.I':'S parrot finch. I'aee. 

CRIMSON FINCH. Ncoclniiia phaeton. 
teste Page. 

ST. HELENA WAXCII-I.. Tbe records all need ami-lificatifin. 

GREY W. X ORANGE-CHEEK W . Abroad, teste Pat^e. 

LAVENDER W. x I'lREFINCH. Abroad, teste Page. 
Uncertain vvbicli way. 

CORDON X ST. H1':LENA WAXBILL. Abroad teste Page. 


BROWN MYNA. Acthiopsar fiiscus. Abroad, Berlin Zoo. teste Butler, 

CRESTED MYNA. Ac. rri<;tafclhLs\ Weiner, teste Russ, but ? teste 

Dr. Butler. 

GLOSSY STARLING. Records need confirmation and details. 

RAVEN. Paire. 

CARRION CROW. Hybrids. Vale. (? produced in captivitv). 
LAY. Page. 


X PIED W. Page. 


N.\TAL WHITE-EYE (Z. vircn.s] cross with CANARY '!• reported! 
See B.N. 1920, 71. 

jy^ Post Mortem Rcf^orts. 

W'AXW^ING. Tnconi])letc. "young hatched twice in 1903," Si Onmlin, 
A.M. n.s. vii. IIS- 


in.ACKIURD. Page. 
r.LACKBIRD X (iREY-WlNGED OUZEL. Abroad, teste Page 


RING OUZEL. Page (" but doubtful if fully reared." Page). 
SON(; THRUSH. Page. 

Rb:n-\M-:NTED PULI'.UL. Page. 

SYRIAN P.ULP.UL. Abroad, teste Page. 

1 A'lvlvi'TRD. .Said to have produced hybrids witli the dome.stic fowl, 
r^age. h'oreign 

I-IRR.VTA : Page 200. record 134, " P.S., A. P. above," read p. 172 above. 
Page 202, record 156, " A. above," read p. 172 above. 
Page 219, record 178, for " Quiscalds " read Qitiscalus. 
Page 2:9, record 176, "P.S., C.P. above," read p. 173 above. 
Page 2T9, record 192, for "Cycinopoliiis, read Cvauopnlins. 

Post Mortem Reports. 

2:11 -.22. Ca\.\]?v (,5): from Mrs. i\'Iay S. Dennis, Alarket Drayton. — 

]3ouble imeumonia. 
4-11 :22. Red-fackd Lovkbird (9'I: from W. R. Rearby. West Hartlepool. 

Catarrhal enteritis, with a terminal congestion of lungs. (Answered 

by post). 
23:11 122. N.M'OLKAN Wk.wrr ( c? ) i from T. O. Harrison, Sunderland. — 

Haemorrhage from ruptured liver. (Answered by post). 
29:11 -.22. WniTK Jav.\ Sparrow (9): from Capt. H. S. Stokes. Rugeley, 

Staffs. — Double ]Mieumonia. (Answered by post). 
December 3, 19-^2. C. H. HICKS. 



Sir,— When 1 kept small birds 1 had the same difficulty with owls as 
r^r. S])rawson describes. I defeated them by stretching a double top of 
v.ire-netting over mv open flights. leaving a foot between the two layers 
of netting. Owls and cats very quickly learnt that they could not reach 

Concspondcncc. 279 

llie inniales. and left off Iryinq- frf)m above. In addition, as I found small 
hirds very fond of roosting close to the wires, I fastened a good thick bundle 
o*" heather to the outside of the aviary wherever a perch or bush was near 
tl'.c wires. This completely hid the bird from the owls, so that it could 
neither be frightened nor injured by them. After adopting this plan I never 
los; a l)n-d from owls or cats. (Miss) E. F. CHAWNER. 

Sir, — " Re Breeding Bullfinches." I never found any difficulty in 
breechng them in a small aviary, with an opeu flight containing a few thuja 
trees. The nests were always built of heather twigs and lined with dried 
grass. The eggs were almost invariably fertile and the young fully reared 
with no assistance from me ; in fact the more they were left to themselves 
llie better they did. A good many other birds were in the same aviary, 
bnt I did not find that they interfered with the Bullfinches, except when a 
cock Pckin Robin, who had young close by-, annoyed his neighbours by 
insisting on feeding their babies as well as his own. 

(Miss) E. F. CHAWNER. 

Sir, — Since my last communication on this matter I have had another 
letter from Mr. Kirby, as follows : 

" I have had, ])erhaps, an unicpie e.xperience of gaining information in 
" my profession, as my father and grandfather both followed the same 
'■ calling, and, 1 have a son who is making out to be a good student at the 
" san:e game. AIv profession has always been mv hobby, so that I have 
" taken a great deal of notice of things which might have escaped anyone 
" less observant." 

" My first experience of TICKS was when I was a boy, that brute I 
" got from a sheep's head — it bit me on the thigh, dad wanted to know 
'■ why I was so uncasv. After explanation he told me to go and examine 
" myself, and, F found the brute on my thigh, where it had dug itself 
" well in." 

" The next one I found on the head of a Common Snipe, that, I remember, 
' had been picked up alive. The bird was very badh' bitten about the 
'' head and eyes; the body was in a very bad and poor condition, as though 
" its tormentor had been on it some time." 

" I also rememl)er finding one on a Chaffinch — that was aljout five 
" years ago." 

" The most remarkable was one I found on the head of a Mole, that had 
" been caught in a traj). The mole was in a poor state, with blood on 
" the head; same as the birds. How it got on the mole it is hard to say. 
" unless it had dropped on a mound made by the moles." 

" If a tick once gets foothold he is a sticker .... they are perfect 
" demons. I shall be glad to answer any questions, as the .subject interests 
" me greatly.— F. KIRBY, R.Z.S.I., Nov. 20, 1922." 

Mr. Kirby recently had a Starling sent to him which had been killed 
bv a TICK, and presented the same appearance as my finches on post mortem 
examination being made. The bird was picked up alive, and died soon after. 
Havant, Nov. 23. 1922, (The Marquis of) TAVISTOCK. 



General hides. 

General Index. 


Accentor, 145. 

Jerdon's, 221. ] 

American Sparrow Hawk, 12. 
-Vvadavats. 19, 26. 61, 153, 155, 199, 
215, 216, 223. 
,, Breedino;, 19. 

Green, 198. 
Aviaries Ang.. Sept. & Oct. in My, 
,, Capt. Keeve's & Birds, 

,, Current Notes in My, 154. 
Desolation of War in My, 
25-8. _ j 

Dr. Sprawson's, & Birds, 
164-5, 214-8. I 

,, Happenings in our, 164-5, 
June ct July in My, 131. 
.', Lady Dunleath's, Stray, 
Notes, from, 19, 25-8, 
May in My, 95-9. 
Mr. Bright's, & Birds, 

Mr. Shore Bailey's 245-50, 

My, & Birds, 21-5. 
Seeing other Memhers' & 

Birds, 19. 
Notes from Northern Ire- 
land, 147-50. 
Visits to Members', 187, 

222, 245, 261. 
Visiting Members', 
Aviarv, Budgerigars', 226. 
,, ' Finch, 249. 

Larger Birds', 225. 
Notes, Stray, 229. 
Parrakeet, 227. 
Small Birds'. 223, 247-9. 
;, AVaders', 261. 

Weaver & Whydah, 250 


19, 46, 

Babbler, Stiiated, 211. 

Barbets, 78. 

Bathida Ruficauda, Display of, 153 

Bee-eater, Blue-tailed, 213. 

Bengalese, 200, 276 

Bell Bird, 78, 194. 
,, Bird Boat.s-wain's, 86. 
,, Cat, 220. 
,, Catalogue, Aust., 78. 

Compiling a of Foreign. 

bi'ed at liberty, 92. 
,, Dyhal, (Dial), "70, 221. 
,, Frigate, 87. 
,, Lyre, 278. 
,, Man-of-War, 87. 
,, Marts, Seeker After. 167-71. 
,, Paddy, 210, 211. 

Record of, which have Bred. 
171, 197, 219, 271. 
,, Regent, 219. 

Satin Bower-, 77. 
,, Shama, The Best Song, 73. 
,. Seeker After, Marts, 167-7L 
,, Snow, 177. 

Birds, Hunnning, 54. 
., in Paddocks, 263. 
on the Lake, 263. 
,, Tick Killing, 233, 279. 
Bishop, Black-bellied, 197. 

Crimson-crowned, 197. 
Grenadier, 197. 
j ., Kaffir, 197. 

Napoleon, 197. 
Orange, 197. 
,, Tab a, 197. 
Bishops, 25. 

(See also Weaver). 
Bittern Yellow. 213. 
Blackbird, 220, 228, 278. 

Red-winged, 219. 
Blackcap, 30, 74, 220, 228. 
Black-capped, Lories, My, 68. 
Bhiebirds. 88. 
Bobolink. 95. 
Boobies, Brown, 81. 
Bower-Bird, Satin, 77. 
Bramblings, 24, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36. 

37, 38, 133, 135, 174, 250. 
Bronze-wing Mannikins, 5. 

Breeding Avadavats, 19. 

Budgerigars Green and 

Yellow, from same nest, 

Budgerigars, Continental 

Methods, of, 32. 
Bullfinches, 229, 230, 27'.' 

General Index. 


Hreeding (Jardinals, 189-90. 
,, Cirl Bunting, 21. 
., Crimsong - wing Pana 
keets, 165-7. 
Doves, 189, 231-8. 241-4. 
Kinclie.s, 189-90. 
,, Grass-finclies, 189-90. 
,, Isabelline Doves, 231. 

]\Ianchuiian Eared-Pheas- 
ant, 207-8. 
,, Misto Seed-Fincli, 179-81 
,, New Guinea Quail, 192-3. 
,, Passerine Parrotlet at 
Libertv, 65. 
Quail Finches, 235-41. 
,, Red-rump Parrakeets, 22. 
,, Results, 19, 39, 
,, Tat.aupa Tinanious, 177. 
,, Ti'iangular-spotted 

Pigeons, 22. 
,, White - breasted Dove, 
Zebra Finches, 19. 

]-!udgerigurs> 25, 32, 40, 41, 227. 
., Apple-Green, 32, 102. 

Blue, 78, 79, 102, 123, 
228. _ 
,, Breeding Green t\: Yel- 

low, from same Nest, 

,, Continental Methods 

of Breeding, 32. 
" French Moult," 32. 
,, Green, 66, 67, 77, 88, 

99, 102, 153, 206. 
,, Green blue-bred, 32, 

41, 78, 102, 191, 228, 
Olive, 32, 102. 
Yellow, 41, 153, 206. 
Biiihul, Finch-billed, 89, 278. 
].iHyard's, 70. 
,, Red-vented, 221. 
,, Red-whiskered, 221. 
,, Syrian, 279. 

White-eared, 221. 

Bullfinch, 27, 155, 176, 223, 229, 230, 
275, 279. 
Desert, 174. 
hunting, African Rock, 248, 249. 

Black-crested, 275. 

Black-throated, 177. 

Cirl, 24, 177. 

Golden-breasted, 99. 

Indigo, 91, 134, 177, 275. 

Moorish House, 177. 

Nonpareil, 177. 

Rainbow, 177. 

Reed, 26, 176, 275. 

Bunting Snow, 24, 25, 26, 132, l.')3, 
134. 250. 
,, Towhee, 177. 
,, Varied, 177. 

Yellow, 82, 177. 
Buntings, 21. 
Burrowing, Owl, 9. 
Busli-Chat, Pied, 221. 
Buzzard, Red-shouldered, 12. 

Canary, 176, 274. 

Cape, 91, 171, 175, 274. 
Canaries, 26, 228. 

Cardinal, Green, 40, 100, 101, 125, 
177, 190, 225, 226, 227, 
Grey, 225, 226, 228, 247. 
Pope, 65, 66, 177, 227, 

248, 252, 254, 275. 
Red, 174, 272. 
Red-crested, 40, 125, 153, 

154, 157. 
Virginian, 99, 122, 125, 
154, 190, 225, 226, 228. 
Y'ellow-billed, 23, 40, 41. 
Cassique, Black, 147. 
r'at Bird, 220. 
Chaffinch, Algerian, 95, 99. 
Blue, 174. 

Nesting of Algerian, 13, 
95, 99. 
Chat, Pied Bush, 221. 

,, Stone, 221. 
Chicken-Hawk, 12. 
Chough, Cornish, 228 
Cockateel, 63, 88, 208, 247. 
at Liberty, 208. 
Cockatoo, Bare-eyed, 78. 

,, Leadbeater's 88, 150. 

,, Roseate, 78. 

Collection at London Zoo, Prince of 

Wales', 127-8. 
Coly, East African, 90. 
Combasou, 197. 
(Jonure, Brown-throated, 101. 
Cactus, 65. 
Euops, 101. 
,, Jendaya, 101. 
Pearly, 246. 
Prince Lucian, 22, 100. 
Red-headed, 100. 
Cordon Bleu, 25, 153, 154, 165, 201, 

223, 224, 228, 248, 277. 
Correspondence. 18, 45, 65, 91, 122, 

152, 206, 233, 278. 
Cotinga, Pompadour, 195. 
Courser, Temminck's, 29. 
Cowbird, Baya, 25. 


be II era I Index 

Crake, Eastern Baillou's, 212. 
Crane, Demoiselle, 70, Hy, 181, 2G-. 

,, White-necked, 89. 
Cranes, 25. 

Crossbills, 21, 25, 27, 176. 
l^row Carrion, 277. 
,, Hooded, 277. 
Cuckoo, 141, 213. 

,, Episode, A, 141. 
Curassows, 42, 90. 
Curlew, Stone, 133 
Cutthroat, 61, 62, 96, 123, 198, 230 

Dayal (Dial) Bird, 221. 

Decay, Senile, 124. 

Diary of Voyage from Karachi, to 

Marseilles, 79. 
Dick-Cissel, A. Am., 95, 247. 
Diet for Mannikins, 3. 
Difficulty or Failure of Wild Bird- 
to Rescue their Young, 93 
Dove, Barbary Turtle, 143, 227 234 
Bar-shouldered, 70. 
,, Cape Turtle, 143, 146, 259. 
,, Common, 56. 81, 152. 
.. Collared Turtle, 70, 
: Crested, 190. 

Diamond, 96, 191, 223, 250. 
Dwarf-Ground, 191. 

., Turtle, 70, 82, 89. 
Geoffroy's, 89, 91. 
Green-winged (Aust.), 7(J. 
Vl"d.), 144. 
Isabelline Turtle, 151, 231. 
Masked, 25. 

Necklace, 98, 132, 226, 253 

,, Pahn'(lnd), 70. 
., Peaceful, 123. 
;, R?d C round, 133, 134, 252 

,, Mountain, 144, 227, 248 
„ Scaly, 249. 
,, Talpacoti. 80, 249. 
,, Tigrine Turtle, 70. 
,, Vinaceous Turtle, 144. 
,, White-breasted, 205. 
Doves, 189 

Duck, Carolina, 89, 152. 
,. Chilian Teal, 263. 
,; Mallard 89. 

Red-headed Pochard, 263. 
'' Rosv-billed, 252, 263. 
: W^ood. N. Am., 116, 118. 
;, Yellow-billed, 263. 

Ducks, Diving, 116, 118, 119, 120, 
,, Surface Feeding, 116, 118, 
119, 120, 121. 

Eagle-Hawk. Crowned, 152. 

Eagle-OwI, Bengal, 250. 

Spotted, 96, 246. 
Editorial, 15, 69. 125, 150, 204. 
l':grets, VVhite, 140, 157. 
Elder as food for Pheasants. 93. 
F.pisode. A Cuckoo, 141. 

A Java Sparrow, 203-4. 
!''xliii)iting l''oreign Birds. 17. ^ 

Falcon, 80. 

I'incli, .Mario, 175, 273. 

,, Angola Singing, 174, 274. 
.Vrgentme Sallron, 176. 
Aurora, 199. 

Bearded Seal v-f routed, 202. 
Bengalese, 200, 276. 
Bib, 9. 197. 
Bi.'heno's, 199. 
Black-headed, 9, 174. 
,, ., ,, Seed, 174. 

,, ,, Seed, i74. 

,, ., rumped Bicheno's, 

-tailed Haw-, 272. 
Blue Chaif-, 174. 
Bramble-, 133, 135, 174, 250. 
Brazilian, 248. 
Bull-, 27, 155, 176, 223, 229, 

230, 275, 279. 
Chaff-, 27. 174, 228, 248. 
• ,, Cherry, 200, 276. 

Chestnut -breasted, 3, 124, 
199, 224, 276. 
,, Chinese Green-, 173, 272. 
Citril, 272. 
Crimson, 201, 227, 228, 233, 

Cuban, 124, 132, 134, 154, 
165, 174, 223. 
225, 228, 248, 252, 
Cutthroat, 61, 62, 96, 123, 

198, 230, 275. 
Desert Bull-, 174. 
Diamond, 123, 198, 223, 233. 
Diuca, 96, 133, 177. 
Duskv, 174. 
Euler's, 174. 

General Index. 



Finch, Fire-, 25, 164, 198, 214, 215, 
216, 275. 
Gold, 25, 27, 155, 174, 272. 
Gouldian, 125, 164, 201, 215, 
216, 223, 225. 
,, Grass-, 225. 

Green-, 173, 272. 
,, ,, Singing, 176, 22'5, 

249, 274. 
Grey, 173, 175. 
,, ,, -backed Fire-, 198. 

„ ,, Singing, 132, 175, 223, 

248, 274. 
,, Guttural, 174. 
Haw-, 173, 272. 
,, Jacarini, 174. 
,, -Lark, White-cheeked, 219. 

Lavender, 91, 223, 224. 
,, Least Saffron, 176. 

Lined. 223. 
,, Little, 174. 

,, Long-tailed Grass-, 124, 201, 
Maja, 199, 276. 
-Masked Grass-, 124, 201, 

Meiba, 61. 62, 198. 
,, Mexican Rose-, 176, 275. ... 
,, Misto Seed-. 96, 99. 132, 133, 
134, 135, 179-S 
248, 249, 250. 
,, Nutmeg, 199. 276. 
., Olive Cuba, 174. 
Orchard, 134, 177. 
Painted, 198. 
Parrot, 165, 201, 277. 
,, Parson, 201, 277. 

Pectoral, 5, 164, 200. 
Pileated, 177. 
,, Pink-eyebi-owed Hose-, 176. 
,, ,, -winged Rose-, 152. 

,, Purple, 274. 

Quail, 40, 124, 154, 198, 22'^, 
224, 235. 
W. African, 198. 
,, Red crowned, 177. 
,, ,, -headed, 25, 26, 40, 61, 

62, 124, 198, 223, 
228, 275. 

,. Ribbon, 25. 

Rose-, 152, 176, 274, 275. 
,, Black -bellied Fire-, 

,, Rufou.s-tailed Grass-, 124, 
153, 164. 201, 214, 
Saffron, 40, 176, 177, 179, 

223, 247. 274. 
Scaly-crowned, 24, 202. 
,, Scarlet Rose-, 176, 274. 

Finch, Serin, 274. 

Sharp-tailed, 200, 276. 
Spice, 230. 
,, Spotted, Fire-, 198. 
,, Striated, 200, 276. 
,, Tri-coloured, 9. 
,, ,, ,, Parrot, 201. 

,, Tropical Seed-, 173. 
,, White-headed, 9, 173. 
,, Vellowisli, 275. 
,. Yellow-runipod, 199. 

Zebra, 19, 25, 61, 62, 68, 69, 

78, 88, 123, 124. 

154, 155, 164. 198. 

199. 223, 225, 228, 


finches. Foreign, 21. 

,, in "Waders' Aviary, 263. 
Finch-Lark, White-cheokeJ, 21 Q. 
Firefinch, 25, 164, 198, 214, 215, 
216, 275. 
,, Gre^'-backed, 198. 

,, Rosv Black-bellied, 275. 

Spotted, 198. 
First fruits of the Season, 124. 
Flower-pecker, Aust., 70. 
Flycatcher, 141. 
Food and Treatment, 157. 
Foreign Bird Exhibiting, 17-8, 265. 

Birds at Liberty, 92. 
French Moult with Budgerigars <fe 

Parrakeets, 32, 67. 
Fruit-Pigeon, Lilac-crowned, 70, 189, 
225, 247. 254. 
,, ,, Magnific'3nt, 'O, 90 
,, ,, Nutmeg, 70. 
,, ,, Orange -bellied, 70, 90. 


Gallinule. Purple, 213. 
Gannet. Masked, 80. 
Goldfinch, 25, 27, 155, 174, 272. 
Goose Ross' Snow, 70. 

,, Upland, 32, 263, 264. 
GoshaAvk, Lesser White, 90. 
Grackle, Black-necked, 21. 

,, Purple, 219. 
Gi'assfinch, 225. 

,, Long-tailed, 124, 201, 

Masked, 124, 201, 223. 
:. Rufous-tailed, 124, 153, 

164, 201, 211, 
Greenfinch, 173, 272. 

.. Chinese, 173, 272. 

filrosbeak. Black-headed, 173. 
Blue, 88, 173. 
Pine. 176. 


(jeiicral Index 

Grosbeak, Rose -breasted, ITS 

,, Stripe-lieaded, 95, 99 
Yellow-billed, 173. 
Ground -Dove, Dwarf, 191. 

Med, 133, 134, 252. 
Giouud-TluiisJ), African, 28, 96, 247. 
,, ,, Orange-headed, 

Guans, 42. 
Guinea-fowl, Horned, 99, 133, 134 

252, 264. 
Gull, Blac-k-backed, 81. 
,, Henipriclii's, 79, 81. 
., Herrinc;, 82. 


IIanj2;, 78. 

Baltimore, 122. 
Yellow, 70, 151. 
Happenings in Our Aviaries, 164-5, 

Harrier,, 213. 
Pallid, 213. 
Hawfinch, 173, 272. 

Black-tailed, 272. 
Hawk, Am. Sparrow, 12. 
,, Chicken-, 12. 

Lesser, White Gos-, 90. 
Red-shouldered Buzzard, 12 
Hawks, 140. 
Hens, Water-. 211. 

White-breasted Water-, 262. 
Heron, Brown, 140. 
Purple, 213. 
Hornbill. White-ciested. 152. 
Hybrid Avadavat, 173, 199. 275. 

Bengalese, 172, 173, 198, 
199, 200, 201, 276. 
Blackbird, 220, 221, 278. 
Bulbul, Red-vented, 221. 
Bunting, Indigo, 176. 275. 
,. ., Nonpareil, 177. 

Reed, 275. 
Yellow, 275. 
Canaries, 172, 174, 175, 176 
272, 273, 274, 275 
Cordon Bleu, 199. 202, 277 
,. Cardinal, 174, 177, 272. 

,, Green. 272. 
,, ,, Pope, 275. 

Red, 174. 272. 
„ ,, Red-crested, 174 


Hybrid, Cutthroat, 173, 198, 199, 
273, 275, 276. 
Fincli, Alario, 175, 176. '>7.3 
)> ,, Angola Singing, 175 

176, 274. 
)> ,, Argt. Saffron, 176. 

,, Bib, 198, 200, 201 
)) ,, Bicheno's, 199. 

• , ,, Bramble, 174. 

Bull-, 176, 272, 27.; 
,, Chaff-, 174, 176, 272 
^) ,, Cherry, 276. 

)> ;, Chestnut-breasted, 

199, 200, 276. 
>) ,, Chinese Green-. 17'), 

CitriC 176, 272, 
5) ,, C'l-imson. 277. 

;) ,, Diamond, 198. 

>. ,, Desert Bull-, 175 

Fire-, 198, 275, 277. 
Gold-, 173, 174, 176 

272, 273, 

M M Green-, 173, 174, 175. 

176, 272, 273. 

)j ,, Green Singing, 176 


Grey, 173. 

)) ,, Grev Singing, 176 

273, 274. 
,.. Haw-, 272. 

,, ,, L. T. Gras,*.-, 199. 

201, 277. 
^faja, 276, 277. 
^fasked Gras.s-, 201 

]Melba, 199. 
Nutmeg, 173, 200. 

201, 276. 
Olive, 201. 
Parrot, 201, 277. 
Par.son, 276, 277. 
Purple, 176, 274. 
Red-headed, 198, 
, ,, Rose-, 173, 176, 274, 

, R. T. Grass-, 277. 
Saffron, 176, 274. 
Sei-in, 176. 
Sharp-tailed, 200, 

201, 276, 277. 
Spice, 200. 
Striated, 200. 276 

White-throated, 173. 

CtCncraJ Index. 


Hvhiid, Finch, Zebra, 198, 199, 277. 
., Java, Sparrous, 199. 275 
Linnets, 173, 176, 272, 273, 

:Nrannikins, 197, 19S, 199, 

200, 276, 277. 
Mvnahs. 219. 

Ouzels, 220. 278. 

Redpolls, 175, 176; 272, 273. 

Robin, 220. 
,. Reedeutei-s, 175, 176, 272, 

,. Silvevbills, 197, 198, 199. 

201, 276. 

., Siskins, 172, 173. 17^, 175. 
176, 272, 273. 27^1 
,, Song-S])arrovvs, 177. 

Sparrows, 172, 173, 175, 
199, 273. 275, 277. 
Starlings, 219. 
.. Twites, 174, ]7'\ 176. 272, 
Thinsli?s, 220, 221. 
Tits, 220. 
,. Wagtails, 278. 
., Waxbills, 173, 199,201. 202, 
* 275, 276, 277. 

Weavers. 197, 202. 
Whvdahs, 197. 
Wigeon, 263. 
Hybrids, Lists of. 8, 123, 229, 247. 


Ibis, Saored, 88, 152. 
ii:-breeding of Wild Species, 92. 
Indian Little Owl. 11. 

.lacana. Pheasant-tailed, 211, 213. 
lav Ac-apnlco, 1'2. 
., Aznre, 48, 49, 90, 96, 98, 247. 

Beechev's, 111. 
,, Blue, 191. 

,, Am., 47. 
,, Ea.stern, 47. 
■fronted, 47. 
some, 47-9. 
.., 47. 
.. Ensrlish. 49, 277. 
., Hartlaubs's, 112. 
., Jn venal plumages of Yucatan, 

,, Pileated, 49, 78, 96. 
., Si,n-blas. 111. 
,. -Thrush, White-cre.sted, 190. 
,, Yucatan, 48, 9Q, 98, 111, 112. 
Ja.vs, Some Blue, 47-9. 


Key to Plate (Jan. i i-ontisi)iece), 8. 
Kingfisher, 214. 

Aru Island, 90. 

Pied, 214. 
Kiskadee, 159. 
Kite, .Swallow-tailed, 88. 
Kites, 79, 213. 
Knots, 253. 


Lapwing, Red-wattled, 211. 
Lark, Black, 219. 
,, Cre.sted, 219. 

Shore, 25, 96. 99, 250. 
Skv, 219. 

Wiiite-eared Finch-, 219. 
Wood, 21. 
Jxttuce for Budgerigars, 67. 
Lilac-crowned Fruit-Pigeon, 70, 189, 

225, 247, 254. 
Linnet, 273. 

Green, 27.' 
List of Birds, Hybrid, 8. 

in same Aviarv, 100. 

101, 155, 156, 188, 
189, 190, 223, 225, 
226, 227, 228, 261, 
262, 263. 
. .. ., Mannikins, 2, 3. 

Record of, Bred in 
Captivity, 171, 
197, 219\ 271. 
Longevity, A case of, 153. 
Tjorik'^et, Red-collared, 78. 
Loi-y, Black-capped, 68. 

Purple-breasted, 70. 
Yellow-streaked, 70. 
Lovebird, Black-faced, 38. 

Blue-winged, 186. 
Lavendei-headed, 184. 
Peach-faced, 99, 101, 185. 
Red-faced, 185. 
Lovebirds Four Species of, 184-6. 
Lyi-e Bird, 278. 


-Macaw, Illiger's. 101. 
:\ragpie, Eastern Blue, 219. 
Spanish, Blue, 219. 
Occipital Blue, 219. 
Viaunikin, Black-headed, 223. 

Bronze -winged. 5, 198, 

223, 224. 
Chestnut-brea.sted, 224. 
Chocolate, 199, 276. 


General Index. 



7. 99-2. 

Manuikiii, Common, 61, 235. 

., Magpie (Pied), 6, 197 

Maja, 199. 
,, Riifou.s-backed, 5, 

124, 197, 223, 
,, Tri -coloured, 199, 

,, Two-coloured, 197. 

,; Yellovv-rumped, 4. 

IVIaniiikiiis, 1-9. 

,, Diet for 3. 

I\, Scarlet-headed, 28, 
IMartin, House, 82. 
^leiiibers' Aviaries & Birds, Seeing 
Otlier 19, 46. 
,, ,, ,, Visits 

to, 46, 18 
24-5, 261. 
Mesia, Silver-eared, 221. 
.Mocking-Bird, 220. 
Monaul, Himalayan, 89. 
Alooi'lien, 262. 
Alynali. Brown, 277. 
Crested, 277. 
Common, 219. 
Indian, 66, 78, 219. 
Malabar, 219. 
;, Pagoda, 219. 
,, White-winged, 90. 


Nesting of Algerian ChafFnich. 13, 

Am. Robin, 123. 
,, Avadavats, 62, 215. 

Baltimore Oriole, 122. 
,, Bearded Tits, 152. 
,, Black -cheeked Waxbills 

,, Bramblefinch, 31. 

Budgerigars, 32, 206. 

Cape Turtle Dove, 143, 234, 

Common Quail, 29. 

Firefinch, 164, 214. 

Gouldian Finch. 164. 

Java Sparrow, 203-4. 
;, Peaceful Dove, 123. 

Pectoral Fincli, 164. 

Quail Finch, 153, 235. 
,, Red INIountain Dove, 
,. Red-rump Parrakeet, 
,; R. T. Grassfinch, 164, 

Snow Bunting, 31. 

Triangular Spotted Pigeon, 

Turtle Dove, 152. 

Virginian Cardinal. 122. 

Waxwing, 69. 
,, Weavers, 63. 



Nesting of Zebra Finch, 19, 164. 
Nightingale. 73, 74, 75, 76, 221, 223, 

Nonijareil, Bunting, 177. 

Pin-tailed, 201. 
Notes, Earlv Strav, 28. 

,, for Spring" 1922, Stray, 99. 
,, from a French Aviary, 123. 
,, from our President's 

Aviaries 19. 
,, Nesting, 69, 151. 
,, of the Season, 144. 

on a Few Well-known 
Species, 61. 
,. on Birds and Mice, stiay, 91. 
on Jungle and other Wild 
Life, 82, 102, 135, ;58. 
193, 216, 255. 
,, on My Birds, 76. 
,, on Red Shining Parrakeets, 

,, on Some Forms of Cisso- 

lopha. 111. 
,, on Owls and Hawks, 9. 
,. Strav, 152. 

Black-headed, 25. 





Members' Aviaries, Seeing, 
19, 46. 
, Argt. Brown, 220. 
Grey- winged, 220. 
Ring, 28, 249, 278. 
Tickell's, 220. 
Bengal Eagle, 250. 
,, Brown, 53, 216. 
., Burrowing, 9. 
,. Falkland Island, 250. 
,, Indian Little, 11. 
,. Spotted Eagle, 96, 246. 
,; Cral, 11. 
Owls and Cats from Birds. To Keep, 
,, and Hawks, Notes on Some, 9. 


ikeet. Adelaide, 190. 

, Alexandrine, 52, 53, 147, 

, Apure Tovi, 152. 

, Barnard's, 78. 

Barraband's, 51, 53, 54. 
, Black-tailed, 5lj 52. 

, Blossom-headed, 22, 147, 

Blue-Bonnet, 46. 

New Race 
of, 46. 
-winged, 22. 

General Index. 


Paniikeet, Crimson-wing, 50, 52, 53, 
54, 165-7. 
}) >7 J) Some 

Notes on, 50. 
,, Hooded, 67. 

King, 51, 52, 53, 65, 90. 
,, Masked, 181. 

,, Mealy Rosella, 190. 

,, Orange-flanked, 101. 

,, Passerine, 65, 186. 

Pennant, 63, 191, 227. 
,, Red-rumped, 22, 64, 67, 

123, 152. 

,, -Shining, 181-4. 
,, Ring-necked, Ind., 52, 

53; 69. 
,, Rock Pepkir, 77. 

Rosella, 78, 147, 190., 123. 
Stanley, 66, 101, 191. 
Tabnan, 181. 
,, Uvaean, 76, 77. 

,, ^Yhite-^vinged, 101. 

Yellow-bellied, 50, 67. 
Parrakeets, 21, 34, 35, 36, 38, 208. 
Parrotlet, Passerine, 65, 186. 
Parrot, B. F. Ama/on, 6:>, 66, 146. 
Grey, 65. 
Hawk-headed, 77. 
,, Maximilian's, 247. 
,, Senegal, 64. 
Vasa, 78. 
Parrots, 103. 
Partridge 42. 

PeafowL Black- winged, 264. 
Peregrine Falcon Epi'oues, 18 
Petrel, Fork-tailed Storm, 80, 81. 
Pheasant. Cabot's. 32. 

Common, 42, 264. 
Crow-, 213. 
Crossoptilon, 32, 245, 

Gold, 89. 
,, Manchurian Eared-, 32, 

99, 132, 133, 207, 245, 
247, 2.50. 
Monaul, 248. 
Peacock, 96, 99, 247. 
Satvra. 29. 32, 98. 
Silver. '89. ■ 
Pie Accipital Blue, 219. 
Pigeon, Af. Speckled, 24. 

Aust. Crested, 89, 190. 
Bleeding-heart, 205, 241. 
,, Brazilian, 190. 
,, Brush Bronze-winged, 89. 
,, Lilac-crowned Fruit-, 70. 
189, 225, 247, 2-54. 
Magnificent ]-.-uit , 70, 90. 
,, Nicobar, 70. 

Pigeon, Nutmeg Fruit-, 70. 

,, Orange-bellied Fruit, 70, 

,, Stephani's Green- winged, 
Triangular-Spotted, 22, 24, 

89. 152. 
Tumbler (B.F.), 191. 
White-breasted, 205, 241. 
Wood, 24. 
Pipit, Rock, 220. 
., Tree, 82, 278. 
Plover, 30. 
Pochard, 211. 

Red-headed, 263. 
Post Mortem Reports, 2C, 94, 130, 

154, 260, 279. 
President, A few Notes from our, 

Prospect, The, 15-6. 


Quail, African, 29. 

Calif ornian. 31, 40, 1.33, 135, 

155. 226, 252., 189. 

Common, 29, 30, 54. .56, 96, 
,, Egyptian, 29, 251, 252. 
,, Finch, 40, 124, 154, 198, 223, 
224, 235. 
Gambel's, 89. 
,, New Guinea, 70, 1-32, 134, 
248, 252, 254. 
Painted, 1.52. 
,, ■ Plumbeous, 70, 132, 134, 248, 
2.52, 254. 
Quail Finch, 40, 124, 1.54. 198, 223, 
224. 235. 
„ W. Af. 198. 


Rail, Aust., 70. 

,, Earl's Weka, 70. 
,. Red-billed, 90. 
,; Water, 213. 
Raven, 277. 
Records of Birds Bred in Captivity, 

171. 197, 219, 271. 
Redpoll, 26, 175, 273. 

Mealy, 146, 175, 273. 
Red-shoiddered Buzzard-Hawk, 12. 
Pedstart. Black, 221. 
Regent Bird, 219. 

Reports, Post Mortem, 20, 94, 130, 
154, 260, 279. 
Zoo, 88, 127. 


Cicncral Index. 

Ileviews and Notices of New Books, 

Kohin. Aiuerican, SS, 123, 220. 
,, Blue, 122, 188. 

Pekin, 25, 61, 123, 146, 147, 
221, 228. 
llobins, 28. 
Rock Tbmsh, 221. 
Uoller, Blue, 21U, 221. 
Long-tailed, 90. 
Kosetineli, 152, 176. 

Mexican, 176. 275. 

Pink-biowed, 176. 

,, -winged, 152. 

Scarlet, 176, 274. 


Samples, ^Millet, 91. 12.3. 
Sanctuary, In My Bird, 115. 
Scottish National Show, 17. 
Season, l^'irstfruits of the, 124. 

,, Signs of the, 122, 
Seed-eater, St. Helena, 176, 274 
Sulphur, 175, 274. 
,, Sundevall's, 90. 

Seed-Finch, Black, 174. 

., ,, -headed, 9, 

,, Torrid, 173. 

Seed, Millet, 91, 123. 
bteker after Bird INlarts. 167-71 
Serni, Yellow-runiped, 253. 
Shama, 22, 73, 74, 75, 76, 221, 2 
The Best Song Bird, 
Shearwater, Green-billed, 80, 82 
Show, Scottish National, 17. 

Torquay F. t^- F., 265-71. 
Slu'ike, Logger-headed, 86. 

.. Red-backed 220. 
Silverbill, Af., 201, 276. 
Ind., 200, 276. 
Silverbills. 25, 146, 153, 230. 
Silver-eared Mesia, 221. 
Singingfinch, Angola, 17i, 274 
Green, 176, 223, 
Grey, 132, 175, 
248, 274. 
Siskin American, 273. 

., Black-headed, 174, 248 

Hinalavan, 174, 273. 
,, lied, 174. 

Sikliim, 175, 273. 
SLskins, 24, 272. 
Snow-Bird, 177. 

Society it Its Journal, Our, J5. 
Softl)il!s, 21. 
Song-Sparrow, 132. 

Chingolo, 133. 17' 
249, 253. 





Song-Spario\\ White-crowned. 177. 
Sparrow, Af. Diamond, 132. 

Cape, 132, 133, 134, 175, 
250, 253, 254. 

Chingolo Song-. 133, 177, 
249, 253. 

Cinnamon, 175. 

Diamond, 198. 

English, 86. 

Gambel's, 88. 

Gambian, 135. 

Golden, l75. 273. 

Gre.v-headed, 96, 175. 

Grev J.iva, Ci, 146, 153, 

Hedge, 142, 221., 273. 
Le.sser Rock, 175. 
Red-fronLv'd lira/i.'ian, 1.33. 
Senegal, 132, 134, 135. 
Tree, 273. 
\\ hite-crowned Song-, 177. 
,. Java, 40, 124, 154. 
223, 228. 
Yellow. 175. 

,, -throated, 96, 
133, 250. 
S.ioonhills, 134, 210. 
Sprosser, 221. 
Starling, 22. 277. 

Andaman. 219. 
Glossv, 77, 277. 
Military, 28, 96, 152. 
Pied, 90. 

\'erreaux's Amethyst, 90. 
Stouecluit, 221. 
Stork, Adjutant, 131. 

'iCssei- Adjutant, 264. 
Sugarhird, Yellow-winged, 23, 55, 

m, 57, 58, 59, 228. 
Sunbird, Great Amethyst, 152. 
Malachite, 152. 
Sc-a.rlet-breasted, 89. 
Suallow, Common, 81, 214. 

AVirotailed, 214. 
Swift, 80. 


Tailor Bird, 220. 
Tauager, Archbisiiop, 22. 

Bishop, 219. 

Black, 219. 

., -backed, 23, 24, 

Blue. 1.34. 

Magpie, 219. 

Scarlet, 219. 

AYesteru Palm, 219. 

(icneral liidcx 


Tanai^er, YeUow-riimped, 219. 

,, Cliilian, 152, 263. 
Tern, 81. 

'I brush. Af. Ground-, 28, 96, 247. 
AT. Olivaceous, 29, 96. 
Common, 56, 74, 123, 141. 
,,- Migratory, 190. 

Mistle, 29, 31, 96, 99, 132. 

Orange-headed Ground-, 

Rock, 221. 
Song, 220, 278. 
Wliite-crested Jay-, 190. 
,, -throated Ground-, 
Tick Killing Birds, 233-4, 279. 
Tinamou, 132, 133, 134. 
,, Great, 42. 

Tataupa, 177. 
Tit, Bearded, 24, 134, 152, 221, 249 
,, Great, 220. 
,, Pleske's, 220 
Tits, 27. 

Toucan, Sulpluir-breasted, 23. 
'I'oucanette, Spot-billed, 22, 77. 

Cabot's, 32. 
'I'ragopan, Crimson, 71, 72, 73, 95 
133, 207, 250- 
Satyra, 29, 32, 98. 
'^I'roupial, Brown-headed, 219. 
Trumpeter Bird, 1.59. 
Turkey. Brown-billed Brush, 90. 

N. Am., 89. 
Twites, 24, 132, 135, 273. 

Ural Owl, 11. 


Visiting Other Members' Aviaries 

19. 46. 
Visits to Members' Aviaries, 187 

222, 245, 261. 
Visit to an Indian Jheel, 209. 


Waders, 29. 
Wagtail, Grev, 278. 

Red, 141, 220. 
White, 277. 

Yellow, 210, 220. 
Warbler, Pan -tailed, 213. 

Garden, 278. 
Waterfowl, 32, 42. 
Water-Hen, 262. 

White-breasted, 262. 

Waxbill, Black-cheeked, 62, 98, 248. 
Blue-breasted, 25, 91, 201. 
Ccmimon, 21, 25, 26, 61, 

Oulresne's, 39. 
Gold-breasted 39, 40, 56 
Grey, 156, 201, 2777 
Lavender, 201, 277. 
Orange-cheeked, 156, 199, 

223, 275. 
St. Helena, 277. 
Sydney, 201. 
Violet-eared, 40, 125, 1 16, 

223, 224. 
Zebra,' 6'2, 199. 275. 
\Vaxwings, 24, 69, 278. 
Weaver. Abvssinian, 25(K 
Bava, 202. 
Bengal, Baya, 202. 
Black-fronted. 202. 
., -headed, 202. 
Buffalo, 135, 202, 249, 258. 
Cabanis', 202, 252. 
Cape, 197. 
Cape Golden, 202. 
Chestnut-backed, 202. 
Crimson-crowned, 133, 135, 

197, 251. 
Frontal, 202. 
Gienadier, 63, 197, 223. 
Half-masked, 202. 
Hyphantoi-nine, 132. 
Kaffir, 197. 
Little Masked, 202. 
Madagascar, 202. 
Mahali, 252. 
Manyar Baya, 202. 
Napoleon, 197. 
Orange, 197, 223, 229. 
Poker-head, 197. 
Red-billed, 24, 39, 63, 95, 

133, 223, 251, 275. 
,, -headed, 21, 197. 
Rufous-necked, 202, 228. 
Russ', 134. 
Scalv-f routed, 202. 
Striated, 212. 
Taha, 63, 197. 
Yellow, 96. 
Weavers, 21, 95. 
Whydah, Eastern Paradise, 89. 

Giant, 131, 134, 197, 254. 
Jackson's, 197. 
,, Long-tailed, 197. 

Paradise, 61, 250, 275. 
Pintail, 197, 226. 
Queen, 197^ 223 
Red -coll a red, 197, 248. 
Sbaft-tailed, 197. 


(ioicral Index. 

Wliydali, Wliite winged, 197. 
Wlivdahs, 25. 
Wli'ite-eye, Af., 23. 
End., 220. 
Natal, 220, 278. 
Whitethi'oat, Lesser, 141. 
Wiseon, Chiloe, 32, 263. 

Coiiiinon, 263. 
Wild Birds, Diffirmlty or failure to 
Rescue Young, 93, 
,, Species, Inbreeding of, 92. 
Woodlarks, 21. 
Wood-Swallow, White-eyeb rowed, 

Wron. Blue. 220. 


/ehra Finch, 19, 25, 61, 62, 68, 69. 
78, 88, 123, 124, 154. 
155, 164, 198, 199, 223, 
225, 228, 248. 
Breeding of. 19, 164. 
'[ostcrops, Af . 23. 
Ind., 220. 
Natal, 220, 278. 

Index to Genera and Sf'eeics. 


Index to Genera and Species. 



Accentor iiwditlaris, 145 
Acomiis crythrophthalmus, 127 
Acridotlieres gingiamis, -:i9 

tristis, 219 
acuticamia. Foe. 188, 201. 223 

Uro. 127, 276 
adclaidac. Pla. 190 
Acgnitha temporalis, 201 
aeniginostis. Cir. 213 

Con. 101 
aestiva, Clir. 65, 146 
acthiopica. Ibi. 88. 152 
Acthiopsar cristatclius. 277 

fiisciis, 277 
affinis. Col. 90 

■.. C^r/). 80 

,. Lar. 81 
o/ra, F_vr. 188, 197 
Agapornis pitllaria, 99 

roseicollis. iot, 123. 227 
Agclacus frontalis, 219 

phoenlceiis. 190, 219 
.Mdeiiiosyue cantans, 153. 188. 276 
lualabarica. 276 
modesta, 200, 276 
a/fta, f'az;. 194 
albigularis. Ser. 176 
^. .S-Z-o. 173 

albivcntris. Mer. 220 
albonotata. Col. 197 
.Alcedo liispida. 214 
alpestris. Ota. 156, 250, 262 
alpina, Tri. 261 

Aiiiadi)hi er\throccphala, 40, 62. 153, 
156. 188. 223 
fasciata, 49, 62. 123, 153, 188. 
230. 273 
aviandava. .Spa. 19. 62, 123, m^. I^^ 

188. 223 
.Ainanrestlies fringilloides. 198 
Aiiiauroniis phoenicura. 128, 262 
amboinensis, Apr. 90 
awericana, Mel. 89 

.9/>/. 177, 247 
amcsthystina, Cha. 152 
Aiupelidae, 278 
.1 iiipelis garrtdns. 69 
.^Hfl^^■ 6ojca.f, 89 

undnlata, 263 
atidavianensis. Spo. 219 
aiigoloisis. list. 155, 188 
Po/. 175, 274 

augolensis, Ser. 253 
Anthracoceros inalayanus. 127 
.Autliropoidcs 7'irgo. 70, 254 
Antigone s/iarpei, 128 

Iprosniictiis amboinensis, 90 
cyanopygius, 65 
siilaensis, 65 
.ln7 maracana. loi 

,. tricolor, 103 
arcitatiis, I'as. 250, 253, 254 

I )■(/(•(/ purpurea. 213 
ardeus, Col. 197 

P^». 188, 248 
Ardeola grayi. 210 
Ardctta sinensis, 213 
iirgalii. Lcp. 127 
argus. -Arg. 127 
Argusianits argus. 127 
-Irij^va earlii, 21 1 
Artanius sutercdiaris, 220 
arvensis, Syc. 274 
aquaticus. Ral. 213 
aquila, Fre. 87 
.Aslur leucosomiis. 90 

palumbarius. 127 
Athene brama, 11 
a/;-u, F;(/. 213 

atricapilla, Mun. 155, 199. 223, 276 
atricollis. Ort. 198 
aiiduboni, Puf. 104 
aurautiifrons. Fti. go 
axillaris, Uro, 197 


barbadensis. Fyr. 104 
Barnardius barnardi. 78 
Bathilda ruficauda. 153. 164. 201. 214 
&ava, Mo/. 15^ 
:, P/o. 2ii 
beech ci. Cis. 11 1 
bcccheii, Xan. 49 
bcngalensis. Bub. 2=;o 
hiarinicus. Pan. 152, 249 
bicolor. Fue. 174 

/.f/'. J97 

.Ifyr. 70, 128 

.S'j^r. 90 
borealis. But. 12 
boscas, .Ana. 89 
hracliypus. Hyp. 70 
Brachyspiza pileata. 177 
brama, .4 th. 11 
brasiliensis, Rha. 219 


J ndcx to Genera and Speeies. 

brasiiius. Rha, 188 

Brototrcrys jui^ularis apitroisis, 152 

jiyrrhoptcnts. 101 

firica. 66 

znrescens, 10 1 
bniiinciccpJialus, Lar. 79 
Bubo bengal ensis, 250 
maculosa. 246 

virginianus falkhnidi island ii. 2^ 
Butco borcalJs, 12 


cabanisi. Si/. 202 
caboti, Tra. 72, 262 
Cacatua gymnopis, 78 

,, leadbeatcri. 88, T28. 159 
Caccabis cliukar, 127 
cactorum, Con. 65, 147 
caenilea. Coe. SS 

Gui. 88 
cacriilcsccns. Lai;. 188, 223 

Spe. 188 
cacritleus, Cya. 48, 90, 247 
californica. Lop. 40, iot, 156, 226, 25: 
Callistc melanota. 23 
Caloenas nicobarica. 70 
CalopsJttacns novac-hollandiae, 63. 88 

155, 191. 208, 227, 247 
cainbayensis, Ste. 70 
caimriiis, Ser. 156 
caniccps, Car. 174 
canicollis, Ser. 91. 173, 175, 274 
canifrons, Spi. 89 
cannabina, Lin. 223 
canora. Eue. 174 

P//0. 154. 164, 188. 223, 248, 25: 
253, 254 
canlans. Aid. 153, 188, 276 
caiuita. Tri. 261 
capcnsis. Oen. 156, 188 

Pa'*". 197 

.97/. 202 
capicola. Tnr. 143, 234, 259 
capistrata, Mai. 168 
capitata. Par. 23, 40 
caprafa. Sax. 221 
Cardinalis cardinalis. 99, 122, 154, 188 

190, 225 
Carduclis caniceps. 174 
Carphophaga concinna. 128 
Carpodacus erythrimis. 274 

mexicaniis. 173, 176 
rhodopeplus, 176 
Cassictis, 147 
Ca,f,f;V»5 pcrsicus. 70 
casfaneifnsca, Mel. 202 
castancithorax, Miin. 188, 189, 223, 27e 
casfaneivcntris, Eul. 90 
castiuiotis. To". iq, 40, 62, 68, 78, 88, 
123, ]-■;, !' 1. if". :^:. t88, 223, 24F 

candattis. Cor. 90 
Ceiitropiis sinensis, 213 
Chalconiitra amethystina. 152 
Cerylc rudis, 214 
Chalcophaps chrysochlora, 70 

indica, 127, 128, 144 
stcphani, 90 
CIniicopsitlacus scintillans, 70 
clialybciis, Lam. 22, 155 
Chamacpelia griseola, 188, 191 
talpacoii, 88, 249 
Chelidon iirbica, 82 
Chen rossi, 70 
cheringiis, Hyd. 211 
chinensis, Exc. 127. 152, i88 
chinquis, Pol. 24J, 261 
Chloephaga magellanica. 263, 264 
rhlorogaster, Cro. 127 
chloropHs, Gal. 211 
rhlororJiynchiis, Puf. 80 
Clioera procne. 188 
chrysochlora, Cha. 70 
chrysogaster. Phe. 173 
Chrysolophiis pictus, 89 
Chrysomitris icterica, 24S 
,, spinas . 22 

,. libetanus. 248 

chrysops. Cya. 49 
Clirysofis acstiva. 65, 146 
rhiikar. Cac. 127 
'•incta, Poc. 201, 277 
■inerea. Est. it;^, t;^, 18S 

Grt/. 128 
cinnam omens. Pas. 175 
Cinnyris gufturalis. 89 
Circus aeruginosus. 213 

pallid US, 213 
r/.s-/.s-, Cva. 188 
cirlns, Emb. 21 
Cissoloplia bcechei. iiT 

,, mclanoc\anea, 112 

san-blasiana pulchra, 112 
j.-Z?. san-blasiana, 11 1 
vucafanica, iii, 112-4 
Cissopsis Icvcriana, 173, 219 
Cisticola cursitoria, 213 
iitrina. Gen. 220 
Ciltocincla nnicrura. 22 
corlcbs, Fri. 145 
Coercba cacrnlea, 55 

fva'Jra. 23, 55-60 
Incida. 55 
,. nitida, 55 
colchicus, Pha. 264 
CoUoslrnthus albonotata, 197 

ardctis, 197 
C alius afjinis. 90 
Colnmba grisca, 128 

,, phaeonota, 22, 89. 152 
,, speciosa, 190 

Index to Genera and Species. 


couimunis. Cot. 129, 261 

Tur. 152 
roncinna. Car. 128 
contra, Stu. 169 
Conurus aeruginosus, loi 
,, cactoruni, 65, 147 
,, euops, loi 
,, jendaya, 10 1 
,, riibrolarvafus, 00 
cocki, Cya. 219 
Copsychus saularis, 70 
Ccracias caudatus, 90 

,, indica, 210 
Coracopsis vasa, 78 
coronatiis, Spi. 152 
coronulatus. Pti. 70, 188, 225, 247 
Corz'idae, 277 

Coryphosphingus crisfatiis, 188 
pUeatus, 177 
Coturnix communis, 129, 261 
crepitans, Pso. 159 
cristata, Cya. 47, 113, 191 

,, Gk6. 40, loi, 154, 177, 188. 190 

225, 227 
,, Paz/. 127 
cristatelliis, Aet. 277 
cristatiis, Cor. 188 

,, For. 24 
Crocopus chlorogaster, 127 
Crossoptilon manchuriciim, 207, 247, 

cucuUata. Par. 40, 153, 154, 177, 225, 
,, 5'/>?. 223 

-S"/-/. 174 
cucuUatus, Hyp. 202, 229 
cuneata, Geo. 188, 191, 223, 250 
ciinicularia, Spe. 9 
cursitoria, Cis. 213 
cyanea, Coe. 23, 55-60 
Cra. 188 
Gmj. 188 
Cyanecula stiecica, 211 
cyaneiis^ Cya. 219 
C_va»7j^e^ pleskei, 220 
cyanocephala. Pal. 22, 227 
Cyanocifta cristata. 47, 113, 191 
,, stelleri carbonacea, 47 

,, ,, frontalis, 47 

CyoMocorojr caeruleus, 48, 90, 247 

,, chrysops, 49 

cyanonota, Geo. 220 
Cyanopolius cooki, 219 

,, cyaw^Mj, 219 

cyanops, Sut. 80 
cyanopygius, Apr. 65 
Cyanospiza ciris, 188 
,, cyaweo, 188 

leclancheri, 188 
Cypselus affinis, 80 


Daulias luscinia, 223 
Dendrocygna javanica, 128 
dentata. Pet. 175 
Diatropura procnc. 197 
Dicacum hiruudinaceum, 70 
diffusus. Pas. 96. 262 
dimidiatus, Rha. 128 
Diphyllodes hunsteini, 70 
Dissoura episcopus, 127 
domestica, Mun. 123 
dominica. Par. 188 
Donacilda pectoralis, 200 
Drepranoplectes jacksoni. T97 
dufresni. Est. 39 

for/f, OC3/. 70 
earlii^ .irg. 211 
Elanoides furcatus. 88 
elegans, Plia. 89 

,, P/a. 63, 191, 227 
Emberiza cirhis, 21 

,, lutcola, 262 

Emblema picta, 198 
Eophona mrlanura. 272 
episcopus, Dis. 127 
Tow. 219 
Cremoptery.r sniithi, 219 
erythrimis. Car. 274 
erythrocephala Ama. 40, 62. 153, 156, 

188, 223' 
crythronota. Est. 248 
erythrops. Que. 21, 197 
crythropterus. Pti. 50 
erytltrophtlialmus. .ico. 127 

P'/'- 177' 
Erythrura prasina, 127, 201 

,, psittacea. 277 

Erythrospiza githaganea amavtimn. 

Estrilda angolciisis. 155, 188 

,, cinerca. 153, 155, 188 

,, dufresni, 39 

,, erythronota, 248 

,, minima, 164 

,, phoenicotis. 23, 153. m4, 164. 
188, 223. 248 
rJwdopygia, 201 
euchlorus. Pas. 175, 273 
Eudocimus ruber, 261 
Etiethia bicolor. 174 

,, can or a, 174 

,, oiivacca, 174 
pusilla, 174 
Eulabeornis casfavciz'ciifris. 90 
euops. Con. loi 
Euphonia pectoralis, 188 


hidcx to LJciicra and Species. 

curopaea, Pyr. 156, 223 
F.xcalfactoria chinensis, 127, 152, 188 
cximiiis, Pla. 78, 147, 190 


Falco sparvensis, 12 

famosa, Nee. 152 

farrago , Tur. 70 

fascJata, Ama. 40, 62, 123, 153, 188, 

-'30, 273 , ' ' 

ferina, Nyr. 263 
flammiceps, Pyr. 188, 197, 251 
flava, Mot. 210 

fiaxieola, Syc. 40, 155, 179, 223. 247 , 274 
flaviro.';tris, Lin. 24, 262 
Net. 152, 263 
flaviventris. Pla. 50 

,, Ser. 176 
Foitdia madagasearieiisis, 155, 202 
franeiscaiia, Pyr. 188, 197, 223, 227 
Francolinits gular'ts. VTj 
Fregata aqiiila, 87 
FringiUa eoelebs, 145 

,, montifringilla, 24, 250 
,, spod'w genes, 13-5 
FringUlaria hnpcttiani. 249, 253, 261 
saliarae. 177 

,, taliapisi, 188, 248, 249 

fringiUoidcs, Ama. 198 
frontalis, Aeg. 219 

^/>o. 173, 202 
fruticeti, Phr. \yy 
fucvatra, Sem. 220 
Fiiliea atra, 213 
fiircafus, Ela. 88 
fitseirostris, Tal. go 
fiiseus. Aet. 277 


galbiihi, let. 122. 188 
galgulus. Lor. 127 
GalUerex ehierea, 128 
Gallits gallus, 128 
GaUunda chloropus, 211 
gambeli. Lop. 8g 
garntius. Amp. 69 
Garrulax leueolophus. 190 
Geiniaeiis leneomelamis. 127 

lineatits, 89 

nyethemenis. 89 
Geoeiehhi eitrina. 220 

cyanonota, 220 

litsibs^rupa, 28 
veoffrori. Per. 89, 188. 191 
Geopelia cnueata. 188, 191. 223, 250 
Ininieralis. 70 
placida. t88 

striata. 128 

Geopelia Iranquilla, 123 

Gcotrygon )>iontana, T44, 227, 248, 

-'52, 253 
gingianus, Acr. 219 
githaginea amantium, Ery. 175 
Gorsachius melanolophus, 127 
gouldiae, Poe. 164, 215, 223 
govinda. Mil. 79, 213 
Graculipica melanoptera, 170 
Graiiatijia grariatiiia, 223 
grayi, .4rd. 210 
grisea. Col. 128 
griseola, Cha. 188, 191 
griseiis. Pas. 175 
guianensis. Lei. 28 
Gubernatrix cristata, 40, loi, 154. 177, 

188, 190. 225, 227 
Guiraea cyanea, 188 
gnlaris, Fra. 127 

Po/. 261, 262 
guttata, Ste. 64, 123, 220 
guttiiralis, Cin. 89 
gym.nopsis, Cae. 78 


haematocepliala, Xan. 169 
haematonotus, Pse. 22, 64, 123, 152 
haematorrhoiis^ Pse 46 
helvetica, Squ. 261 
hempriehi, Lar. 79, 81 
hiemalis. Jun. lyj 
hirundinaeeum. Die. 70 
Hintudo rustica, 214 
smithii^ 214 
hispida. Ale. 214 
linmeralis, Geo. 70 
JnimiUs. Ono. 70, 89 
hunsteni. Dip. 70 

Hypacanthis. spinoides, 173, 174, 273 
Hyphantornis eueiiUatits. 202, 228 

,, melanocephala^ 250 

,, spilonotus, 2or 

,. velatus, 252 

hypoenochroiis. Lor. 70 
Hypotaenidia brachypns, 70 
HxdropJiasianiis elicri)igiis. 211 


/^/^ aethiopiea. 88, 152 
icterica, Chr. 248 
iciericus, Spi. 272 
icteronitis, Rha. 219 
ieterotis, Pla. 191 
leterus galbula, 122. 188 

jamaicai, 128 
icterus. Ser. 155. 223. 249 

6"y>i. 173, 174 
imp.etuani, Fri. 249, 253 

Index to (iciicra n)id S farcies. 


impeyaniis, Lop. 89, 127, 248 
indica, Clia. 127, 128, 144 

,, Cor. 210 
iiidicns. Plia. 80 
Sar. 211 
ititermedia, Mes. 127 
isabcUina. Tiir. 188, 231 
ico>ni.<;. Pfi. 70 

jacksorii. Ore. 197 
jaiubu, Leu. 128 
janiaicai, let. 128 
javanica. Den. 128 
javauiciis. Lcp. 127. 264 

P/(a. 79 
jendaya. Con. loi 
jocosa. Oto. 170 
jugularjs apurevsis. Bra. 152 
Jnnco hiciualis. 177 


Lai^ouosticia cacnilcicciis. 188, 223 
minima, 214 
polionota, 198 
rhodoparia, 275 
,, rnfopicta, 198 

s en c gala, 275 
Laiuprofornis clialybcits. 22. 155 
Lampronessa sponsa, 89, 152 
Lanius sulphuratus, 159 
lappoiiiea, Lim. 261 
Lams affinis, 81 
,, brunneieephalus, 79 
hempriehi, 79, 81 
leucophtlialmus, 81 
larvafa. Par. 65, 227, 248, 252, 254. 275 
hiyardi. Pye. 70 
leadbcaferi, Cae. 88, 128, 150 
leclaneheri ,Cya. 188 
Faj. 177 
Leistes guianensis, 28 
Lcpidopygia bicolor. 197 
(wwa, 197 
nigrieeps, 197 
Lcptoptila rnfaxiUa, 128 
Icucanchan, Pse. 89 
kiteogaster. Lop. 188 
Leptoptihis argala. 127 

javanicus. 127, 264 
5'm/. 81 

verreaiixi. Phi. 90 
leucogasfra^ Uro. 127 
'eueogenys, Oto. 188 
lei'eolophu.<;. Gar. 190 
Or/. 152 
Iciieoiiiclanus, Gen. 127 
Iciienplirys. Znn. 88, 177 

iencophthaltmis, Lar. 81 
letieopygia, Pol. 175, 274 
leiieopygius, Ser. 223, 248 
leueorodia, Pla. 210, 261 
leneorrhoa, Oce. 80 
leneosomus, Ast. 90 
IcKcotis, Oto. 221 
Pjf. 220 
Leueotrcron jambii, 128 
lez'eriana, Cis. 173, 219 
Uninaetus, Spi. 127 
Liinosa lapponiea. 261 
lineatus. Gen. 89 
liiieola. Spo. 223 
Linota cannabina. 22^ 

., fiavirostris, 24, 262 
Liothrix liiteus, 155, 188 
litsibsiriipa, Geo. 28 
longirostris, Rhi. 128 
Lophophaps leueogastcr^ 188 
Loplioplionts inipeyanus. 89, 127, 248 
Lophortyx califormca, 40, 101, 156, 
226, 252 
gambehi. 89 
lopliofes, Ocy. 89, 190 
Lophura rtifa, 127 
Loricidus galgultts, \2'j 
Lorius hypoenochroHs. 70 

/orv, 68 
/orv. Lor. 69 
hiciani, Pyr. 22 
lucida, Coc. 88 
htscinia, Dan. 223 
luteii'cntris, Sye. 179, 248, 249, 261 
htfeola. Etnb. 262 

.S";'/. 202 
hffciis, Lio. 155, 188 

Pfli-. 175 


Machetes pugnax, 261 
macrura, Cit. 22 
maculirostris. Sel. 22 
maciiJosus, Bub. 246 
'iiadagascaric7isis. Foil. 155, 202 
mageUanica, Chi. 263, 264 
magnipca. Meg. 70, "90 
mahali, Plo. 252 
'»a/a, Mn». 127, 276 
lualabarica. Aid. 276 
^/»o. 219 
malacca, Mun. 199 
Malacias capistrata, 168 
malayana. Ant. 127 
Mahtnts sitperbus, 220 
manchuHcitm, Cro. 207, 247, 250 
iiiangar, Plo. 212 
Maitorhiiia mclanophrys, 78 
niaracana. .Ara. loi 


1 udcx to Genera and Species 

Mareca penelope, 263 
., sibilairix, 263 
nuirgaritae. Phi. 241 
viaximiUani, Pio. 247 
Megaloprepia magnifica, 70, 90 
iiic'.ba, Pyt. 63 
melanicterus, Mel. 168, 275 
melmiocephala. Hyp. 250 
,, Por. 213 

,, Sit. 202 

Spo. 174 
Za)n. 173 
melanocyanca, Cis. 112 
melanonota, Cal. 23 
melanophus, Geo. 127 
inelanophyrs, Man. 78 
melanoptera, Gra. 170 
Mclanoptcryx castaneifusca. 202 
vicIaiio.ranfliHS, Myc. 188 
luclanitra, Eop. 272 

.. . Po/. 77 
Mcleagris amcricana. 89 
Mclophus melanicterus, 168, 275 
Melopsittaciis undiilatiis, 40, 64, 67, 88, 
128, 153, 155, 
191. 247 
,, ,, z'a;" caerulea, 123 

Mclopyrrha nigra, ly^ 
melpodus, Spo. 153, 188, 223, 275 
viemoricolns, Pol. 90 
Menuridae, 278 
Menila albiventris, 220 

nnirolor, 220 
Merop.'i philippiniis, 213 
Mesophoyx intermedia, 127 
Metopiana preposaco, 252, 263 
mcxicauus. Car. 173, 176 
microlopha, Pnc. i2y 
migratorius, Titr. 88, 123, 188, 190, 

T91, 220 
milifaris, Tru. 152, 155 
Mik'us govinda, 79, 213 
minima, Est. 164 

Lo^. 214 
>iii)ior, Syc. 176 
Mifua salvini, go 
modesta. Aid. 200, 276 
^nodularis. .Ace. 145 
Molothnis baya, 155 
moiitaua, Geo. T44, 227. 248, 252, 253 
montifrin^illa, Fri. 24. 250 
Motacillidae, 277 
Motacilla flava. 210 
Miinia atricapilla. 155, 199, 223, 276 

castancithorax, 188, 199, 223, 276 

domcsfica, 123 

"2a/a, 127, 276 

malacca, 199 

on'^/t'ora, 40, 127. 153, 154, 188 
203. 223, 262 

Munia pectoralis, 164, 188 

,. punctulata, 276 

,, xanthoprymna, 199 
muticus^ Pav. 89, 128, 264 
Mycerobas melanoxanthus, 188 
Myristicivora bicolor, 70, 128 


MflHa, Lt"/). 197 
Nectarinia famosa, 152 
Neochmia phaeton, 201, 277 
Nettium fiavirostris, 152, 263 
nicobarica, Cal. 70 
niger, Tex. 249 
nigra, Mel. 174 
vigriceps, Lep. 197 

^/"e. 40, 188, 223 
nigriventris, Pyr. 197 
nitida, Coe. 55 
nivalis. Pie. 24, 156, 250, 253 
novae-hollandiae, Cal. 63, 88, 155, 191, 

208, 227, 247 
nycthemerus. Gen. 89 
Nymphicits uvaeensis, 76 
Nyroca ferina, 263 


obsoleta, Rho. 152 
occipitalis, Uro. 219 
Oceanodroma leucorrhoa, 80 
ochrocephalus, Tra. 171 
Ocvdromus earli. 70 
OcypJtaps Jophotes, 89, 190 
Opho capensis, 156, 188 
olivacea, Eite. 174 
6"//. 202 
Onopelia humilis, 70, 89 
ornata. Tan. 22 
Ortholophiis leucolophus, 152 
Ortvgospica atricollis, 198 

polysona. 40, 154, 198, 
223, 235 
or^^jr, Pv''- 63, 197, 223 
oryzivora, Mun. 40, 127, 153, 154, 18S 

203, 223, 262 
Orysoborns torridus, 173 
Otocompsa emeria, 221 

jocosa. T70 

leucogenys, 18S 

leucotis, 221 
0?ofon'.f alpestris, 156, 250, 262 


Palaeornis cyanocephala, 22, 227 

pallidiceps, Pla. 190 

paJlidus, Cir. 213 

pahnarum melanoptera. Tan. 219 

Index- to Genera and Sepcies. 


palpebrosa, Zos. 220 
palumbariiis, Ast. 127 
Panurus biarmicus, 152, 249 
paradisea, Ste. 188, 250 

verreauxi, Ste. 89 
Paroaria capitata, 23, 40, 247 

,, cuciillata, 40, 153, 154, 177, 225 
,, dominica, 188 
,, larvata, 65, 227, 248, 252 
254, 275 
Parus cristatus, 24 
Passer arciiatus, 250, 253 
,, cinnamomeus. 175 
,, diffusus, 96, 262 
,, eitchlorus, 175, 273 
griseus, 175 
Passer luteus, 175 
Passerina leclancheri, 177 
passerina, Psi. 22, 65 
Paz^o cristata, 127 

,, miiticiis, 89, 128, 264 
pect oralis, Don. 200 
£;</>. 188 
ilfj<M. 164, 188 
pclseini, Syc. 176, 179 
Penelope, Mar. 263 
Penelope purpurascens, 128 
Penthetria ardens, 188, 248 
Peristera geoffron, 89, t88, 191 
perlata, Pyr. 246 
persicus, Cas. 70 
Pj</. 80 
personata, Poe. 188. 201, 223 
Persana ptisilla. 212 
Petronia dentata, 175 
phaeonota, Col. 22, 89, 152 
Phaethori indicus, 80 
phaeton, Neo. 201, 277 
Phalacrocorax javanicus, 79 
Phaps elegans, 89 
Phasianus colckiciis. 264 
Pheiicticus shrysogaster. 173 
philippintis, Mer. 213 
Phlogoenas margaritae, 241 
phoenicens. Age. 190, 219 
phoenicoptera, Pyt. 199 
i^hoenicotis. Est. -22,, 153, 154, 165, 188 

223, 248 
t>hoenicnra, Aina. 128, 262 
PhoUdauges leucogaster verreauxi, 90 
Phonipara canora, 154, 164, 188, 223, 

248, 252, 253, 254 
Phrygilus fruticeti, lyy 
picta, Emb. 198 
pictus, Chr. 89 
pileata. Bra. 177 
Zow. 249 
pileatus. Cor. 177 
Pi onus tnaximiliana, 247 
Pipilo erythrophthalmus . 177 

Platalea leucorodia, 210, 261 
Platycercus adelaidae, 190 

,, elegans, 63, 191, 227 

,, eximius, 78, 147, 190 

,, flaviventris, 50 

,, icterotis, 191 

,, pallidiceps, 190 

,, zonarius, 190 

Plectrophanes nivalis, 24, 156, 250, 253 
pleskei, Cya. 220 
Ploceidae, 1-9, 275 
Plocepasser inahali. 252 
Ploceus baya, 212 

,, man gar, 212 
plumbeus, Syn. 70, 192, 248, 252, 254 
PoeoccpJialus senegalensis, 64 
Poephila acuticauda, 188, 201, 223 
cincta, 201, 277 
gouldiae, 164, 215, 223 
,, personata, 188, 201, 220 
polionota. Lag. 198 
Poliopsar gularis, 261. 262 
memoricolus, 90 
Poliospisa angolensis, 175, 274 
leucopygia, 175, 274 
Polyplectron chinquis, 247, 261 
Polytelis melanura, yy 
polysona, Ort. 40, 154, 198, 223, 235 
Porpliyrio nielanocephalus, 213 
prasina, Ery. 127, 201 
preposca. Met. 252, 263 
principalis, Vid. 226 
procne, Clio. 128, 253 

DJb. 197 
Psephotus haeniatonotus, 23, 64, 123, 
haematorrhous, 46 
xanthorrhous, 46 
Pseudogeranus leucauchen, 89 
psittacea, Ery. 277 
Psittacida passerina, 22, 65 
Psophia crepitans, 159 
Ptilopus aurantiifrons, 90 

coronulatus, 70, 188, 225, 247 
iozonus, 70 
PtUonorhynchus violaceus. yy 
Ptistcs erythropterus, 50 
Pucrasia microlopha, 127 
Puffinus auduboni, 104 
,, chlororhynchus, 80 
,, persicus, 80 
pugnax, Mac. 261 
pullaria, Aga. 99 
punctulata, Mun. 276 
punica, Xip. 195 
purpurascens. Gal. 128 
purpurea, Ard. 213 
pusilla, Eue. 174 
,, Por. 212 
Pycnonotidae, 278 


IiidiW io Genera and Species. 

P\cvo)!ottis layardi, 70 
I'yromelana afra, 188, 197 
capcnsis, 197 
flammiceps, i88, 197, 
franc'iscana. 188, 197, 

. -27. 
nigriventris, 197 
oryx, 63, 197, 223 
taha, 63. 188, 197 
pyrrhoptcrus, Bro. loi 
Pyrrhida europaea, 156, 223 
Pyrrhulagra bar badensis. 104 
Pyrrlnihiuda Icucotis. 220 
Pyrrhulopsis^ 65, 181 
Pyrrluira Juciani, 22 

perlata, 246 
Pytclia mclba, 62 

pliocniroptcra, T99 

Oiiclea qitclca, 24, 188, 275 

erythrops, 2t. 53, K57. 223, 
russi, 262 

qmscala. Qui. 219 

Qitiscahts quiscala. 210 


Ralliis aquaticHS, 213 

re eve si. Syr. 89 

'■ro-/a, F?J. 188. 197. 223 

Rhaiiiphocochis brasih'cn.';i.s\ 21Q 
brasiliu.'!, 188 
dimidiatns. 128 
irfcronotus. 219 

Rhisoihera longiroslris, 128 

rhodoparia. Lag. 275 

rJwdopcphis, Car. 176 

rliodopyga, Est. 201 

Rhodospiza ohsolcfa. 152 

Rhynchotns rufescens, 42-5 

risorius, Tur. 227 

Rolluhis roulroul. 127 

roseicflUis, Aga. loi, 123. 227. 261 

rossi, Che. 70 

roulroul, Rol. 127 

ruber. End. 261 

rubroJarz'atus. Con. too 

rudis, Cer. 214 

r It f axil la. Lep. 128 

rufescens, Rliy. 42-5 

ruficauda. Pat. 153. 164. 2or. 214 

rufopicta. Lag. 198 

ntfus, Tac. 219 

rKjjf. Qm. 262 

rustica. Hir. 81, 214 


saliarae, Fri. xyy 
251 i falvini, Mit. 90 
122,,' san-blasian-a s.-b., Cis. in 
,, ,, pulclira. Cis. 1 12 
Sarcogranimus indie its, 21 1 
s-atyra, Tra. 71. 250 
saularis, Cop. 70 
Sauromarptis tyro, 90 
Saxicola caprata. 220 
Scardafella squamosa, 249 
scinf Hiatus, Clia. 70 
^■cotops, Ser. 90 
Sclenidcra maciilirostris, 22 
Semhnerula fucvatra. 220 
senegala, Lag. 275 
senegalensis, Tex. 249 

rt(r. T56, 188 
Po£?. 64 
Scrivus albigularis, 176 
angolensis, 253 
,, canarius, 156 

canicoUis, 91. 173, 175, 27-I 
251 ,, flaviventris, 176 

,, icterus. 155, 223, 249 
,, lencopygius. 223, 248 
,, scot ops, 90 
,, sulphuratus, 175 
sharpei, Ant. 128 
^m/Za sialis, 88, 122, t88 
sibilatrix. Mar. 263 
sinense, Syr. 127 
sinensis, Ard. 213 
,, CcH. 213 
Sifagra cabanisi, 202 
,, capcnsis, 202 
,, luteoia. 202 
,, melanoccpUala, 202 
,, oliracca. 202 
7'elafa. 202 
vitcUina, 202 
smithi. Ere. 219 
stnithii, Hir. 214 
sparvensis, Fal. 12 
ipeciosa. Col. 190 
Speotyto cunicularia, 9 
Spermestes cucuUata, 223 

,, nigriceps, 40, 188. 223 

Spermophila cacruleseens, 188 
spilcnoius, Hyp. 202 
Spilopelia s'iratensis. 128 

tio^riva, 70 
spinoides. Hyp. 172. 173. 174. 175, 273 
Spinus cucuUatus, T74 
,, icfcricus. 272 

icterus, 173, 174 
tibe'anus, 175. 273 
<;piniis, Chr. ' 1 
Spisixus canifrons, 89 

hidc.v 1() (,'ciicra and S/^ccics. 


Spisa aiiicricana. 177. -4" 

Spicactits coronalus, 152 

limnactiis, 1J7 

apodiogetics, Fri. 13-5 

Spodiopsar audaiuojioisis. J 19 

iiia!ab(irica. 219 

sponsa, Lain. 89, 153 

Sporaegiiithiis amandava, 19, 62, 123, 

153- 155, 188, 223 

,, luelpodus, 153, 188, 223, 

,, sitbflavns, 40, 123, 188, 

199, 275 
Sporopliila albigtilaris, 173 

,, lineola, 223 

,, vielanocephala, 174 

,, snpcrciliaris, 174 

Sporopipcs frontalis, 173, 202 

,, squamifrons, 24, 173, 202 

Sprco bicolor, 90 
squamifrons, Spo. 24, 173, 202 
squamosa. Sea. 249 
Sqnatarola helvetica, 261 
Steganoplcura guttata, 64, 123, 223 
Stegariura paradisca, 188, 249 

,, ,. verreauxi, 89 

Stegmatopelia cambayensis, 70 
stellcri earbonacea. Cya. 47 

frontalis, Cya. 47 
stephani, Cha. 90 
striata, Geo. 128 

,, C7ro. 200, 276 
6'/W.r uralcnsis, 11 
Sturnidae, 277 
Stnrywpastor eontra, 169 
subflavus, Spo. 40. 123, 188, 199, 275 
suecica, Cya. 21 1 
6'm/i cyanops, 80 

,, leucogaster. Si 
sulaensis, Apr. 65 
sulphuratns, Lan. 159 

,, vS^J". 175 

superbus, Mai. 220 
superciliaris. Art. 220 
,. _ .9/'rt. 174 
suratevsis, Spi. 128 
Sutoria sntoria. 220 
Sycalis arz'ensis, 274 

flaT'eola, 40. 155, 179, 223, 
247, 274 '■ 

,, luteiventris, 170, 248, 249, 261 

,, ininor^ 176 

,, pehelni, 176, 179 
Syh'iidae, 278 
Syrmatieus reevesi, 89 
.9yMafrMJ plumbeus, 70, 192, 248, 252 
Syrnium sinense, 127 


Taehypltonus rtifits, 219 
Taeniopygia castanotis, \q, 62, 68, 78, 
88, 123, 153, 154. 155, 164, 188, 223 248 
/a/za, Fjr. 63, 188, 197 
tahapisi, Fri. 188, 248, 249 
faigoor, Tur, 127 
Talegallus fuscirostris. 90 
'alpaeoti, Cha. 89, 249 
Tanagra episcopus, 219 
,, ornata, 22 

,, palmarum melanoptera, 219 
temporalis, Aeg. 201 
Textor niger, 249 

senegalensis. 249 
'ibetanus, Chr. 2j8 

.S"/"/. 175. 273 
figrina. Spi. 70 
li^rinus. Tur. 226 
tirica, Bro. 66 
forquatus, Tiir. 249, 262 
Trachycomus ochrocephalus. 171 
Tragopan caboti, 72, 262 
satyra, 71, 72 
'ranquilla, Geo. 123 
Trichoglossus rubritorques, 78 
'rirolor, Ara. 103 
'^riuga alpina, 261 

canuta, 261 
'ristis, .icr. 219 
Trnpialis militariiis, 152, 155 
Turdidae. 28, 278 

Turdus migratorius, 88, 123, 188, 190 
191, 220 

forquatus, 249, 262 

'oiscivorus, 262 
Tjiniix taigoor, 127 
turtvr, Tur. 231 
Turtur capicola, 143. 234, 259 

communis, 152 

farrago, 70 

isabellina, 188, 231 

ri sarins, 227 

senegalensis, 156, 188 

tigrinus, 226 

turtur, 231 

7'iuacens. 144 
'vro, .V(7K. go 


■indulata. Ana. 263 

■wdulatus, Mel. 40, 64, 67, 88, 128, 153 
155, 191'. 247 
7'or caerulea, Mel. 123 
unicolor, Mer. 220 
uralensis, Str. it 
urbica, Che. 82 
t^rncissa occipitalis, 219 


Index to Genera and Species. 

Urolo)iclia acitiicauda, 127, 276 

leucogastra, 127 

striata, 200, 276 
m'accnsis, Nyin. 76 
U robrachya axillaris. 1Q7 


vasa, Cor. 78 
Vavasoria alba, 194 
7'clata, Sit. 202 
vclatus. Hyp. 252 
Vidua principalis, 226 

,, regia, 188, 197, 223 
vinaceus, Tur. 144 
violaceus, Pti. yy 
virens. Zos. 23, 220, 278 
viresccns, Bro. loi 

virginianus falklandi islandii. Bub. 250 
virgo. Ant. 70, 264 
viscivorus, Tur. 262 
vitelliva. Sit. 202 

Xantholaeina haematocephala, 169 
xanthopryiiina. .Mun. 199 
xanthorrhous, Pse. 46 
Xanthura beechei, 49 
Xipholena punicea, 195 


yucatanica, Cis, 111, 112-4 


Zamelodia melanocephala^ 173 
zonarius, PI a. 190 
Zonoirichia leucophrys. 8S. 177 
Zosteropidac. 278 
Zostcrops palpcbrosa. 220 

p Heat a, 249 

virens, 23. 220. 278 

JANUARY 1922. 

The Foreign Bird Club. 

President : 
The Lady Dunleath. 

Vice Presidents : 
H R. Filmer E IIoi)kinson, D.S.O., xM.A.. M.L!. 

E. J. Brook, F.Z.S. 

H.G. The Duchess of Wellington Dr. N. S. Lucas, F.Z.S. 

The Countess of Winchilsea Dr. j. 1". R. AIcDonagh 

Lady Kathleen Pilkington Capt. G. \:. Rattigan, F.Z.S. 

The Hon. Mrs. G. Bourke Rev. G. II. Raynor, M.A. 

Mrs. A. E. H. Hartley W. T. Rogers 

Dr. M. Amsler, F.Z.S. Maj. A. F. Snape, R.A.F. 

W. Shore Baily ' R. Suggitt 

Capt. W. A. Bainbridge, A.S.C. A. SutcHffe 

W. Bamford W. R. Temple 

H. E. Bright H. Willford 

E. W. Chaplin 

Hon. Editor: 
Weslev T. Page, M.B.O.U., F.Z.S., Langstone, Lingfield. Surrey. 

Hon. Secretaries : 
Hon. Busines.s Secret.vry : Maj. A. E. Snape, 32 Corporation St., Manchester 

Hon. Exhieitional Secret.\ry : S. Williams. Oakleigh, no Riverway, 
Palmer's Green, London, N. 13. 

Hon, Tre.xsurer : S. Williams, Oakleigh, no Riverway, Palmer's Green, 

London, N. 13. 

For Committees and other Offlcers vide February issite. 


Notices to Members. 

The Magazine : January issue, owing to revision of Roll, etc., is 
always late, but this issue is much later than usual, and for this the Editor is 
not disposed to apologise — the cause lies with the members, viz : shortage of 
" copy," and the remedy, as to future issue, it must be obvious, also lies 
with them. 

It is a week later than need have been, but illness has made this 
unavoidable — some very late " copy " has been used, and has had to go 
through without any proof revision whatever. 

Adverts. : Members are requested to note the alterations concerning 
these, especially Trade Adverts. Remittances should accompany all copy 
for adverts, or they cannot be inserted. 

New Members : We urgf all to assist in increasing our Roll ; the 
Club needs a larger membership, and there are many bird-keepers and 
aviculturists who know nothing about F.B.C. or its Journal I^ird Notes. 
With our widely spread membership this defect should soon be removed. 
The Editor or Secretary will promptly send a specimen copy to any address 
sent them, and such candidate for membership as proposed by the member 
who sent in their name, or members can use one of their own copies as a 
specimen (it will be at once replaced upon application). A little united effort 
and our Roll should be nearly double its present strength by 1923. 

WESLEY T. PAGE, Hon. Editor. 

MAJ. A. E. SNAPE. Hon. Business Secretary. 


Deficit and inustratioii Funds. 

These two funds need all the heliJ members can give them. The com- 
mittee acknowledge with best thanks the following : 

£ s. d. 

Baily, W. Shore to 

Best, Cyril (o. p. sub.) o 1 

Cushney, C o 10 

Pettigrew, C 10 

Sich, H. L 100 

Tavistock, The Marquis of o 10 o 

Proposed for Election as Members. 

Porter, j. \V., c/o Commonwealtii Trust Ltd.. 35, Old Jewry, London, E.C. 2 

By Capt. G. E. Rattigan. 

Register of Club Breeders. 

* Indicates ability 10 suppl}- as soon as young are oKl enough to be removed 

from their parents. 

* Baily, VV. Shork, Boyers House, Westbury, Wilts. 

Rosella Parrakeets Bronze-wing Doves 

Stanley Parrakeets Brush Bronze-wing Doves 

Conures Necklace Doves 

Diamond Doves 

* BouRKE, Hon. Mrs. G., 75, Gloucester Place, London, W. 

Blue Budgerigars 

* Burgess, Mrs. M.. Helston House, 56, St. John's Road, Clifton. Bristol. 

Blue Budgerigars Green-blue-bred Budgerigars 

Olive Budgerigars Roller Canaries 

Yellow Budgerigars 

* Chatterton, Mrs. A., Talodi, King's F.nd Avenue, Ruislip, Middlesex. 

Budgerigars Cockatecls 

Zcjjra Finches 

* Calvocoressi, p. J., Home Oey, Croxttth Drive, Liverpool. 

Blue-bred' Green Budgerigars Zebra Finches 

* Marsden, J., F.Z.S.. The Bungalow, Banks Lane, Hcysham Harbour, Lanes 

Green (Blue-bred) Budgerigars 

* PiTHiE, Miss D., 68. Clarendon Road, Southsea, Portsmouth. 

Zebra Finches. 

* MoNTEFiOBE, Mrs. H. Sebag. F.ast Cliff Lodge, Ramsgate. 

Green Budgerigars Cockateels 

Tavkstock, The Marquis of, Wrtrblington House, Havant, Hants. 
Stanley Parrakeets • Barnard's Parrakeets 

* Tracey, Mrs. A. L., Halshan), Tcignmouth, Devon. 

Zebra Finches. 

* Young, H. R., 76, Mitcham Lane, Streatham, London, S.W., 16. 

Zebra Finches. 

Any member wishing their name added to this register must send in 
their name with full particulars as to species they possess breeding pairs of, 
to the Hon. Business Secretarv. 

The Bird Market. 

Members' Rates: One penny per word; minimum one shilhng. 
Non-members and all Trade advertisers must apply to the Agents (vide page 
in. of cover). Advertisements for respective issues must be sent to the 
Hon. Editor not later than the 8th of each month. 


. FOR SALE : Senegal Parrot, tame, perfect, accHmatised, believed hen ; 
£4 los. or offer. — Windybank, Blaen, Canterbury. 

FOR SALE : Three young Cockateels, April hatched, two hens 17s. 6d. each, 
cock 15s. Two pairs Yellow Budgerigars i8s. 6d. per pair ; two pairs 
Blue-bred 15s. pair. All outdoor aviary-bred.— Mrs. Mackness, 22 Cypress 
Road, Finchley, London : N., 3. 

FOR SALE : Fine, true pair, Black Cassicjues, healthy and in perfect order, 
£10. — Page, Langstone, Lingfield, Surrey. 

PEDIGREE UTILITY POULTRY : Only the very best suppHed in White 
Wyandottes, Rhode Island Reds, Light Sussex, and Runner Ducks. 
Speciality 3 months pullets. • 

Sitting eggs daily^chicks weekly. ' 

W. A. Bainbridge, Keyneston Manor Poultry Farm, Blandford, Dorset, 


I. rile objects of ■■ Thk FoRFiGX EiRD CiA'i!*' shall bf the mutual 
encouragement and assistance of the meniljers in kcepin;; and breeding all 
species of I'irds, and the exhibitinfj- of Foreifjn I'irds and the improvement 
of Shows in rcfifard to them. 

2. The Club shall be compused of members. b'.vcry member shall 
pay an entrance fee of 5s., and an annual subscription of Jos. Subscrip- 
tions sh.'ill l)e due and payable in advance on the ist of January in each 
vear. If any member's subscription shall be more than tin-ee months overdue, 
he shall be .suspended from all benefits of the Club, and if more than nine 
months overdue, notice of his having ceased to be a member of the Club, and 
of the cause, may he puljlished in Notices to iMeml)ers : and on such notice 
being- published he shall cease to be a member accordingly, but his liability 
for overdue subscriptions shall continue. 

3. New Members shall be proposed in writing by a Member of the 
Club : and the name and address of every person thus proposed, with the 
name of the person proposing him, shall be published in the Notices to Mem- 
bers. Unless the Candidate shall, within fourteen days after the publication 
of his name, be objected to by at least two I^Iembers, he shall be duly elected. 
If two or more Members shall lodge with either of the Secretaries objections 
to any Candidate he shall not be elected, but the signature to the signed 
objections must be verified by the Scrutineer. The Secretaries and the 
Scrutineer shall not disclose the names of the objectors. 

4. Any member wishing to resign at the end of the current year of 
the Club shall give notice of intention to one of the Secretaries before the 
31st of December, and in default of such notice he shall be liable for the 
following year's subscription. 

5. The Officers of the Club shall be elected from the Members, and 
shall consist of a President, one or more Vice-presidents, an Auditor, a 
Scrutineer, one or more Secretaries, a Treasurer, a Veternary Surgeon, a 
Council of Twenty-four Members and such number of Judges as shall from 
time to time be determined by the Council. The Editor, Secretaries, Treas- 
urer, President and Veterinary Surgeon shall be ex-oificio members of the 

Three Members of the Council shall retire annually by seniority, but 
are eligible for re-election. The Editor, Secretaries, and Treasurer shall be 
elected trienially. The Council and Judges '^hall be elected in a manner 
hereinafter- provided. The other officers shall be elected annually at .x 
meeting of the Council, immediately after their own election. 

6. The election for the three annual vacancies on the Council, and the 
Judges, shall take place every year between the 15th November and the 5th 
December. The Secretaries shall ascertain which of the Members are willing 
to stand for election to office, and shall send to each Member of the Club, on 

or about the 15th of November, a voting paper containing a list of all such 
members, showing the oflices for which they are respectively seeking election. 
Each Member shall make a ( x ) opposite the names of those for whom he 
desires to vote, and shall sign the paper at the foot, and send it in a sealed 
envelope to the Scrutineer, so that he may receive it before 5th December. 
The Scrutineer shall prepare a return of the officers elected, showing the 
number of votes recorded for each Candidate, and send it to one of the Secre- 
taries for publication in the Notices to Members for December. The 
Scrutineer shall not reveal to any person how any Member shall have voted. 
In the event of an equality of votes the president shall have a casting vote. 

7. Dealers in birds shall not be eligible for election to any office in 
the Club, except that of Judge. l'"or the purpose of this rule, any Member 
who habitually buys birds with the intention of selling them again, shall be 
deemed a bird dealer. Before the annual election of officers, 4be Secretaries 
shall submit to the Council the list of Members wilHng to stand for election 
to the Secretar} ship, the Treasurership, and the Council ; and the Council 
shall remove from the list the name of any Candidate who shall be, in the 
opinion of the Council, a dealer in birds, within the meaning of this rule. The 
decision of the Council or of any Committee to whom the Council shall 
delegate its power under this rule, shall be final. When a dealer is proposed 
as a Member of this Club, the fact of his being a dealer shall be stated in 
the Notices to Members. 

S. It shall be lawful for the Council to delegate any of its powers to 
a committee. 

9. The Council may appoint an Arbitration Committee, which may 
decide questions at issue between Members, when requested to do so by both 
parties. Any decision of such Committee shall be final. Except to the 
extent permitted by this rule, the Club and its officers shall decHne to concern 
themselves with disputes between Members. 

10. The Council shall have power to alter and' add to these Rules, but 
shall give the members notice of any proposed alteration or addition, and in 
the event of six members objecting thereto within fourteen days, the proposed 
alterations or additions shall be submitted to the voles of the Members. 
Failing such objection the alteration shall date from its adoption by the 

11. The Council shall have power to expel any member at any time. 

12. Neither the office of Scrutineer nor that of Auditor shall be held 
for two consecutive years by the sam.e person. The Scrutineer shall not be a 
Candidate at any Election at which he acts as Scrutineci'. 

13. If any .office becomes vacant at any time than at the end of 
the current year of the Club, the Council shall have pawer tO; appoint anv 
Member to fill the vacancv. 

14- The decision of a majority of the Council shall be final and 
binding on the Club, but a resolution passed by the Council shall not be acted 
upon unless there be an absolute majority of the Council (and not merely of 
those voting) in its favour. 



I. The Patronage of the F.B.C. is given at all OPEN SHOWS, provided the 
following conditions are observed. 

(a) J^t least three classes must be provided for FOREIGN BIRBS 
(excluding local and members' classes, in which no bird competing for 
F.B.C. patronage may be shown). 

(6) The classification and name of the judge must be submitted by 
Show Secretaries, when applying for patronage. 

(c) Those societies obtaining patronage must print in the schedule 
that the section is under the patronage of the F.B.C. 

{d) That no alteration (amalgamation or cancellation) of classes must 
be made, or the judges changed without giving notice to the Hon. Show 
Secretary of the F.B.C, in which case the original patronage does not 
hold good. 

2 All MEDALS are awarded to BEST BIRDS (but the Committee have 
the right to award extra medals for special purposes) and no silver 
medal is granted where less than six classes are provided. 

3. Members of the F.B.C. vmst place F.B.C. after each entry on entry forms, 

and should request show secretaries to print these initials in their 

4. No Member can win more than two medals in a season, i.e.: one silver 

and one bronze, or more than one medal at the same show. 

5. The London Silver Cup is offered for competition at all Shows under 

patronage in the London Postal District, where ten or more classes are 
given, and the Provincial Silver Cup at Shows outside th*s area, for 
points gained throughout the season by nominated birds. 

4. These Cups become the property of those who have won them three times 
(not necessarily in succession), and only three birds at each Show can 
be nominated, which is done by writing the word " Cup " after the 
entries on entry form. If members nominate more than three birds 
they will be disqualified for that show. 

7. These conditions only hold good where Show Societies and Members 
observe the rules. Failure to conform annuls all offers, and the birds 



of a member whose subscription is unpaid at the time of making an 
entry are inehgible to compete. 

Points for the Cup to count as follows : ist, 7 points; 2nd, 6 points; and 
one point off for each lower award. Should a tie take place, the 
member taking the most prize money to win. 

Any item not herein provided for, may be dealt with at the discretion of 
The Show Committee. 


The F.B.C. Medal for Breeding a Species or Hybrid for the first time in 
captivity in Great Britain, will be awarded on the following conditions 
only : 

(a) As detailed an account of the success as possible must be sent 
for publication in Bird Notes as soon as the young can fend for 

(b) The Awards Committee, whose decision shall be final, to make 
the awards from the Secretary's data, and the published articles record- 
ing successes. 

(c) The awards will be made, and the medals distributed at the 
close of each successive season, or as soon afterwards as the publica- 
tion of said articles permit. 

SPECIES : The young must be reared to be independent of their parents. 
The eggs must be incubated and the young reared by the pair of birds 
producing the eggs, or the record is not eligible for the medal ; except 
in the case of parasitic species. 

HYBRIDS : For any cross not previously reared in captivity, between 
any two species — the domestic Canary as one of the parents alone being 
excepted. A cross between any two species is only once recognised, 

e.g.. Parson Finch x Long-tailed Grassfinch, and Long-tailed Grass- 
finch X Parson Finch are reckoned as the same Hybrid for the purposes 
qf this award, and whichever was secured first would hold the record. 
The eggs must be incubated and the young reared by the pair of birds 
producing the eggs, or the record will not be eligible for a medal. 


Honorary Me))iber. 
FiLMKK, H. R. {Founder), Brcndon, 22, Canington Road, Brighton. 

AiNSWORTH, A., 13 Henry St., Kilbronie, Wellington, New Zealand. (August, 

Allan, J. W., Bondgate, Alnwick. (April, 191 1). 
Amslek, Dr. Maurice, Jiion Court House, High Street, Eton, Windsor. 

(March, 1909). 
Arnold, R., Tower House, Leigham Court Road, Streatahm, London, S.W. 

16. (March, 1912). 
Arnott, Pktkr, Grant Street, Alloa. (December, 1913). 
Atkinson, Capt. F. B., Gallowhill, Morpeth, Northumberland. (Aug. 1920J. 
Ayton, Ed., 71 Grosvenor Street, London, W., i. (March, 1918). 

Baily, W. Shore, Boyers House, Westbury, Wilts. (June, 1909). 
Bainbridge, Capt. W. A., Keynston Manor. Tarrant Keynston, Blandford. 

(September 191 2). 
Bamford. Wm., Bridgecroft, Kent Road, Harrogate. (June, 1904). 
Barnard. T. T., Duncote Hall, Towcester. 

Barnes, A. H., 34 Gledstaines Road, Baron's Court, London. W. (May, 1921) 
Bartels. O., " Orchida," Mayne, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. (Jan. 1917) 
Bath, Marchioness of, Longleat, Warminster. (May, J921). 
Batty, Capt. W. R., 11 Park Road, Southport. (October, 1915). 
Beaeby, W. R., 34, Church Street, West Hartlepool. (January, 1922). 
Beatv. S., Strathnarn, Davey Lane. Alderlcy Edge, Manchester. (Mar. 1908). 
Beebi\ C. W.. Curator of Ornithology, New York Zoological Park, New York 

City, U.S.A. (July. 1911). 
Best, Cyril, Pye Bridge, .Mfreton. Derbyshire. (August. 1921). 
BiRBECK, W., Stoke Holy Cross, Norwich. (September, 1920). 
Bledisloe. Lady, Lydney Park, uhDUcester. (January. 1922). 
BoosKY. E. j., The (^cdars. Bromley Common, Kent. (February, 1921). 
BouRKE. Hon. Mrs. Gwendolin, 75 Gloucester Place. Portman Square, 

London. W. I. (Dec. 1909)^ > :> "^ . .:.•." 

;;(> ■FIELD. Miss M^iiiazdEiere, New- Milton. Jianls. (January, .1908). 
Bowring, Miss Clara, Ascot Heath Lodge, Ascot, Berks. (July, 1914). 
uKuniT. Herbert, Woo'ion Tower, Woolton. Liverpool. iv-clober. 1911). 
J'.KDOK. E. J., I'.Z.S.. lloddam Castle. I'xclefechan, Dumfrieshire. (Mar. 1908) 
Browninc. \\ . II.. 16 Cooper Square, New York. U.S;A. (February, 1910). 

BuKTON, Reginald P., Caerhyn, Llandrindod Wells, Radnorshire. (Jan. 19131 
Burgess. Mrs., Helston House, 5O St. John St.. Clifton, liristol. (Sept. 1915) 

Calvocoresi, p. J., Holm? Hay, Croxteth Drive, Liverpool. (October, 1916) 

Capern, F., Lewin's Mead, Bristol. (October, 1907). 

Carr, Percy, Ormond Lodge, Newbold on-Stour, Stratford-on-Avon. 

(November, 1918). 
Carr, R. H., Norman House, Uppingham Road, Jiushby, Nr. Leicester. 

(November, 1919). 
Case, Mrs. A. M., Holmbury, Silverdale Road, Jiastbourne. (February, 1918). 
Chaplin, Mrs. Drummond, Government House, Salisbury, Rhodesia. 

(July, 1914). 
Chaplin, E. W., The Firs, Great Amwell, Ware. September, 1903). 

Chatterton, Mrs., Talodi, King's luid Avenue, Ruislip, Middlesex. (Jan. 1915) 
Chawner, Miss E. F., Forest Bank, Lyndhurst, Hants. (July, 1910). 
Child, F. R., Braemar, Downs Road, Luton, Beds. (March, 1920). 
Christie, Mrs. G., Kellas, By Elgin. (January, 1913). 
Clarke, L. Hyde, Woodlands, St. Olave's, Gt. Yarmouh. (October, 1918). 
Clarke, S., " Vue du Lac," Fermain, Guernsey. (August, 1911). 
Cleeburg, Chas., junr., Bellevue House, Dumfries, N.B. (December, 1916) 
CoNNELL, Mrs. Knatchbull, The Orchard, Brockenhurst, Hants. (July, 1912) 
Cook, Mrs. A. M., F.Z.S., 5 Lancaster Road, Hampstead, London, N.W. 3. 

(February, 1916). 
Croker, Chas. E., Burrow Inch, Lower Bourne, Farnham. (October, 191 1) 
Crow, C. F., Lindsey Bank House, Grimsby. (October, 1915). 
CuRRiE, J., 128 Willowbrae Road, Edinburgh . (August, 1913). 
CusHNY, Charles, c/o Messrs. Neish, Howell and Haldane, 47 Watl-ng St., 

St. Paul's, E.C. (Orig. Mem.) 

Davies, Mrs. M. H., St. Ann's, Tintern, Chepstow. (January, 1914). 
Davey, R. W., 33 St. Luke's Road, Totterdown, Bristol. (November, 1919). 
Decoux, a., Gery, Par Aixe-sur-Vienne, France. (May, 1919)- 
Delacour, Jean, Chateau de Cleres, Cleres (Seine-Inferieurc), France. (Janu- 
ary, 1910). 
Dennis, Mrs. Harold, Lisk Court, Wooton, LO.W. (January, 1904). 
Dennis, Mrs. Ctril, Oakley Hall, Market Drayton, Salop. (June, 1920). 
Dell, C E., 9 Greenhill Road, Harrow. (January, 1914). 
Dickinson, Mrs. E., The Bridges, Upper Slaughter, Gloucester. (Jan. 1918). 
Dobbie, J., Waverley Works, Leith, Edinburgh. (April, 1906). 
Dunleath, The Lady, Ballywater Park, Ballywater, co. Down. (Nov. 1901). 
Dyott, Miss Mary, Freeford, Lichfield. (November, 1912). 


Earle, J. Hudson, Newgate House, Cottingham, Hull. (March, 1914) 

Ebrill, Wm.. " Greenville," South Circular Road, T,imcrick. (April, 1906). 

Edmunds, W., Blenheim, Park Road, Swanage, Dorset. (November, 1909). 

Edwards, J., 1224 East Forty-third Street, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. 
(January, 1920). 

Ellis, Miss J. G., Cranbrook Hall, Windsor. (January, 1920). 

Ezra, A., F.Z.S., Foxwarren Park, Cobliam, Surrey- (January, 1911). 

Ezra, D., 3 Kyd Street, Calcutta, India. (August, 1912). 

Falkner, Guy, Boodles Club, St. James" St., London. W. i. (Nov. 1916). 

Fasey, Wm. R., The Oaks, Holly Bush Hill, Snaresbrook, N.E. (Jan. 1903). 

Few, T. H., Hyde House, Hart Hill, Luton, Beds.' (January, 1920). 

Fisher, W. H., The Bush Hotel, Farnham. (May, 1908). 

Fitch-Daglish, Dr. E., F.Z.S., 8 Beaulieu \~llas, Finsbury Park, London, 
N. 4. (April, 1919J. 

Ford, ^. Freeman, 215 South Grand Avenue, Pasadena, California, U.S.A. 
(October, 1918). 

Foster, T., Fairlight, Babbacombe, Torquay. (March, 1914). 

Fowler-Ward, Dr. F., 40 Berners Street, Ipswich. (October, 1913). 

Frost, W. J. C, 6 Wards Ave., Fulham, S.W. 6. (August, 1913). 

Garcke, Mrs. C, Wye Lodge, Maidenhead. (June, 1916). 

Gerrard, Miss M., 32 Lung Arno A. Vc?pucer, Florence, Italy. (June 1914) 
Italy. (June, 1914). 

Gills, R. H., 79 Lordships Park, Stoke Newington. London : N., 16. 
(February, 1919). 

Goodwin, T. J., 185 Old Kent Road, London, S.E. (January, 1920). 

Gorringe, The Rev. Reginald, Mansion Rectory, Sturminster Newton, 
Dorset. (December, 1902). 

GR.^Y, H., M.R.C.V.S., i Redfield Lane, luirls' Court Road, S.W. 5. 
(May, 1906). 

Grossmith, J. L., The Grange, Bickley, Kent. (January, 1913). 

Grove, Mrs. Julian, Brattemsley House, Lymington, Hants. (March, 1917) 

GuRNEY, G. H., Keswick Hall, Norwich. (June. 1913). 

Hand, Miss R., Brumcombe, Boars. Hill. Oxford. (January, 1919). 
Harbord, Miss M. L., Lorton Park Hou.s.e. Lorton, Cockermouth. (April 

Harcourt, The Rt. Hon. Viscount Lewis, P.C, Mincham Park. Oxford. 
(April, 1914). 


Harper, E. W., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., c/o Thos. Cook and Sons. Calcutta, 
India. (October, igoy). 

Harris, Chas., F.Z.S., 127 King's Cross Road, London, W.C. (April, 1910J. 

Harrison, T. O., 127 Hastings Street, Sunderland. (March, 1918). 

Hartley, Mrs. E. A., Lynchfield, B'shop's Lydeard, Taunton. (Sept. 1907). 

Hawkins, J. E., Belvedere, Streetley Lane, Four Oaks, Sutton Coldfield, 
Birmingham. (April, 1915). 

Hawkins, L. W., 20 Norton Folgate. London : E., i. (Orig. Mem.). 

Hebb, T., Brooklea, The Downs, Luton. (August, 1912). 

Henstock, J. H., Market Place, Ashbourne, Derbyshire. (March, 1907). 

Hewitt, F. W. .G., The Old Hall, Weelsby, Grimsby. (April, 1909). 

Hincks, Miss E. M., Easterlands, Wellington, Somerset. (December, 1904). 

Hopkinson, Emilus, D.S.O., M.A., M.B., Bathurst, Gambia, West 
Africa. (October, 1901). 

Horne, a., Bon-Na-Coille, Murtle, Aberdeen. (August, 1917). 

Hume, James, Hepscott, Morpeth. (June, 1903). 

HunninGs, Lieut. A., F.S.L, Town Hall, Marc St., Hackney, London, N.E. 
(March, 1918). 

Jeakins, a. E., Winscottie, Simla, India. (April, 1916). 

Jersey, The Couness of, Middleton Park, Bicester. November, 1912). 

Johnson, Miss L. Sturton, Orotava House, Ore, Hastings. (Sept., 1910). 

Kennedy, Mrs., 7 Albion Road, Sutton, Surrey. (May, 1908). 

Kewley, Mrs. M. A., Barwich House, Yeovil, Somerset. (September, 1910) 

King, A., iioi South Orange Grove Ave., Pasadena, California, U.S.A. 
(March, 1920). 

Knobel, Miss E. Maud, 32 Tavistock Square, London, W.C. (Dec. 191 1). 

Li'callier, Mme. G., 109 Rue de la Republique, Candebee-Les-Elbeuf, Seine- 
Inf., France. (August, 1919). 

Legh de Legh, Col. H., Shincliffe, near Durham. (April, 1911). 

LiLFORD, The Lord, Lilford Hall, Oundle, Northants. (January, 1914). 

Livings, M.. L.-, 39 Ca,mbridge Road, Gunnersbiiry, W. 4. (March, 1920). 

.LoNGDON, Mrs. C. .A.,,Arreton, Epsom Road, Guildford. (February, 1909). 

Low, G. E., 14 Royal Terrace East, Kingstown. (May, 1914). 

Lowndes, Capt; D. G.', Lansdowne,' Garwhai, U.P. India. (March, 1920). 

Lucas, Miss Emma, Bramblehurst, East Grinstead, Sussex. (Sept., 1913). 


Lucas, Capt. N. S., M.B., FZ.S., {Hon. Pathologist), 19 Westbourne Ter- 
race, Hyde Park, I.(,;Kl(;n, V.'. J. (January, 1914). .;■■-. - C-' • 

MaDonaoh, J. Li. R., M.R.C.S.. L.R.C.r.. F.Z.S.. L.L.S.. 4 Wimpole Street. 
London, W. (January, 1903) 

McDonald, Miss, TJie Cottage. Hollington Park. -eonard's-on-Sca. 

(Rejoined January, 1922). 

McCall, Rev. R. Hork. Thome Rectory, Yeovil. (October, 1921). 

Macdonald, Miss V., F.Z.S., Ipley Manor, Marchwood, Hants. (Jan. 1921) 

Mackay, Kknneth S., Imber Cross, Thames Ditton. Surrey. (May, 1921). 

Macknkss, Mrs. N., Cypress Road, Church End, Finchley, N. (June, 1916) 

Mai'I'in. Stanlky, 12 Albert Hall Man.sions, Kens'ngton Gore. London. S.W. 

Mar.'^di:n, J., F.Z.S., The Bungalow, Banks Lane, Heysham Harbour, More- 
cambe. Lanes. (March, 1914). 

Marshall, M. M.. South Grand Ave., Pa.sadena, California. U.S.A. (March. 

Master, G., M.B.. B.C.. 86. Guildhall Street. Bury St. Edmunds. (Nov. 190,3). 

?klAXWELL-jACKSON, Miss M., Berry End, Knaresborough, Yorks. (Jan. 1913). 

Maxwell. C T., i Shardcroft Aven., Heme Hill, S.E. (December, 1908). 

MiLLSUM, (J., The Firs, Westwood, Margate. (July, 1907). 

Molyneux, W., Rua Gen Gurjao. 33, Pont do Caju, Rio de Janeiro. 
(January, 1922). 

Montague, G. R., 63 Croxted Road. Dulwich, S.E. 21. (February, 1909). 

Montgomery, W. G.. c/'o Mrs. Hulse. Alexandra Road. Hornsea. Hull. 
(January, 1913). 

Mortimer, Mrs., Wigmore, Holmvvood, Surrey. (Orig. Mem.) 

MuNDY, Miss Sybil, Grendon Hall. Grendon. Northampton. (Atijg-, iQn)- 

MuLVEY, W. E., 5 Overleigh Road, Chester. (January, 1921). 

Murray, S., 14 Beauford Gardens, Lewisham, S.W. i. (October, 1920). 

Murton Marshall, 122 Sloane Street, Chelsea, London. S.W. i. (Aug. 1913) 

Nairne. Dr. S., Burleigh Mead. Hatfield. Herts. (January, 1920). 

Oakey, W.. The .Anglers' Inn. Pole Street. Preston. (Orig. Mem.) 

Oberholser. Harry C. 2805. i8th Street. X.W.. Washington. D.C.. U.S.A. 
(December, 1903). 

C^Reilly, Nicholas S.. 144 Eastern Road. Kemp Town. Brighton. (Orig'. 


r\i:i;. \V. '1., F.Z.S., M.i'.JJ.U., (Jlou. Editor,, l.angitoiie, Lingtit-ld. Surrey 
(May, 1905). 

I'ainter, \'. Kknyon, Cles-claiid. Ohio, U.S.A. ( N'ovember. 19101. 

P.\RKi:i^ S. T.. 42. Turner Ro;id, Dereham Road. Norwich. (Rejoined 
January. 1922). 

P.vrKRSON, Mrs. A., 15, Brunswick (".ardens, Campden Hill. London, W., 8. 
(Rejoined January, 1922). 

I'KRKiN"-^. E.. Chester Hill, Woodchester, Stroud, (iloucs. (February, 1903). 

Pktticrkw, M., b Fifth Avenue. Kelvinside, Glasgow. W. (January. 1920). 

Pini.Mrs. E. R., 12 Waltham Terrace. Bluckrock, Ireland. (September, 1915) 

P,KK, L. G.. F.Z.S., King Barrow. W'areham. (December, 1910). 

Pii.KiNGTON, Lady Kathleen, Chevet Park. Wakefield. (September, 1908). 

PiTHiK, Miss D. E., 68 Clarendon Road, Southsea, Portsmouth (rej. Jan. 1918) 

PoLL.ACK, A. J., Loretto House, Heaton. Bradford. (August, 1917). 

Pond. Mrs. T.. Wylfa, Llangollen. (November, 1902). 

PoPK. Mrs. Howden, Tiverton, Devon. (February, 1914). 

PoRTicR. J. W., c/o Commonwealth Trust Ltd., 35, Old Jewry, London. E.C. 2 

Porter. S., .Sehvyn House. Old Normanton, Derby. (August, 1920). 

Powell, Miss M. M., Hawthorn Ilous?, Oakhill Park, Old Swan, Liverpool. 

Prior. F., Nala Lodge. Stoke Hill. Worplesden, Guildford. (July, 1920). 
(May, 1914). 

PpRfeEAU, Mrs. G. A.. 16 Evelyn Court, Lansdown Terrace. Cheltenham. 
(September, 1916). 

PtJLLAR, Lawrence H. F., F.Z.S., Dunbarnie Cottage. Bridge of Earn, 
Perthshire. (October, 1913). 

PuRVi.s. Mrs. C. J., West Acres, Alnwick, Northumberland. (October, 19x1) 
Pyman, E. E.. West House, Hartlepool. (May, 1919). 

QuiNCEY, R. DE QuiNCEY. Inglewood, Chislehurst, Kent. (Auguse. 1910). 

Rabb, D. S.. Inglewood. California. U.S.A. (August, 1920)., G. E., Fluder, Kingskerswell, Nr. Newton Abbott. (March, 1909). 
Rayn'or. Rev. G. H., M.A.. The Lilacs, Brampton, Huntingdon. (Dec. 1909) 
Read, Mrs. W. H., Church Croft. Thames t)ittbh, Surrey, (rej. Jan. 1921) 
Reeve, Capt. J. S., F.Z.S., Leadenham House, Lincoln. (March, 1908). 
Restall, J. A., 82 Cambridge Street. Birmingham. (November, 1903). 
.Rice, L. K., Hirstmonceux, Sussex. (January, 1922). 
RoBBiNS, H., 37 New Oxford Street, London, W.C. i. (October, 1508). 


Rogers, W. T., 21 Priory Villas, New Road, Brentwood. {October, 1907) 

RoTHERWELL, JAjiKS K., 153 Scwcll Avenuc, r'rnokline, Mass., U.S.A. 
(February, 191 1). 

RuMSEY, Lacy. 23 Rua de Tt-rjia Pinlo, \'illa Nova do Gaya, Oporto, Por- 
tugal. (October, 191 1). 

Ryan, G. E., (P>ar-at-Lawj, 31 Porchcsler Terrace, Hyde Park, W. 2. 
(November, 1Q13). 

Schuyl, D. G.. 12 Toe-HaringvHet. Rotterdam, Holland. (January 1914). 

Scott, Capt. B. Hamilton, Hamildean, Ipswich. (July, 1910). 

Scott, A. H., Furze Creek, Bosliam. Sussex. (October, 1915). 

Sebag-Montefiore, Mrs., East Cliffe Lodge, Ramsgate. (May, 1914). 

SiCH, H. L., Corney House, Bur'ington Lane, Chiswick, London, W. 4. 
(June, 1908). 

Silver, Allen, F.Z.S., 18 Baneswell Road, Newport, Mon. (Rej. 1920). 

Simpson, R. E.. i Highthorne (irove, Armley, Leeds. (December. 1907). 

Slade, G. J., 34 Milton Road, Fitzhugh, Southampton. (February, 1915). 

Smith, W. W., 43 Connaught Road, Harlesden, N.W. 10. (April, 1920). 

Snape, Maj. A. E., R.A.F., {Hon. Business Sccrcta)-y), 5 Ryburn 'Avenue, 
Marton, Blackpool. (March, 1918). 

Snarey, H., 21 Leamington Road, Blackburn. (March, 1911). 

SouTHCOMBE, S. L., Hill House, Stoke-under-Ham, Somerset. Sept. 1910). 

Sprankling, E.. Brookland Cottage, South Road, Taunton. (February, 1908) 

Sprawson, Capt. E., M.C., M.R.C.S., etc., 68 Southwood Land, Highgate, 
London, N. 6. (October, 1913). 

Sproston, Mrs., The Elm House. Nantwich. (Jannary, 1911). 

Stewart, B. T., Glenhurst, The Crosspaths. Radlett, Herts. (February, 1914) 

Storey, Mrs. A., Hawling Manor, Andoverford, Glos. (November, 1912). 

Stott, a. E.. 15 East Parade, Leeds. (Januarj-, 1915). 

Street, E., The Poplars, Oatwoods, Anslow, Burton-on-Trent. (May, 1909) 

Strickland, E. A., 16 Alma Road, Windsor. (May, 1912). 

SuGGiTT, R., Suggitt's Lane, Cleethorpes, Grimsby. (December, 1903). 

SuGGiTT, W. E., Suggitt's Lane, Cleethorpes, Grimsby. (January, 1915). 

SuTCLiFFE, Albert, Fairholme, Welholme Road, Grimsby. (May, 1907). 

Swayne, Henry A., 29 Percy Place, Dublin. (January, 1913). 

Sykes, J., 16 Shorthope Street, Musselburgh. (January, 1912). 

Taintegines, Baronnk le Clement de. Cleveland, Minehead, Somerset. 
(August, 1913). 


Takano, T. Z., 0/ Shicliome, lloncho, \'okohama, Jai)an. (January igjj). 
Taka-Tankasa, X., io(.i. Hononurucho Azabu, Tokyo, Japan. (Jan., 1922). 
Tavistock, The Marquis of, Warblington House, Havant, Hants. (Jan. 1913) 
Temple, W. R., The Lawn. Datchet. Ikicks. (Dcccml^er, 1908). 
TOMLINSON, Malcolm R., Shepherd's House. Inveresk. Midlothian. (April. 

Townsend, S. -M.. 3 Swift Street. Fr.lham, S.W. (Orig. Mem.). 
Tracy, Mrs. A. L., Halsham, Shaldon, Teignmouth. (February, 1914). 
Travers, Mrs. Johnson, 20, Allwyn Park, Dulwich. (December, 1903). 
Turner, Herbert J.. Tremadoc, Keyberry Road, Newton Abbott. (Feb. 1915) 

Valentine, E., 7 Highfield, Workington. (December. 1911). 
Vkre, Miss Hope, Westclilte, North Berwick. (January, 1922). 
Vermillion, D. S., ii Chester Place, Los Angeles, California. U.S.A. 
(January, 1920). 

Waddell, Miss E. G. R. Peddie, 4 Great Stuart St., Edinburgh. (Feb. 1909) 

Wait, Miss L. M. St. A., 12 Rosary Gardens, South Kensington, London. 
S.W. (December, 1007). 

Walker, J. Carr, Pannal Hall, Pannal, Near Harrogate. (March, 1916). 

Wallace, Norman H., Iveragh, Shelbourne Road, Dublin. (June, 1917). 

Walmsley, J., " Dalecot," Mayfield Road, St. Annes-on.Sea. (May, 1919). 

Wand, Col., Falcon Rise, Wootton Hill, Newbury. (January, 1922). 

Watson, S., 37 Tithebarn Street, Preston. (September, 1910). 

Wedge, E., Thorpedale Cottage, Chorley Wood, Rickmansworth, Herts. 
(February, 1915). 

Weir, J., Douglas Cottage, Ashley, New Milton, Hants. 

Wellington, H. G., The Duchess of, Ewhurst Park, Basingstoke, Hants. 
(April, 1918). 

Westacott, H., Wellington Hotel, Minehead, Somerset. (September, 1907). 

Whistler, Hugh L P., c/o King, King & Co., Agents, Bombay, India. 
(January, 1913). 

White, A. L, Glenskira, Barrowby Road, Grantham. (November, 1916). 
Whitley, H., Primley Hill, Paignton, S. Devon. (January, 1916). 
WiLLFORD, Henry, (Hon. Photographer), Uplands View, Haven Street, Ryde 
. (July, 1908). 

Williams, Sidney, F.Z.S. (Hon. Treasurer and ExhibU'wnal Secretary), "Oak- 
leigh," no Riverway, Palmer's Green, London, N. 13. (October, 1910). 

Williamson, T. F. M., 525 Howard Place, South Pasadena, California, U.S. A 
(August, 19 1 7). 


Wilson, Miss I". M.. 33'F.manuel Avenue, Acton, Middlesex. (March, 1906) 

WiNCHiLSEA and Nottixgham, The Countess of, Haverholme Priory, Sleaford 
(June, 1903). 

WiNDYBANK, L. A., Blean Hyrst, Blean, Nr. Canterbury. (June, 1916). 

Woodward. Kknnkth N., Kenwood, P.lairstown, New York, U.S.A. 
(February, 1915). 

WoRKM,\N. W. H., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., Lismore, Windsor, Belfast (June, 1912) 

WoRMALD, H., Heathfield, East Dereham, Norfolk. (rej. January, 1920). 

Yealland, Jamks, Binstead, Ryde. (September, 1909). 

Yellibrand, Commander H. B., 180 Sandgate Rd., Folkestone. (Nov. 1920). 

Young, Lieut. H. R., 76 Mitcham Lane, Streatham, London, S.W. 16. 
(January, 1920). 

Zoological Society, The New York, 185th Street and Southern Boulevard, 
New York, U.S.A. (March, 1917). 

Zoological Society of Philadelphia, The, Philadelphia, Penna, U.S.A. 
(January, 1920). 

The Hon. Business Secretary requests that he may he promptly informed 
of any errors in the above List 


The Foreign Bird Club. 

Hon. Solicitor: 
II. R. FiLL.MKK. Ciiurch Strccl. Ihii^iiton. 

lion. Flioto_i;rapltcr: 
il. W'li.i.i-oRn, Upland View, Havciistrccl. Rjdc. 

Hon. Pathologis! : 

K. S. Lucas, M.L!., F.Z.S., Prosectorium, Zoulo.^ical Society, Regent's 

Park, London : X.W . 

Magaciiic Conuiiittcc : 

Dk. M. Amsler. \\v.\- . G. H. Rayxok, M.A. 

VV. Shore Baily R. Suggitt. 

N. S. LtJCAS, M.R., F.Z.S. H. Wir.T.i-oRn. 
Dr. J. E. R. MrDoNAGH. 

Slum' Conunittcc : 

Capt. VV. A. Bainbridge. The Hon. Mrs. G. Bourkk. 

Lady K.athleek Pilkixcton. S. Wili-iams, F.Z.S. (Hon. Sec.) 

Social Conuiiiltec : 
H. G. The Duchess oe Wellixctom. W. Bamford. 
Hon. Mrs. G. Bourke. W. T. Rogers (Hon. Sec.) 

Mrs. K. a. H. Hartley. A. Suttclikfe. 

W. R. Temple. 

A^^'ards Coniinittee : 

The Countess of Winchilsea. Capt. G. E. Rattigan. 

Capt. W. A. Bainbridge. E. W. Chaplin. 

H. Bright. R. Soggitt (Hon. Sec.) 

. ^ 

Notices to Members. 

The Magazine : The lateness of the appearance is entirely due to the 
Editor's indisposition — he being quite unable to complete the green-page Inset. 
However, we hope to issue March Bird Notes by the end of the month, and 
April issue at the proper date. 


The Roll : Tlierc are several proved errors in the Roll, and the Hon. 
Secretary is anxious to get it thoroughly corrected, both as to spelling of 
names, initials and addresses. We, therefore, request each member to look 
up their name on the roll and to notify the Hon. Sec. at once of any inaccuracy. 

WESLEY T. PAGE, Hon. Editor. 

MAJ. A. E. SNAPE. Ifon. Bi(si>ies.'; Secretary 


Deficit and Illustration Funds. 

These two funds need all the help members can give them. The com- 
mittee acknowledge with best thanks the following : 

£ s. d. 

Boosey, E. J 050 

Chawner, K. V. 10 o 

Reeve, Capt. J. S o 17 

Walker, H. Carr 10 o 

Wellington, H.G. The Duchess of i 00 


New Member Elected. 

Porter, J W., c,'o Conmionwcalth Trust Ltd., 35, Old jevvry. London, I'^C. 2 


Proposed for Election as iVIembers. 

Horace Czarnikow, Hollongton House, Newbury. 
By Capt. L. R. IVaiuL 

Changes and Corrections of Address. 

Powell, Miss M. M., to Roselyn, Oakhill Park, Liverpool. 

Williamson, T. F. M., Apartment 411. St. Catherine Apartments. i_'4J Polk 

Street, San Franc'sco, California, U.S.A. 
Woodward, K. X., i Madison .Avenue, New York, U.S.A. 


Errata re Roll. 

T.\K.vT.\NKAS.\, N., should read T.\ka-Tsuk.\n.\, N. 

Col. L. R. Wa.n'd, etc.. should read Capt. L. R. Waud, Falcon Close. \Vooh(jn 

Hill. Newbury, 
j C\KU Walkkk, should read 11. Cakk Walkku. 
A. !. Whit::, for (Jleshire read denshire. 


Delete from Koil. 

W. Oakey. 
J. A. Restall. 

Commander \\-Ilil>raiKl. 


Register of Club Breeders. 

(fie Jan. issue, green pages, 2 — 3J. 

Budgerigars under 
Calvocoressi, p. J. 

ADD * 

iioosEY, E. J., The Cedars, JJromley Common, Kent. 

Red-rurnp Parrakeets Green Budgerigars 

Pennant Parrakeets D'amond Sparrows 

Zebra Finches. 

Rkkve, Capt. J. S., F.Z.S.. M.B.O.U., Leadenham House, Lincoln. 

Red-rump Parrakeets Triangular-spotted Pigeons 


The Bird Market. 

Members' Rates: One penny per word; minimum one shihing. 
Non-members and all Trade advertisers must apply to the Agents {vide page 
///. of cover). Advertisements for respective issues must be sent to the 
Hon. Editor not later than the 8th of each month. 


WANTED : Japanese Bantams, or exchange Budgerigars to value. — Marsden, 
Bank's Lane, Pleysham Harbour, Lanes. 

WANTED : Unrelated and acclimatised pairs : Triangular Spotted Pigeons, 
All Green Parrakeets, Red-collared Lorikeets, and Cirl Buntings ; also 
following odd birds (or would sell opposite sex) to make pairs : cock 
i'.lacK-backed Tanager, hen Yellow-billed Cardinal, 2 cock Cordon Bleus, 
hen Archbishop Tanager, and hen Snow Bunting. — Reeve, Leadenham 
House, Lincoln. 

FOR SALE : Acclimatised true pair of Black Cassiques.— Page, Langstone, 
I^ingfield, Surrey. 



Standard Blue Black Writing and Copying, Turquoise Blue and 

Ooraline Red 

X :s^ IS. IS* 


Standard Crescent Carbon Papers for Typewriters. 

Black Indelible Ink for cancelling Stamps under The Insurance /let. 

Wholesale Agent : 


To whom address all Enquiries. • 


MARCH, 1922 

The Foreign Bird Club. 

Notices to Members. 

The Club Journal ; Copy is still needed, as per notices in January 
and February issue. We trust that members will give their utmost co-oper- 
ation that Bird Notes may be worthy and thoroughly representative of our 

Obituary : Our member Mr. J. L. Grossmith passed away in November 
last, and h's membership in F.B.C. has been transferred to his widow Mrs. A. 
Grossmith. to whom, on behalf of the Club, we extend our sincere sympathy 
in her bereavement. 

Subscriptions in Default : We regret in a few cases no notice has 
been taken of several applications, leaving us no alternative, unless a remit- 
tance be sent on or before April 15th, but to place them in the hands of a 
solicitor for collection. 

Development of the Club : We regret that so httle response has 
been made to the Hon. Secretary's letter in February BiRQ Notes, pages 45-6; 
will members kindly consider same and communicate the'r views,? 
WESLEY T. PAGE, Hon. Editor. 
MAJ. A. E. SNAPE, Hon. Business Secretary^ 

Deficit and Illustration Funds. 

These two funds need all the help members can give them. The com- 
mittee acknowledge with best thanks the following : 
. £ s. d. 

Rothwell, J. E 100 

Errata re RolJ. 

J. E. Rotherwill should read J. E. RoTHWEtL, 153, Sewell Avenue, Brookline, 

Mass.. U.S.A. 
Mrs. Burgess : for St. John's Street read St. John's Road. 

New Member Elected. 

Horace Czarnikow, HoUongton House, Newbury. 

Proposed for Election as Members. 

Miss Olive Blackburn, Rock End, Torquay. 

By Capf. G. E. Rattigan. 
G. F. Bolam, 8 Rosslyn Avenue, Low Fell, Gateshead-on-Tyne. 

By S. M. Tozvm-cnd. 
H. Boot, Finchficld, Lichfield Road, Sutton Coldfield. 

By } . H. E. Hawkins. 

Register of Club Breeders. 

(I'ide Green Inset, Jan. pages 2-3, Feb. page 19). 


The Bird Market. 

Members' Rates : One penny per word ; minimum one shilling. 
Non-members and all Trade advertisers must apply to the Agents (vide page 
in. of cover). Advertisements tor respective issues must be sent to the 
Hon. Editor not later than the 8t.h of each month. 

Wanted : Cocks, Masked Dove, Snow Bunting, and Redpoll ; hens. Crossbill 

and Blue-breasted Waxbill. — Lady Dunleath, Ballywater, Co. Down, 

WANTED : Bird Notes for 1906. — Miss Jackson, Berry End, Knaresborough 
FOR SALE : Green, blue-bred Budgerigars, cocks only, also hen Melbi 

Finch. — Mrs. Burgess, 56, St. John's Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
FOR SALE : Pair Red Moimtain Doves, 40s. ; Snow Buntings, 6s. pair. — 

R. Suggitt, Suggitt's Lane, Cleethorpes. 
FOR SALE : Khaki Campbell duck eggs 12s. per doz. Carr. paid. Ducks, 

Mrs. Campbell's strain; drakes, direct from Leslie Thompson, winner 

of National Laying Test 1921. Excellent egg records, correct type and 

colour. — Lt.-Col. de Legh, Shincliffe, Durham. 
FOR SALE : Perfect true pair Black Cassiques. — W. T. Page, Langstonc, 

Lingfield, Surrey. 
PEDIGREE UTILITY POULTRY : Only the very best supplied in White 

Wyandottes, Rhode Island Reds, Light Sussex, and Runner Ducks. 

Speciality 3 months pullets. 

Sitting eggs daily — chicks weekly. 

W. A. Bainbridge, Keyneston Manor Poultry Farm, Blandford, Dorset. 



Standard Blue Black Writing and Copying, Turquoise Blue and 

Coraline Red 


standard Crescent Carbon Papers for Typewriters. 

Black Indelible Ink for cancelling Stamps under The Insurance Act. 

Wholesale Agent : 


To whom address all Enquiries. 


APRIL, 1922 

The Foreign Bird Club. 

Notices to Members. 

Late Issue of Bird Notes : January issue was late owing to Revision 
of Roll, and, owing to scarcity of copy and ill-health of the Editor it has 
been impossible to pull up to proper publishing date — 'flu followed by an 
aftermath of brain-fag has prevented the Editor filling gaps as in the past. 
Thus the only way out of the present impasse is to combine May and June 
issues as a " double number," and to issue same by June 15th, which is the 
proper pubHshing date ; to this end the Editor requests that copy may be 
promptly sent in; also that every member will assist by writing articles, etc., 
to keep the remaining issues of the current volumr : up-to-date. 

MAJ. A. E. SNAPE, Hon. Business Secretary. 
WESLEY T. PAGE, Hon. Editor. 

Deficit and Illustration Funds. 

These two funds need all the help members can give them. 

New Members Elected. 

Miss Olive Blackburn, Rock End, Torquay, S. Devon. 

G. F. Bolam, 8 Rosslyn Avenue, Low Fell, Gateshead-on-Tyne. 

H. Boot, Finchfield, Lichfield Road, Sutton Coldfield. 

Proposed for Election as Member. 

Walter Potts, 28, Union Street, Hyde, Cheshire. 
By Lt.-Col. H. L. de Legh. 

Register of Club Breeders. 

{Vide Green Inset, Jan. pages 2-3, Feb. page 19). 

Laurence H. D. Pullar, Dunbarnie Cottage, Bridge of Earn, Perthshire. 
Green Cardinals. 
Peach-faced Lovebirds. 


The Bird Market. 

Members' Rates : One penny pei- word ; minimum one shilling-. 
Non-members and all Trade advertisers must apply to the Agents (vide page 
Hi. of cover). Advertisements for respective issues must be sent to the 
Hon. Editor not later than the 8th of each month. 


rX)R SALE: duuldian I'inches, pairs and odd hens and one Red-headed 

cock. What offers? — Chaplin, Great Amwell, Herts. 
FOR SALE: White Peahen, splendid condition, £6; thousands of birds, 

goldfish, animals and reptiles always in stock. — De Von & Co., 127, King's 

Cross Road, London, W.C., i. 
FOR SALE : Three young Cockateels, two months old, outdoor aviary 

bred, 14s. each. — Mrs. Mackness, 22 Cypress Road, Finchley, London, N.3 
WANTED : Bird Notes for 1906. — Miss Jackson, Berry End, Knaresborough 
FOR SALE : Khaki Campbell duck eggs 12s. per doz. Carr. paid. Ducks, 

Mrs. Campbell's strain; drakes, direct from Leslie Thompson, winner 

of National Laying Test 1921. Excellent egg records, correct type and 

colour. — ^Lt.-Col. de Legh, Shincliffe, Durham. 
FOR SALE : Perfect true pair Black Cassiques.- — W. T. Page, Langstone, 

Lingfield, Surrey. 
PEDIGREE UTILITY POULTRY : :Only the very best supplied in White 

Wyandottes, Rhode Island Reds, Light Sussex, and Runner Ducks. 

Speciality 3 months pullets. 

Sitting eggs daily — chicks weekly. 

W. A. Bainbridge, Keyneston Manor Poultry Farm, Blandford, Dorset. 



Standard Blue Black Writing and Copying, Turquoise Blue and 

Coraline Red 


standard Crescent Carbon Papers for Typewriters. 
Blach Indelible Ink for cancelling Stamps under The Insurance Act. 

Wholesale Agent : 


To whom address all Enquiries. 


MAY— JUNE 1922. 

The Foreign Bird Club. 

Notices to Members. 

Meeting of Members at London Zoo : We wish to arrange one 

meeting during the year at this interesting and pleasant resort. Will those 
able to be present please communicate with the Hon. Sec. and state which 
month — July or August — would best suit them. 

Change of Hon. Secretary's Address : This now is : Maj. A. E. 
Snape, 41 John Dalton Street. Manchester. 

MAJ. A. E. SNAPE, Hon. Business Secretary. 
WESLEY T. PAGE, Hon. Editor. 

Deficit and Illustration Funds. 

These two funds need all the help members can give them. The 
Committee thankfully acknowledge the following donations : 

£ s. d. 

Bright, H. E I o 

Garrile, Mrs. C i o 

Hopkinson, Dr. E 130 

Mundy, Miss S 2 

Perreau, Mrs. G. A 10 

Snarey, H 2 o 

Suggitt, R 10 o 

Sutcliffe. A 4 o 

Changes and Corrections of Address. 

T. T. Barnard, to Dungote Hall, Towcester. • 

Miss M. Gerrard, to Casa Frollo, Alia Guidecca, No. 50, Venice. 

E. Wedge, to " Overdale," Chorley Wood, Herts. 

Dr. E. Hopkinson, to 45 Sussex Square, Brighton. 

New Member Elected. 

Walter Potts, 28, Union Street, Hyde, Cheshire. 

Proposed for Election as Members. 

W. Salkeld, Ravenwood, Kirkoswald, R.S.O., Cumberland. 

By Maj. A. E. Snape. 
Capt. H. B. Boothby, D.S.O., R.N.R., Ambleside, Weelsby, Grimsby. 

By R. Suggitt. 
Mr. Chapman, High Street, Birmingham. 

By J. W. Marsden. 
H. S. Stokes, Longdown, Rugeley, Staffs. 

By Maj. A. E. Snape. 
Capt. F. H. Mitchell. R.N., Hollybank. Emsworth, Hants. 

By the Marquis of Tavistock. 


Errata re Roll. 

Home McCall, should read Home McCall. 

Register of Club Breeders. 

(Vide Green Inset, Jan. pages 2-3, Feb. page 19). 

The Bird Market. 

Members' Rates : One penny per word ; minimum one shilling. 
Non-members and all Trade advertisers must apply to the Agents (vide page 
Hi. of cover). Advertisements for respective issues must be sent to the 
Hon. Editor not later than the 8th of each month. 


WANTED : Bird Notes for 1906. — Miss Jackson, Berry End, Knaresborough 

WANTED : Cock Black-backed Tanager ; cock Cordon Bleu ; hen Arch- 
bishop Tanager ; hen full-winged Blossom-headed Parrakeet ; cock Red- 
collared Lorikeet, or would sell hen.— Reeve, Leadenham House, Lincoln. 

WANTED : Hen Olive Finch {Phonipara lepida). — Page, Langstone, 
Lingfield, Surrey. 

ADVERTISER would be glad to purchase eggs of Impeyan, Eared, or other 
rare pheasants. — S. Porter, Selwyn House, Old Normanton, Derby. 




Standard Blue Black Writing and Copying, Turquoise Blue and 

Coraline Eed 


standard Crescent Carbon Papers for Typewriters. 

Blacfi Indelible Ink for cancelling Stamps under The Insurance Act. 

Wholesale Agent : 


To whom address all Enquiries. 

^^ JULY, 1922. 

The Foreign Bird Club. 

Notices to Members. 

Post Mortem Examinations : Di-. N. B. Lucas, finding himself 
with insufncient time at his disposal to continue these, has been com- 
pelled to resign his post as Hon. Pathologist. The committee on behalf 
of the Club tender him sincere thanks for the valuable time and help 
he has rendered to memters while holding that post. 

In future P.M. Examinations will be undertaken for members, 
conditions as heretofore — see rules page ii. of cover — bj' Mr. C. H. 
Hicks, Prosectorium, Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, London, N.W. 

MAJ. A. E. SNAPE, Hon. Business Secretary 
WESLEY T. PAGE, Hun. Editor. 

Deficit and Illustration Funds. 

These two funds need all the help members can give them. The 
committee thankfully acknowledge the following donation : 

£ s. d. 
Bainbridge, W. A 10 

Changes and Corrections of Address. 

J. Currie, to 55, Netherby Road, Edinburgh, N.B. 

\V. Molyueux, to Rua de Petropolis, 224, Rio de Janeiro, iBrazil. 

Errata re Roli. 

We regret that in last issue, owing to a clerical error, a revision 
got transposed. 
Rev. R. Hore McCall on Roll should read Home McCall. 

Delete from Roll. 

D. S. Rabb, California, U.S.A. (Subscription unpaid), 

J. Yealland, Binstead, I.W. (deceased). 

H. Robbins, Oxford Street, London (resigned). 

New Members Elected. 

W Salkeld, Ravenswood, Kirkoswald, R.S.O., Cumberland. 

Capt. H. B. Boothby, D.S.O., R.N.R., Ambleside, Weelsby, Grimsby. 

Mr. Chapman, High Street, Birmingham. 

Capt. H. S. Stokes, Longdon, Rugeley, Staffs. 

Capt. F. H. Mitchell, R.N., Hollybank, Emsworth, Hants. 

Past Member Re-elected. 

H T. Boyd, 34 Fortune Green Road, West Hampstead, London, N.W., 6. 


Register of Club Breeders. 

{Vide Green Inset, Jan. pages 2-3, Feb. page 19). 

The Bird Market. 

Members' Rates: One penny per word; minimum one shilling. 
Non-members and all Trade advertisers must apply to the Agents {vide page 
Hi. of cover). Advertisements for respective issues must be sent to the 
Hon. Editor not later than the 8th of each month. 


WANTED : A pet parrakeet and cage, must l)e pe>rfectly tame. Stale 

species and price. — Parker, 42, Turner Road, Norwich. 
FOR SALE : Adult, acclimatised, breeding pair Red-rump Parrakects, 

having reared several youngsters this season, £6, also a young pair 

£4. Also cot'k St. Lucian Parrakeet £3, acclimatised. — Capt. J. S. 

Reeve, Leaden ham House, Lincoln. 
WANTED : Bird Notes for 1906.— Miss Jackson, Berry End, Knareslx)ro' 
ADVERTISER would be glad to purchase eggs of Impeyan, Eared or 

other rare plieasants. — S. Porter, Selwyn House, Old Normanton, 

WANTED: Hen Cuban Olive Finch (Fhonipara Icpida); also cock 

Alexandrine Parrakeet, and full winged, adult hen Blossom-headed 

Parrakeet. — -Page, Lang.stone, Lingfield, Surrey. 





Standard Blue Black Writing and Copying, Turquoise Blue and 

Coralinc Red 


Standard Crescent Carbon Papers for Typewriters. 
Black Indelible Ink for cancelling Stamps under The Insurance Act 

Wholesale Agent : 

-A.. .A-, -WJEJIG-H, 


To whom address all enquiries. 


AUGUST, 192 

The Foreign Bird Club. 

Notices to Members. 

The notices this month are incomplete, owing to the Hon. Editor being 
away from home, but all omissions will be included in October issue. 

MAJ. A. E. SNAPE, Hon. Business Secretary. 
WESLEY T. PAGE, Hon. Editor. 

Deficit and Illustration Funds. 

These two funds need all the help members can give them. The 
committee thankfully acknowledge the following donation : 

£ 6. d. 
Hewitt, T. W. J o I 

Proposed for Election as Member. 

Horsford, D. M., Bosvathick, Pcnryn, Cornwall. By the Hon. Editor. 

Changes and Corrections of Address. 

.\. Ainsworth, to. j, Poro Street, Kilbirnie, New Zealand. 
Mrs. Read, to. The Vicarage, Marshchapcl, Lines. 

Register of Club Breeders. 

(Vide Green Inset, Jan. pages 2-3, Feb. page 19). 

The Bird Market. 

Members' Rates : One penny per word ; minimum one shilling. 
Non-members and all Trade advertisers must apply to the Agents {vide page 
Hi. of cover). Advertisements for respective issues must be sent to the 
Hon. Editor not later than the 8th of each month. 

The Hon. Editor much regrets, that he omitted to bring copy of 
adverts away with him, so these, perforce, must be held over till next issue. 







Standard Blue Black Writing and Copying, Turquoise Blue and 

Coraline Red 


standard Crescent Carbon Papers for Typewriters. 

Black Indelible Inh for cancelling Stamps under The Insurance Act 

Wholesale Agent : 


To whom address all enquiries. 


j i-f ! ![i I I- p/t-'fUn'itp.-noVl 

■;.'i!f vfiA .( i'JVO'J lo .w 



The Foreign Bird Club. 

Notices to Members. 

Thk Magazine : Copy is still urgently needed to enable the Hon. 
Editor to issue the Journal at the proper date; while being very grateful to 
those members who have so staunchly contributed month by month, he 
strongly urges those members who have not contributed to this volume to do 
s as early as possible. 

MAJ. A. E. SNAPE, Hon. Business Secretary 
WESLEY T. PAGE, Hon. Editor. 


In Memoriam of a Grey Parrot. 

In perpetual memory 



The beloved companion of B. Theo. Stewart, 

Who fell asleep July 25TH, 1919. 
Thou 7vas't not born for Deatli, Immortal Bird. 
There are men both good and great. 
Who hold that in a future state, 

Dumb creatures we have treasured here below 
Will give us joyous greeting when we reach the golden gate 

Ts it folly that I hope it may be so ? 
Eor never man had friend more enduring to the end. 


Deficit and Illustration Funds. 

These two funds need all the help members can give them. The 
committee thankfully acknowledge the following donation : 

£ s. d. 

Decoux, y\. 10 o 

Hewitt, T. W. J o I 


Changes and Corrections of Address. 

A. Ainsworth, to 7, Poro Street, Kilbirnie, Wellington, New Zealand. 

P. E. Simpson, 25, Gloucester Avenue, Armley, Leeds. 

Dr. E. Hopkinson, D.S.O., to Bathurst, Gambia, West Africa. 


New Member Elected. 

Horsford, D. M., Bosvathick, Pcnryn, Cornwall. 

The Bird Market. 

Members' Rates: One penny per word; minimum one shilling. 
Non-members and all Trade advertisers must apply to the Agents {vide page 
Hi. of cover). Advertisements for respective issues must be sent to the 
Hon. Editor not later than the 8th of each month. 

FOR SALE : Champion-bred Cairn and West Highland Puppies for sale, 
or exchange Albino finches. — Scott, Bosham, Sussex. 

WANTED : One or two pairs of young canaries from outdoor aviary. — 

Kewley, Barwick House, Yeovil. 
WANTED : Two hen Diamond Doves.— W. R. Temple, The Lawn, 

Datchet, Bucks. 
FOR SALE : i pair Red-rump Parrakeets, £4 ; 2 adult Peaceful Ground 

Doves IDS. each. — Hawkins, Belvedere, Streetly Lane, Sutton Coldfield. 

FOR SALE : Bird Notes, bound volumes, 2 to 7, earliest series, also 
odd vols, later series, unbound. Few Avicultural Magazine, bound and 
unbound. Cassell's Cage Birds, foreign section by Weiner, out of print. 
WANTED : Seth-Smith's Parmtcets. Stamp reply. — Boyd, 34 Fortune 
Green Road, West Hampstead, London. 



^■^KWOOD &L 

m.^M%. MM vu'JLJ mL ijo/s 

Standard Blue Black Writing and Copying, Turquoise Blue and 

Coraline Red 

X wr JBL ^. 


Standard Crescent Carbon Papers for Typewriters. 
Blach Indelible Inh for cancelling Stamps under The Insurance Act 

Wholesale Agent : 


To whom address all enquiries. 


OCTOBER, 1922. 

The Foreign Bird Club. 

Notices to Members. 

Obituary : It is with niueh regret that we have to announce three 
lotses this month, viz., VV. R. Temple, Datchet, Bucks, A. R. Home, 
Murtle, Aberdeen, and Lieut. H. R. Young-, Streatnam, 5.W. 

Mr. Temple is quite an old member ol F B.C., and for some years 
lias seived on the Council. He was a keen aviculturist, being interested 
principally, in Floceme and Fringilline finches, meeting with considerable 
success in breeding Parrot Finches and various Poephi'a. He also attempted 
to breed several species of the rarer 'possibly, 1 should say the more retiring) 
British birds, coming very near to buccess with Nuthatches and Tree 
Creepers. He was equally interested in Cavies and Dogs, and will be missed 
ii many directic/us. To Mrs. Temple we offer deep and sincere sympathy 
in her bereavement. 

Mr. Home was less known to us, as he took no public part in F.B.C., 
and was only a verv occasional contributor to the club Journal. He was a 
keen nature student, not merely a keeper of foreign birds, but a lover of all 
wild life. His demise was the termination of a long, weary, and painful 
ilhiess. To his bereaA'ed family we offer our profound sympathy. 

Also Lieut. H. R. Young, Mitchar: Lane, Streatham, S.W. To his 
1 ireavcd family we offer sincere sympathy. 

MAJ. A. E. SXAI'li:. Hon. Business Secretary 
WESLEY T. PAGE, Hon. Editor. 


Proposed for Election as Member. 

Mrs K. E. Hollas. Arta. Stewart Road. Prcslon. By the Hon. Bus. 

— ^> — - 

Transfer of Membership. 

From Lieut. H. R. Young (deceased) Mitcham Lane, Streatham, to Chas 
R. Young-, 76, Milchatr .I.ane, Streatham, London, S.W., 16. 


The Bird Market. 

Members' Rates : One penny per word ; minimum one shilling. 
Non-members and all Trade advertisers must apply lo the Agents (vide page 
m. of cover). Advertisements for respective issues must be sent to the 
Hon. Editor not later than the 8th of each month. 


l^OR SALE : Champion-bred Cairn and West Highland Puppies for sale, 
or exchange Albino finches. — Scott, Bosham, Sussex. 

FOR SALE : One pair and two odd hon Cockateels, 1921 hatched, splendid 
condition and full adult plumage. Also specially selected 1922 Khaki- 
Carhpbell Drakes, Leslie Thompson — Mrs. Campbell strain, true to 
colour and type. — Lt.-Col. H. L. de Legh, Shinecliffe, Durham. 

FOR SALE- Pairs; Eared Pheasants £10., New Guinea Quail £3.. 
Californian Quail £2., Cape Sparrows 25s., Chingolo Song-Sparrows 
25s. — W. Shore Baily, Boyers House, Westbury, Wilts. 

FOR SALE • 20 young Green Budgerigars, bred during the last season in 
out-door aviary. — Gardener, c/o Mrs. Montifiore, East Cliff Lodge, 





Standard Blue Black Writing and Copying, Turquoise Blue and 

Coraline Red 

I N K S. 


Standard Crescent Carbon Papers for Typewriters. 
Black Indelible Ink for cancelling Stamps under The Insurant j I 

Wholesale Agenl : 


To whom address all enquiries. 



The Foreign Bird Cliib, 

Notices to Members. 

Elfxtion oi' Council : According to our rules Messrs. W. Bamford 
and H. E. Bright retire from the Council at the end of the year, but are 
eligible for re-election. 

There is also a vacancy caused by the decease of W. R. Temple ; for 
this Lt.-Col. H. Legh de Legh is nominated by Capt. W. A. Bainbridge 
and W. T. Page. 

Any further nominations for the above vacanc}' must reach the Hon. 
Sec not later than December 15th. 

Uniaid Subscriptions : There are still some 12 or 13 members who 
are still in arrears ; at least two applications for same have been made by 
post — -our income still falls short of meeting the full cost of Bird Notes, 
Medals, and other incidental charges — those still in arrears are requested 
to forward same forthwith to the Hon. Sec. 

New Member : The closing of one year, and the opening up of 
another is the best period for an effort to secure new members, and your 
officers earnestly urge each individual member to make an effort to secure 
at least one new member — we need an increased membership, and this is a 
matter in which all must co-operate if there is to be any substantial gain. 

MAJ. a. E. SNAPE, Hon. Business Secretary 

WESLEY T. PAGE, Hon. Editor. 

Deficit and Illustration Funds. 

These two funds need all the help members can give them. The 
smallest donation will be thankfully acknowledged, both by the Hon. Sec. 
and in this Journal. 


New Member Elected. 

Mrs. K. E. Hollas, Arta, Stewart Road, Preston. 


The Bird Market. 

Members' Rates : One penny per word ; minimum one shilling. 
Non-members and all Trade advertisers must apply to the Agents (vide pngo 
in. of cover). Advertisements for respective issues must be sent to the 
Hon. Editor not later than the 8lh of each month. 


FOR SALE : Outdoor aviary-bred Diamond Dove, believed hen ; unrelated 
pairs Zebra Finches ; hen Cockateel ; Yorkshire and Roller Canaries. — 
Chatterton, Talodi, Ruislip. 

FOR SALE : Champion-bred Cairn and West Highland Puppies for sale, 
or exchange Albino finches. — Scott, Bosham, Sussex. 

WANTED : Cabinet for British Birds' Eggs, with or without eggs. — 
Particulars to J. H. Henstock, Avian Press, Ashbourne, Derbyshire. 





Standard Blue Black Writing and Copying, Turquoise Blue and 

Ooraline Red 

I N K S. 


Standard Crescent Carbon Papers for Typewriters. 
Black Indelible Ink for cancelling Stamps under The Insurance Act. 

Wholesale Agent : 


To whom address all euqiiiries. 


DECEMBER. 1922. 

The Foreign Bird Club. 

Notices to Members. 

By the time this issue is in the hands of IMembers, 1923 will be fully 
a week old. We regret this late appearance, but owing to the Xmas holi- 
days, compilation of indices, etc., the delay has been unavoidable. 

All subscriptions become due on January ist. Members are requested 
t- remit (20s.) same to Major A. E. Snape, 41, John Dalton Street, Man- 
chester, forthwith. 

Costs of production still rule high, and we trust members will support 
the Illustration and Deficit Funds to the best of their ability. 

Every member is urged to make an effoit to introduce at least one new 
member during the year, and also to support the Honorary Editor with copy, 
such being urgently needed to facilitate the regular and prompt issue of the 
Club Journal Bird Notes at the appointed date. 

MAJ. A. E. SNAPE, Ho^i. Business Secretary 
WESLEY T. PAGE, Hon. Editor. 

Proposed for Election as Member. 

Mons. C. Cordier, Werdgutg, 7, Zurich, Switzerland. ^By Capt. G. E. 
Rattigan. . 

Changes and Corrections of Address. 

Chas. R. Young, c/o Eastern Telegraph Co. Ltd., 2, Rue Street, Cannot, 
Marseilles. France. 


The Bird Market. 

Members' Rates : One penny per word ; minimum one shilling. 
Non-members and all Trade advertisers m.ust ; pply to the Agents {I'ide page 
Hi. of cover). Advertisements for respective issues must be sent to the 
Hon. Editor not later than the 8th of each month. 


FOR SALE : Healthy young Pennant Parrakeet.— E. W. Chaplin, Great 
Amwell, Ware. 

FOR SALE : Champion-bred Cairn and West Highland puppies, or ex- 
change for Albino Finches. — A. H. Scott, Furze Creek, Bosham, Susse> 

WANTED : Cabinet for British Birds' Eggs, with or without eggs. — 
Particulars to J. H. Henstock, Avian Press, Ashbourne, Derbyshire. 

Series III 

JANUARV, 1922. 

Vol. V. Mo. 1 

The Publisher regfrets that owingf to a 
breakdown of machinery used in 
producing: Bird Notes, the Decem- 
ber issue has been further delayed. 


The q/oupj\z>J ^^ 

Wesley T. P^Je, F.Z.S.e^ 

PHntMl antf rubllihtd by j. N. HcnstMk, Avian Pr««i, 

series III 


Vol. V. No. 1 

The (JoupjmJ ^o/^ 

^' m\'^^ WesIeyTTP^e, EZ.Se^ 



?«■. .-i;?^3S>..-^ 

PHntMl antf Ptibliahtd by J. N. Herutock, Avian Pram, 

!',,■■; iH,^.:, /.;•!! 


Manmk'ms By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., Etc. 

Notes on Some Owls and Hawks By the late Lieut. F. 


The Nesting of the Algerian Chaffinch ... By W. Shore Baily. 



Post Mortem Reports. 

Rules of the Foreign Bird Club. 

Roll of Members. 



A Report will appear in next issue of " B.N.," and members are 
requested to only ask for a reply per post in cases of urgency. 


(1) A short account of the illness should accompany the specimen. 

All birds to be sent as fresh as possible to 
Dr. N. S. Lucas, 
The Prosectorium, 

The Zoological Society, 
Regent's Park, London, N.W., 8. 

(2) Should any member require an immediate reply per post, a stamped 

addressed envelope must be enclosed with the bird. 

(3) No body or skin of any bird will be returned under any ciroum- 

stanoes whaterer 

Series UI 

Vol. V. Mo. 2 


vP^e, F.Z.S.e>c 


PHntMl ani FublithM by J. H. Htnttoek, Avian PnMa. 

Mannikins By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., Etc. 

Notes on Some Owls and Hawks By the late Lieut. F. 


The Nesting of the Algerian Chaffinch ... By W. Shore Baily. 
Correspondence,^ ._^ 



We are now prepared to accept Trade Advertisements at 
the following rates : 

£ s. d. 

Full page advert, per annum 12 o o 

Half page advert, per annum 700 

Full page advert, per six months 700 

Half page advert, per six months 400 

No advertisement w'ill be accepted for less than 6 copies, 
and no advert, will be accepted for less than half a page. 

All connnunications re above to the agents : 

Messrs. R. H. Jackson, 

Advertising Agents, 
56 Cannon Street, 


Regent's Park, London, N.W., 8. 

(2) Should any member require an immediate reply per post, a stamped 

addressed envelope must be enclosed with the bird. 

(3) No body or skin of any bird will be returned under any ciroum- 

stanoes whatcrer 

Series UI. 

FEBRUARY, 1022. 

Vol. V. No. 2 


Wesley T. Pevge, F.Z.S.ek 

PuB)tsAe^ d/tou?" /h 15'^ ^'' ezycA monZ-K^ 

PHntMl ani rublithed by J. H. HenatMk, Avian PrMc, 



My Aviaries and Birds By Capt. J. S. Reeve, F.Z.S., M.B.O-U. 

The Desolation of Wartime in Lady Dunleath's Aviaries, and 
their Re-opening By The Lady DuNLfeAXH. 

Early Stray Notes By W. Shore Baily. 

Budgerigars " French Moult," and Continental Methods of 
Breeding By W. T. Page, F.Z.S., etc. 

Breeding Results for jp2J By Capt. G. E. Rattigan, F.Z.S. 

The Great Tinamou By W. Shore Baily. 




A Report will appear in next isBue of "B.N.," and members are 
requested to only aik for a reply per post in cases of urgency. 


(1) A short account of the illness should accompany the specimen. 

All birds to be sent as fresh as possible to 
Dr. N. S, Lucas, 
The Prosectorium, 

The Zoological Society, 
Regent's Park, London, N.W., 8. 

(2) Should any member require an immediate reply per post, a stamped 

addressed envelope must be enclosed with the bird. 

<3) No body or skin of any bird will be returned under any cireum- 
stances whaterar 



Annual Subscription to Members 20s., due on the 1st January in 
•ach year, and payable in advance. 

A new Volume oommenc-es every January. 

All subscriptions and donations to be sent to the Hon. Business 
Secretary, and addressed as under : 

Maj. A, E. Snape, 52 Corporation Street, Manchester. 

All MSS. for publication, members' adverts, queries re birds and 
aviaries, and correspondence for Bird Notes to be sent to the Hon. 
Editor, W. T. Page, Langstone, Lingfield^ Surrey. 

All enquiries as to the treatment of Birds should be sent to the 
following gentlemen: Parrots and Parrakeets, H. T. Camps, F.Z.S., 
Linden House, Haddenham, Isle of Ely ; all other species (Frugivorous, 
Insectivorous, Seed-eaters, etc.), W. T. Pa-^e, F.Z.S., Langstone, 
Lingfield, Surrey. 

All Letters referring to the above, identification of birds, etc., 
must contain a stamped addressed envelope for reply. 

All applications for Show Medals and enquiries re Shows should 
be sent to the Hon. Eshibitional Secretary, S. Wilhams, F.Z.S., Oakleigh, 
110 Riverway, Palmer's Green^ London, N. 13. 

All other correspondence, changes of address, etc., should be sent 
to the Hon. Business Secretary, Maj. A. E. Snape, 52, Corporation Street, 

This Magazine is printed and pubUshed by J. H. HENSTOCK, 
Avian Press, Market Place, Ashbourne, Derbyshire, to whom all orders 
for back numbers and bound volumes and Binding Covers (with remit- 
tance) should be sent. Also all complaints re non-delivery of the Magazine. 

An Illustration Fund is kept open for the purpose of increasing 
the number of plates in the Club Journal other than the regular income yf 
the Club provides for. The smallest donation will be thankfully received 
for this object by the Hon. Business Secretary. 

Any member not receiving Bird Notes by the 20th of each month 
should, at once, write the Publisher, complaining of the omission. N.B. 
December and January issues are always, of necessity, late. 

TRADE ADVERTISEMENTS: All correspondence, MSS. etc., 
I'especting these should be sent to our Agents : 


56, Cannon Street, Manchester. 
N.B.— The above applies to all TRADE ADVERTS., whether said 
traders be members of F.B.C. or not. 

A New Binding Case in Art Linen, of Handsome Design is mow 
ready. Cases 2s. 9d. post free. 

The Publisher does NOT now undertake the binding. 



Volume I. is out of print. 

Volumes II. and III., there remains only a few oopies; to 

^'embers and Associates (each) 21 

Volume; IV. and V. witSi Hand-coloured Plates: — 

Ti> Members and Associates (each) 15 

To Others 18 

Volumes VI., VII., and VIII., with Hand-coloured Plates: — 

To Members and Associates (each) 20 

To Others 25 

NEW SERIES, Volume I., out of print.. 

Volumes II. to VIII., to Members (each) 20 

Toothers 25 

Volumes 1. and 11., Series IH.— 

To Members 22 6" 

To Non-Members 27 6 

Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 (Old Series) may be had, 

price 2s. 9d. post free. 
Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2. 3, 4, 5, and 6 (New Series) to be obtained 

from the Publisher, 2s. 9d. post free. 

SPECIES g Reared Young 

J L I IJ . I I „ - 



HYBRIDS S Been Bred 

in Captivity in Great Britain. 



Systematically arranged accordiag to Dr. Gadow's 

Classification slightly revised. 




5/- /\tETT. 

J. H. Hb.nstock "The Avian Pkkss," A.'«iihouknis 


Annual Subscription to Membei's 20s., due on the Ist January in 
♦ach year, and payable in advance. 

A new Volume commences every January. 

All subscriptions and donations to be sent to the Hon. Business 
Secretary, and addressed as under : 

Maj. A. E. Snape, 62 Corporation Street, Manchester. 

All MSS. for publication, members' adverts, queries re birds and 
aviaries, and correspondence for Bird Notes to be sent to the Hon. 
Editor, W. T. Page, Langstone, Lingfield Surrey. 

All enquiries as to the treatment of Birds should be sent to the 
following gentlemen : Parrots and Parrakeets, H. T. Camps, F.Z.S., 
Linden House, Haddenham, Isle of Ely ; all other species (Fnigivorous, 
Insectivorous, Seed-eaters, etc.), W. T. Pa^e, F.Z.S., Langstone, 
Lingfield, Surrey. 

All Letters referring to the above, identification of birds, etc., 
must contain a stamped addressed envelope for reply. 

All applications for Show Medals and enquiries re Shows should 
be sent to the Hon. Exhibitional Secretary, S. Williams, F.Z.S., Oakleigh, 
110 Riverway, Palmer's Green^ London, N. 13. 

All other correspondence, changes of-address, etc., should be sent 
to the Hon. Business Secretary, Maj. A. E. Snape, 52, Corporation Sti-eet, 

This Magazine is printed and pubUshed by J. H. HENSTOCK, 
Avian Press, Market Place, Ashbourne, Derbyshire, to whom all orders 
for back numbers and bound volumes and Binding Covers (with remit- 
tance) should be sent. Also all complaints re non-delivery of the Magazine. 

An Illustration Fund is kept open for the purpose of increasing 
the number of plates in the Club Journal other than the regular income of 
the Club provides for. The smallest donation will Ije thankfully received 
for this object by the Hon. Business Secretary. 

Any member not receiving Bird Notes by the 20th of each month 
should, at once, wi'ite the Publisher, complaining of the omission. N.B. 
December and January issues are always, of necessity, late. 

TRADE ADVERTISEMENTS: All correspondence, MSS. etc., 
respecting these should be sent to our Agents : 


56, Cannon Street, Manchester. 

N.B. —The above applies to all TRADE ADVERTS., whether said 
traders be members of F.B.C. or not. 


A New Binding Case in Art Linen, of Handsome Design is now- 
ready. Cases 28. 9d. post fi-ee. 

The Publisher does NOT now undertake the binding. 



Volume I. is out of print. 

Volumes II. and III., there remains only u few copies; to 

Members and Associates (each) 21 

Volumes IV. and V. with Hand-coloured Plates: — 

To Members and Associates (each) 15 

Toothers 18 

Volumes VI., VII., and VIII., with Kand-coloured Plates: — 

. To Members and Associates (each) 20 

To Others 25 

NEW SERIES, Volume I., out of print. 

Volur.ies II. to VITI., to Members (each) 20 

To Others 25 

Volui.nes I. and II., Series III. — 

To Members 22 6 

To Non-Members 27 6 

Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 (Old Series) may be had, 

price 2s. 9d. post free. 
Gases for Binding Vols. 1, 2. 3, 4, 5, and 6 (New Series) to be obtained 

from the Publisher, 2s. 9d. post free. 

"species tlf Reared Young 


HYBRIDS g Been Bred 

in Capti\ity in Great Britain. 



Systematically arranged according to Dr. Gadow's 

Classification slightly revised. 



5h NETT, 

J. H. HftMBTocK " The Ayia.n Prbbs," A!«hbourmb 

SeriM m. 

MARCH, 1»2Z. 

Vol. V. Mo 3 

All Ri ^T vls Ps.esfcrvfcd 

Prtce Ye . Anr\atJ Sahscriph'o/y 


Wesley T. Pa^e, F.Z.S.dt 

PHntttf UK PMMMMrf kv J. N. HMiatMk. Awian »r«t« 


Notes en a Few W ell-known Species ... By Edward J. Boosey. 
The Awful Mealworm , By H. L. Sich. 

Some Notes on Crimson-wing Parrakeets By the Marquis of 
Tavistock. , 

My Yellow-winged Sugarbirds By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., etc 
Some Blue fay's By W. Shore Baily. 





A Report will appear in next issue of " B.N.," and members are 
requested to only ask for a reply per post in oases of urgenqy. 


(1) A short account of the illness should accompany the specimen. 

All birds to be sent as fresh as possible to 
Dr. N. S. Lucas, 
The Proseotorium, 

The Zoological Society, 
Regent's Park, London, N.W., 8. 

(2) Should any member require an immediate reply per post, a stamped 

addressed envelope must be enclosed with the bird. 

(3) No body or skin of any bird will be returned under any ciroum 

stances whaterar 

l«riM m. 

APRIL, 1»2Z. 

V«l. V. No. 4 

f.\ (;u1^>f^^,:?k 





^ X^>j 
















All Ri d Kls Reserved . 

Price 1^ . Annatl Sahscriph'L 









Wesley T. Pev^e, F.Z.S.ekr 

Pa6)/sAe^ tiiou)' Me I5^^''etyeA /no/j/^ 


PMntttf Mitf mWlthM fey J. H. HMWtMk, Avian Pr«w. 



Tragopans . By W, Shore Baily. 

Shama, the Best Song-bird By J. W. Porter. 

Some Notes of Mv Birds By Margaret Burgess, F.Z.S. 

Diary of a Voyage from Karachi to Marseilles, jg20 By 

Hugh Whistler, F.Z.S. 

Notes on Jungle and Other Wild Life By Dr. Casey A. Wood, 

7oo Report. 
Post Mortem Reports. 


A Report will appear in next issue of "B.N.," and members are 
requested to only ask for a repiy per post in oases of urgency. 


(1) A short account of the illness should accompany the specimen. 

All birds to be sent as fresh as possible to 
Dr. N. 8. Lucas, 
The Prosectorium, 
The Zoological Society, 
Regent's Park, London, N.W., 8. 

(2) Should any member require an immediate reply per post, a stamped 

addressed envelope must be enclosed with the bird. 

(3) No body or skin of any bird will be returned under any oirouBi- 

stanoes what«rrir- 


Annual Subscription to Members 20s., due on the 1st January in 
each year, and payable in advance. 

A new Volume commences every January. 

All subscriptions and donations to be sent to the Hon. Business 
Secretary, and addressed as under : 

Maj. A. E. Snape, 52 Corporation Street, Manchester. 

All MSS. for publication, members' adverts, queries re birds and 
aviaries, and correspondence for Bird Notes to be sent to the Hon. 
Editor, W. T. Page, Langstone, Lingfield^ Surrey. 

All enquiries as to the treatment of Birds should be sent to the 
following gentlemen : Parrots and Parrakeets, H. T. Camps, F.Z.S., 
Linden House, Haddenham, Isle of Ely ; all other species (Frugjvorous, 
Insectivorous, Seed-eaters, etc.), W. T. Pa^e, F.Z.S., Langstone, 
Lingfield, Surrey. 

All Letters referring to the above, identification of birds, etc., 
must contain a stamped addressed envelope for reply. 

All applications for Show Medals and enquiries re Shows should 
be sent to the Hon. Exhibitional Secretary, S. Williams, F.Z.S. , Oakleigh, 
110 Riverway, Palmer's Green^ London, N. 13. 

All other correspondence, changes of address, etc., should be sent 
to the Hon, Business Secretary, Maj. A. E. Snajw, 52, Corporation Street, 

This Magazine is printed and published by J. H. HENSTOCK, 
Avian Press, Market Place, Ashbourne, Derbyshire, to whom all orders 
for back numbers and bound volumes and Binding Covers (with remit- 
tance) should be sent. Ateo all complaints re non-delivery of the Magazine. 

An Illustration Fund is kept open for the purpose of increasing 
the number of plates in the Club Journal other than the Tegular income of 
the Club provides for. The smallest donation will be thankfully received 
for this object by the Hon. Business Secretary. 

Any member not receiving Bird Notes by the 20th of each month 
should, at once, write the Publisher, complaining of the omission. N.B. 
December and January issues are always, of necessity, late. 

TRADE ADVERTISEMENTS: AU correspondence, MSS. etc., 
respecting these should be sent to our Agents : 


56, Cannon Street, Manchester. 
N.B.— The above applies to all TRADE ADVERTS., whether said 
traders be members of F.B.C. or not. 

A New Binding Case in Art Linen, of Handsome Design is mow 
ready. Cases 2s. 9d. post free. 

The Publisher does NOT now undertake the binding. 



Volume I. is out of print. 

Volumes II. and III., there remains only a few copies; to 

Members and Associates (each) 21 

Volumes IV. and V. with Hand-coloured Plates: — 

To Members and Associates (each) 16 

Toothers 18 

Volumes VI., VII., and VIII., with Hand-coloured Platet: — 

To Members and Associates (each) 20 

Toothers 26 

NEW SERIES, Volume I., out of print. 

Volumes II. to VIII., to Members (each) 20 

Toothers 25 

Volumes I. and II., Series III. — 

To Members 22 6 

To Non-Members 27 6 

Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 (Old Series) may be had, 
price 2s. 9d. post free. 

Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2. 3, 4, 5, and 6 (New Series) to be obtained 
from the Publisher, 2s. 9d. post free. 

SPECIES tve' Reared Young 


HYBRIDS tlf Been Bred 

in Capti\ity in Great Britain. 



Systematically arranged according to Dr. GadowV 

Classification slightly revised. 



5/- NETT. 

J. H. Hbnstock " Thi Avian Prbbs," Ahhbourmb 


Annual Subscription to Members 20s., due on the 1st January in 
•aoh year, and payable in advance. 

A new Volume commences every January. 

All subscriptions and donations to be sent to the Hon. Business 
Secretary, and addressed as under : 

Maj. A. E. Snape, 52 Corporation Street, Manchester. 

All MSS. for publication, members' adverts, queries re birds and 
aviaries, and correspondence for Bird Notes to be sent to the Hon. 
Editor, W. T. Page, Langstone, Lingfield^ Surrey. 

All enquiries as to the treatment of Birds should be sent to the 
following gentlemen : Parrots and Parrakeets, H. T. Camps, F.Z.8., 
Linden House, Haddenham, Isle of Ely ; all other species (Frugivorous, 
Insectivorous, Seed-eaters, etc.), W. T. Pa~e, F.Z.S., Langstone, 
Lingfield, Surrey. 

All Letters referring to the above, identification of birds, etCr, 
must contain a stamped addressed envelope for reply. 

All applications for Show Medals and enquiries re Shows should 
be sent to the Hon. Exhibitional Secretary, S. Williams, F.Z.S., Oakleigh, 
110 Riverway, Palmer's Green^ London, N. 13. 

AH other correspondeaice, changes of address, etc., should be sent 
to the Hon. Business Secretary, Maj. A. E. Snape, 52, Corporation Street, 

This Magazine is printed and published by J. H. HENSTOCK, 
Avian Press, Market Place, Ashbourne, Derbyshire, to whom all orders 
for bac-k numbers and bound volumes and Binding Covers (with remit- 
tance) should be sent. Also all complaints re non-delivery of the Magazine. 

An Illustration Fund is kept open for the purpose of increasing 
the number of plates in the Club Journal other than the regular income oi 
the Club provides for. The smallest donation will be thankfully received 
for this object by the Hon. Business Secretary. 

Any member not receiving Bird Notes by the 20th of each month 
should, at once, write the Publisher, complaining of the omission. N.B. 
December and Januju-y issues are always, of necessity, late. 

TRADE ADVERTISEMENTS: All correspondence, MSS. etc., 
respecting these should be sent to our Agents : 


56, Cannon Street, Manchester. 
N.B.— The above applies to all TRADE ADVERTS., whether said 
traders be members of F.B.C. or not. 

A New Binding Case in Art Linen, of Handsome Design is how 
ready. Oases 28. 9d. i>ost free. 

TM PublishM- dOM NOT now undertake the binding. 



Volame I. is out of print. 

Volumes II. and III., there remains only a few copies; to 

Members and Associates (each) 21 

Volumes IV. and V. with Hand-coloured Plates: — 

To Members and Associates (each) 16 

Toothers 18 

Volumes VI., VII,, and VIII., with Hand-coloured Platet:— 

To Members and Associates (each) 20 

Toothers 25 

NEW SERIES, Volume I., out of print. 

Volumes H. to VIII., to Members (each) 20 

Toothers 25 

Volumes I. and II., Series III. — 

To Members 22 6 

To Non-Members 27 6 

Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 (Old Series) may be had, 

price 2s. 9d. post free. 
Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2. 3, 4, 5, and 6 (New Series) to be obtained 

from the Publisher, 2s. 9d. post free. 

SPECIES tlf Reared Young 


HYBRIDS g Beet] Bred 

in Captivity in Great Britain. 



Systematically arranged according to Dr. Gadow'? 

Classification slightly revised. 




5/- NETT. 

J. H. Hbnsiock " Ths Avian Prbbs," Ahubournb 

Series m. 

MAY a JUNI, 1022. 

Vol. V. Nos 5 S 6 

All Ri g Kls Reserved 

Price Ye . Anr\c/eJ Suhscrfph^ 


Wesley T. Pe^^e, F.Z.S.^ 

PuL)rsAe^ ^Afu/" Me 15^ ^^ ee^cA n\onNi^ 

PMntU and rubltohM by J. H. HtnatMk, Avian Pr«M. 


May in My Aviaries By W. Shore Baily, F.Z.S. 

The Undescribed Juvenal Plumage of the Yucatan Jay By 

C. William Beebe and Lee S. Crandall. 

Notes on Some Forms of Cissolopha By Lee S. Crandall. 

Notes on Jungle and Other Wild Life By Dr. Casey A. 

Wood, M.B.O.U. 

Spring Notes for /p22 By L. F. R. Pullar, F.Z.S. 

Jn My Bird Sanctuary By The R.H. Viscount Grey, K.G. 



Reviews and Notices of New Books. 

Post Mortem Reports. 


A Report will appear in next issue of " B.N.," and members are 
requested to only ask for a repiy per post in cases of urgency. 


(1) A short account of the illness should accompany the specimen. 

All birds to be sent as fresh as possible to 
Dr. N. 8. Lucas, 
The Prosectorium, 

The Zoological Society, 
Regent's Park, London, N.W., 8. 

(2) Should any member require an immediate reply per post, a stampe<l 

addressed envelope must be enclosed with the bird. 

<3) No body or skin of any bird will be returned under any circum 
stances whatever 

Series III. 

JULY 1922. 

Vol. V. No. 7 

Members are requested to note that subscriptions (20s.) 
for the current year are now seven months overdue, and the 
Hon. Business Secretary would be glad to receive same without 
further delay — such as are outstanding have already received 
at least one application for same per post. 

Wesley T. Pa^e, F.Z.S.e^. 

PHnttd Mi FublifhM by 4. N. Hamteek, Avian Pr«8i. 



May in My Aviaries By W. Shore Baily, F.Z.S. 

77?^ Undescribed Juvenal Plumage of the Yucatan Jay By 

C. William Beebe and Lee S. Crandall. 

Notes on Some Forms 0/ Cissolopha By Lee S. Crandall. 

Notes on Jungle and Other Wild Life By Dr. Casey A. 

Wood, M.B.O.U. 

Spring Notes for 1922 By L. F. R. Pullar, F.Z.S. 


In My Bird Sanctuary By The R.H. Viscount Grey, K.G. 


Post . 


requeSed lo only ask tar it r^iS^P^PWIW 


<1) A short account of the illness should accompany the specimen. 
All birds to be sent as fresh as possible to 
Dr. N. 8. Lucas, 
The Prosectorium, 
The Zoological Society, 
Regent's Park, London, N.W., 8, 

<2) Should any member require an immediate reply per post, a stamped 
addressed envelope must be enclosed with the bird. 

(3) No body or skin of any bird will be returned under any circum 
stanoea whatever 

Series in. 

JULY 1922. 

Vol. V. Mo. 7 

All Ri d Kls Reserved. 

Price Ye, AnnaeJ Sahscrfph'Qjy 


Wesley T.Pe^^c, F.Z.S.eV«e. 

PMntetf anil PubliihM by J. N. Hemtoek, Avian Prtsa. 


June and July in My Aviaries By W. Shore Baily, F.Z.S, 

Notes on Jungle and Other Wild Life By Dr. Casey A. 

Wood, M.B.O.U. 

A Cuckoo Episode ... By Capt. J. S. Reeve, F.Z.S. , M.B.O.U. 

Stray Notes of the Season ... By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., etc. 

Aviary Notes from Northern Ireland By W. H. Workman, 



Post Mortem Reports. 


A Report will appear in next issue of " B.N.," and memberB are 
requested to only ask for a repij per post in cases of urgency. 


(1) A short account of the illness should accompany the specimen. 

All birds to be sent as fresh as possible to 

Mr. C. H. Hicks, 
The Prosectorium, 

The Zoological Society, 
Regent's Park, London, N.W., 8. 

(2) Should any member require an immediate reply per post, a stamped 

addressed envelope must be enclosed with the bird. 

<3) No body or skin of any bird will be returned under any circum- 
stances whaterer 



Annual Subscription to Members 20s., due on the Ist January in 
•ftoh year, and payable in advance. 

A new Volume commences every January. 

All subscriptions and donations to be sent to the Hon. Business 
Secretary, and addressed as under : 

Major A. E. Snape, 41, John Dalton Street, Manchester. 

All MSB. for publication, members* adverts, queries re birds and 
aviaries, and correspondence for Bibd Notbs to be sent to the H<m. 
Editor, W. T. Page, Langstone, Lingfield, Surrey. 

All enquiries as to the treatment of Birds should be SMit to the 
following gentlemen: Parrots and Parrakeets, H. T. Camps, F.Z.S., 
Linden House, Haddenham, Isle of Ely; all other species (Frugivoroui, 
Insectivorous, 6eed-«ater6, etc.), W. T. Pa^e, F.Z.S., Langstone, 
Lingfield, Surrey. 

All L«ttera referring to the above, identifioation of birds, ete., 
mutt contain a stamped addressed envelope for reply. 

All applications for Show Medals and enquiries re Shows should 
be sent to the Hon. Exhibitional Secretary, S. Williams, F.Z.6., Oakleigh, 
110 Riverway, Palmer's Green ^ London, N. 13. 

All other correspondemoe, changes of address, etc., should be sent 
to the Hon. Business Secretary, Maj. A. E. Snape, 52, Cori>oration Street, 

This Magazine is printed and published by J. H. HENSTOOK, 
Avian Press, Market Place, Ashbourne, Derbyshire, to whom all orders 
for back numbers and bound volumes and Binding Covers (with remi't- 
tanoe) should be sent. Also all complaints re non-delivery of the Magazine. 

An Illustration Fund is kept open for the purpose of increasing 
the number of plates in the Club Journal other than the regular income of 
the Club provides for. The smallest donation will be thankfully received 
for this object by the Hon. Business Secretary. 

Any member not receiving Bird Notes by the 20th of each month 
should, at once, write the Publisher, complaining of the omission. N.B. 
December and January issues are always, of necessity, late. 

TRADE ADVERTISEMENTS: All correspondence, MSS. etc., 
respecting these should be sent to our Agents : 


56, Cannon Street, Manchester. 
N.B.— The above applies to all TRADE ADVERTS., whether said 
traders be members of F.B.C. or not. 


A New Binding Case in Art Linen, of Handsome Design is bow 
ready. Cases 2s. 9d. post free. 

The Publisher does NOT now undertake the binding. 



Volume I. is out of print. 

Volumes II. and III., there remains only a few copies; to 

Members and Associates (each) 21 

Volumes IV. and V. with Hand-coloured Plates: — 

To Members and Associates (each) 15 0" 

To Others 18 

Volumes VI., VII., and VIII., with Hand-coloured Platet: — 

To Members and Associates (each) 20 

To Others 95 

NEW SERIES, Volume I., out of print. 

Volumes II. to VIII., to Members (each) 20 

Toothers 25 

Volumes I. and II., Series III. — 

To Members 22 6 

To Non-Members 27 ft 

Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 (Old Series) may be had, 

price 2s. 9d. post free. 
Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2. 3, 4, 5, and 6 (New Series) to be obtained 

from the Publisher, 28. 9d. post free. 

SPECIES tit Reared Young 



HYBRIDS tl*;' Been Bred 

in Captivity in Great Britain. 



Systematically arranged according to Dr. Gadow'*? 

Classification slightly revised. 

. ^ 



5/- NETT. 

J. H. H»NBTOCK " The Avian Press," Ashbournb 


Annual Subscription to Members 20s., due on the Ist January in 
•each year, and payable in advance. 

A new Volume commences every January. 

All subscriptions and donations to be sent to the Hon. Business 
Secretary, and addressed as under : 

Major A. E. Snape, 41, Jolm Dalton Street, Manchester. 

All MSS. for publication, members' adverts, queries re birds and 
aviaries, and correspondence for Bied Notes to be sent to the Hon. 
Editor, W. T. Page, Langstone, Lingfield^ Surrey. 

All enqiiiries as to the treatment of Birds should be sent to the 
following gentlemen : Parrots and Parrakeets, H. T. Camps, F.Z.B., 
Linden House, Haddenham, Isle of Ely ; all other species (Frugivorous, 
Insectivorous, Seed-eaters, etc.), W. T. Pa^e, F.Z.8., Langstone, 
Lingfield, Surrey. 

All Letters referring to the above, identification of birds, etc., 
must contain a stamped addressed envelope for reply. 

All applications for Show Medals and enquiries re Shows should 
be sent to the Hon. Exhibitional Secretary, S. Williams, F.Z.S., Oakleigh, 
110 Riverway, Palmer's Green London, N. 13. 

All other correspondence, changes of address, etc., should be sent 
to the Hon. Business Secretary, Maj. A. E. Snape, 62, Corporation Street, 

This Magazine is printed and pubUshed by J. H. HENSTOCK, 
Avian Press, Market Place, Ashbourne, Derbyshire, to whom all orders 
for back numbers and bound volumes and Binding Covers (with remit- 
tance) should be sent. Also all complaints re non-delivery of the Magazine. 

An Illustration Fund is kept open for the purpose of increasing 
the number of plates in the Club Journal other than the regular income of 
the Club provides for. The smallest donation will be thankfully received 
for this object by the Hon. Business Secretary. 

Any member not receiving Bird Notes by the 20th of each month 
should, at once, write the Publisher, complaining of the omission. N.B. 
December and January issues are always, of necessity, late. 

TRADE ADVERTISEMENTS: All correspondence, MSS. etc., 
respecting these should be sent to our Agents : 


56, Cannon Street, Manchester. 
N.B.— The above applies to all TRADE ADVERTS., whether said 
traders be members of F. B.C. or not. 


A New Binding Case in Art Linen, of Handsome Design is now 
ready. Cases 28. 9d. post free. 

The Publisher does NOT now undertake the binding. 



Volume I. ia out of print. 

Volumes II. and III., there remains only a few copies; to 

Members and Associates (each) 21 

Volumes IV. and V. with Hand-coloured Plates: — 

To Members and Associates (each) 16 

To Others 18 

Volumes VI., VII., and VIII., with Hand-eoloureil Plate*: — 

To Members and Associates (each) 20 

To Others 25 

NEW SERIES, Volume I., out of print. 

Volumes II. to VIII., to Members (each) 20 

To Others 26 

Volumes I. and II., Series III. — 

To Members 22 6 

To Non-Members 27 6 

Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 (Old Series) may be had, 

price 2s. 9d. post free. 
Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2. 3, 4, 5, and 6 (New Series) to be obtained 

from the Publisher, 28. 9d. post free. 

SPECIES g Reared Young 


HYBRIDS g Been Bred 

in Captivity in Great Britain. 



Systematically arranged according to Dr. Gadow'* 

Classification slightly revised. 

>■ i > ♦ ■ ■ 



5/- NETT. 

J, H. Hbnstock " The Avian Prbss," Ashbournb 

AUGUST 1922. 


AJL-Ri^ KT-s Reserved 

Price 1%. Ar\r\aiJ Sulscpiph'op. 
Ill \ h Ao/\'/x\ei T\6ers, S^ 



'^1 MOT ^c?/>ea ciy^ 

Wesley T. Fade, F.Z.S.«»* 

FHHti* Mi riiblMiMl by J. M. HMMtMk. Avian PrMiu 


Stray Notes from Lady Dunleath's Aviary By Lady Dunleath. 

Notes on Jungle and Other Wild Life ... By Dr. Casey A. 
Wood, M.B.O.U. 

Happenings in Our Aviaries By Dr. E. Sprawson. 

llie Breeding of the Crimson-winged Parrakeet By the 

Marquis of Tavistock. 

A Seeker after Bird Marts By Mrs. D. Dickinson. 

Records of Birds which have bred in Captivity ... By Dr. E. 
HoPKiNsoN, D.S.O., M.A., M.B., F.Z.S., etc. 


Rearing of Tataupa Tinamous. 



A Report will appear in next issue of " B.N.," and members are 
requested to only ask for a repiy per post in cases of urgency. 


<1) A short account of the illness should accompany the specimen. 
All birds to be sent as fresh as possible to 

Mr. C. H. Hicks, 
The Prosectorium, 

The Zoological Society, 
Regent's Park, London, N.W., 8. 

(2) Should any member require an immediate reply per post, a stampei) 
addressed envelope must be enclosed with the bird. 

<3) No body or skin of any bird will be returned under any ciroum 
stances whaterer 

Scries m. 


Vol. V. No. 9 

All Ri d Kls Reserved 

Price Yg , ^nAusJ Suhscriph'or< 


7/Se (JoiiPi\zJ ^o/^ 


Edited ohy^ 

Wesley T. Pe^e, F.Z.S.e^x^ 

PaLlrsAe^ alou?- Me 15^ o/^" et^cA monZ-K 

PHntU and PublithMl by 4. H. Honttotk, Avian Prwu 


The Breeding of the Misto Seedfinch By W. Shore Baily, 

Some Notes on Red-shining Parrakeets By the Marquis of 

Four Species of Lovebirds By J. W. Bearby. 

Visits to Members' Aviaries By Wesley T. Page, F.Z..S., etc. 
The Breeding of the New-Guinea Quail By W. Shore Baily, 

Notes on Jungle and Other Wild Life By Dr. Casey A. 
Wood, M.B.O.U. 

Records of Birds which have Bred in Captivity By Dr. E. 

HoPKiNSON, D.S.O., M.A., M.B., F.Z.S., etc. 
A Java Sparrow Episode ... By Wesley T. Page, F./..S., etc. 
Post Mortem Reports. 


A Report will appear in next issue of " B.N.," and members are 
requested to only ask for a repiy per post in oases of urgency. 


(1) A short account of the illness should accompany the specimen. 

All birds to be sent as fresh as possible to 

Mr. 0. H. Hicks, 
The Prosectorium, 

The Zoological Society, 
Regent's Park, London, N.W., 8. 

(2) Should any member require an immediate reply per post, a stamped 

addressed envelope must be enclosed with the bird. 

(3) No body or skin of any bird will be returned under any ciroum- 

stanoes whaterer 



Annual Bnbscription to Members 20b., due on the let January in 
•aoh year, and payable in adranoe. 

A new Volume commences erery January. 

All subscriptions and donations to be sent to the Hon. Business 
Secretary, and addressed as under : 

Majoc A. E. Snape, 41, John Dalton Street, Manchester. 

All MSB. for publication, members' adverts, queries re birds and 
aviaries, and oorrespondence for Bibd Notes to be sent to the Hon. 
Editor, W. T. Page, Langstone, Lingfield^ Surrey. 

All enquiries as to the treatment of Birds should be sent to the 
following gentlemen: Parrots and Parrakeets, H. T. Camps, F.Z.S., 
Linden House, Haddenham, Isle of Ely; all other species (Frugivorous, 
Insectivorous, Seed-eaters, etc.), W, T. Pa^e, F.Z.S., Langstone, 
Lingfield, Surrey. 

All Letters referring to the above, identifioation of birdi, tto., 
must contain a stamped addressed envelope for reply. 

All applications for Show Medals and enquiries re Shows should 
be sent to the Hon. Exhibitional Secretary, S. WilUams, F.Z.S., Oakleigh, 
110 Riverway, Palmer's Green^ London, N. 13. 

All other correspondence, changes of address, etc., should be sent 
to the Hon. Business Secretary, Maj. A. E. Snape, 52, Ck>rporation Street, 

This Magazine is printed and published by J. H. HENSTOCK, 
Avian Press, Market Place, Ashbourne, Derbyshire, to whom all orders 
for back numbers and bound volumes and Binding Covers (with remit- 
tance) should be sent. Also all complaints re non-delivery of the Magazine. 

An Illustration Fund is kept open for the purpose of increasing 
the number of plates in the Club Journal other than the regular income of 
the Club provides for. The smallest donation will be thankfully received 
for this object by the Hon. Business Secretary. 

Any member not receiving Bird Notes by the 20th of each month 
should, at once, write the Publisher, complaining of the omission. N.B. 
December and January issues are always, of necessity, late. 

TRADE ADVERTISEMENTS : All correspondence, MSS. etc., 
respecting these should be sent to our Agents : 


56, Cannon Street, Manchester. 
N.B.— The above applies to all TRADE ADVERTS., whether said 
traders be members of F.B.C. or not. 

A New Binding Case in Art Linen, of Handsome Design is now 
ready. Cases 28. 9d. post free. 

The Putilisher does NOT now undertake the binding. 



Volume I. is out of print. 

Volumes II. and III., there remains only a few copies; to 

Members and Associates (each) 21 

Volumes IV. and V. with Hand-coloured Plates: — 

To Members and Associates (each) 16 

Toothers 18 

Volumes VI., VII., and VIII., with Handtoioured Plates : — 

To Members and Associates (each) 20 

Toothers 25 

NEW SERIE8, Volume I., out of print. 

Volumes II. to VIII., to Members (each) 20 

Toothers 25 

Volumes I. and II., Series HI. — 

To Members 22 6 

To Non-Members 27 6 

Oases for Binding Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 (Old Series) may be had, 
price 28. 9d. post free. 

Oases for Binding Vols. 1, 2. 3, 4, 5, and 6 (New Series) to be obtained 
from the Publisher, 28. 9d. post free. 

SPECIES tl? Reared Young 


HYBRIDS tlf Been Bred 

in Captivity in Great Britain. 



Systematically arranged according to Dr. Gadow'« 

Classification slightly revised. 




5/- NETT. 

J. H. Hbnbtock "The Avian Press,'' Ashbourni 



Annual Subscription to Members 20s., due on the Ist January in 
•aoh year, and payable in advance. 

A new Volume oommencea every January. 

All subscriptions and donations to be sent to the Hon. Business 
Seca^tary, and addressed ae under : 

Major A. E. Snape, 41, John Dalton Street, Manchester. 

All MSB. for publication, members' adverts, queries re birds and 
aviaries, and correspondence for Bikd Notes to be sent to the Hon. 
Editor, W. T. Page, Langstone, Lingfield^ Surrey. 

All enquiries as to the treatment of Birds should be seat to the 
following gentlemen: Parrots and Parrakeets, H. T. Camps, F.Z.8., 
Linden House, Haddenham, Isle of Ely; all other species (Frugivorous, 
Insectivorous, Seed-eaters, etc.), W. T. Pa^e, F.Z.S., Langstone, 
Lingfield, Surrey. 

All L«tters referring to the above, identifioation of birds, etc., 
mutt contain a stamped addressed envelope for reply. 

All applications for Show Medals and enquiries re Shows should 
be sent to the Hon. Exhibitional Secretary, S. Williams, F.Z.S., Oakleigh, 
110 Riverway, Palmer's Green^ London, N. 13. 

All other correspondence, changes of address, etc., should be sent 
to the Hon. Business Secretary, Maj. A, E. Snape, 52, Corporation Street, 

This Magazine is printed and pubUshed by J. H. HENSTOCK, 
Avian Press, Market Place, Ashbourne, Derbyshire, to whom all orders 
for back numbers and bound volumes and Binding Covers (with remit- 
tance) should be sent. Also all complaints re non-delivery of the Magazine. 

An Illustration Fund is kept open for the purpose of increasing 
the number of plates in the Club Journal other than the regular income of 
the Club provides for. The smallest donation will be thankfully received 
for this object by the Hon. Business Secretary. 

Any member not receiving Bird Notes by the 20th of each month 
should, at once, write the Publisher, complaining of the omission. N.B. 
December and January issues are always, of necessity, late. 

TRADE ADVERTISEMENTS : AU correspondence, MSS. etc., 
respecting these should be sent to our Agents : 


56, Cannon Street, Manchester. 
N.B.— The above applies to all TRADE ADVERTS., whether said 
traders be members of F.B.C. or not. 

A New Binding Case in Art Linen, of Handsome Design is now 
ready. Cases 2s. 9d. post free. 

The Publisher does NOT now undertake the binding. 



Voltime I. is out of print. 

Volumes II. and III., there remains only a few copies; to 

Members and Associates (each) 21 

Volumes IV. and V. with Hand-coloured Plates: — 

To Members and Associates (each) 15 

Toothers 18 

Volumes VI,, VII., and VIII., with Hand-coloureil Plates : — 

To Members and Associates (each) 20 

To Others 25 Q 

NEW SERIES, Volume I., out of print. 

Volumes II. to VIII., to Members (each) 20 

Toothers 25 

Volumes I. and II., Series III. — 

To Members 22 6 

To Non-Members 27 6 

Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 (Old Series) may be had, 

price 2s. 9d. post free. 
Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2. 3, 4, 5, and 6 (New Series) to be obtained 

from the Publisher, 29. 9d. post free. 

SPECIES tlf Reared Young 


HYBRIDS g Been Bred 

in Capthity in Great Britain. 



Systematically arranged according to Dr. GadowV 

Classification slightly revised. 




5/- NETT. 

-T H. Henstock "The Avian Pkess," AsunouuNK 

Series III. 


Vol. V. Wo. 10. 

All Ri d KT'S Reserved. 

Price Ye . AnnaoJ Sahscri'ph'or^ 


The (JoupnzJ ^o/^ 

Wesley T. Pa^e, F.Z.S.ek 

PMntad and Publithsd by j. H. H«ntto«k, Avian Pr«tt. 


llic Manchuria )i Eared Pheasant By W. Shore Bailv, 

The Cockatcel at Liberty By The Marquis of Tavtstoc x. 

-1 Jlsit to an Indian J heel By Hugh Whistler, F.Z.S. 

Happenings in our Aviaries By Dr. E. Sprawson, M.C, F.Z.S. 

Notes on Jungle and Other Wild L:*r '<■■■ ' >-. a Wo<,n. 

Records of Birds which have bred in Captivity By Dr. E. 

HcPKi.xsoN, D.S.O., M.A., M.B., F.Z>" 

Visits to Members' Aviaries By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., etc. 

Stray Aviary Notes By Herbert Carr Walker 

Successful Breeding of tJie JsabeUine Turtle Dove By H. 

Bright, F.Z.S. 




A Report will appear in next issue of " B.N.," and members are 
requested to only ask for » i«yiy per posx m cases of urgency. 


(1) A short account of the illness should accompany the specimen. 

All birds to be sent as fresh as possible to 
Mr. O. H. Hicks, 
The Prosectorium, 

The Zoological Society, 
Regent's Park, London, N.W,, 8. 

(2) Should any member require an immediate reply per post, a 8tampe<l 

addressed envelope must be enclosed with the bii-d. 

(3) No body or skin of any bird will be returned under any ciroum 

stances what«Ter 





All Ri g Kls Reserved 

Price Ye , Ar\r\atJ Suhscrfph'o7\ 


Wesley T. Pev^e, F.Z.S.ek, 

■/W BkloeJ- Me 15?" o^" eti^cA nxmfA^ 

PHnttd and PublMiid by J. H. HMittMk, Avian Pr«M. 



Quail Finches By Capt. G. E. Rattigan, F.Z.S. 

Successful Breeding of the White-breasted Dove ... By H. E. 
Bright, F.Z.S. 

Visits to Members' Aviaries By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., etc. 

August, September and October in My Aviaries By W. Shore 
Baily, F.Z.S. 

Notes on Jungle and Other Wild Life By Dr. Casey A. 

Wood, M.B.O.U. 

Nesting of Cape Turtle Dove By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., etc. 

Records of Birds zvhich have bred in Captivity ... By Dr. E. 
HoPKiNSON, D.S.O., M.A., M.B., F.Z.S., etc. 

Post Mortem Reports. 



A Report will appear in next issue of " B N.," and members are 
requested to only ask for a lepij per post in cases of urgency. 


(1) A short account of the illness should accompany the specimen. 

All birds to be sent as fresh as possible to 

Mr. O. H. Hicks, 
Th*i Proswtorium, 

The Zoological Society, 

Regent's Park, London, N.W., 8. 

(2) Should any member require an immediate reply per post, a stamped 

addressed envelope must be enclosed with the bird. 

(3) No body or skin of any bird will be returned under any ciroom- 

itanoM whaterar 

Scries III 


Vol. V. No. 12. 


Payable in advance, Due January 1st, 
Members are requested to forward 
same as early as possible to : — 


41, John Dalton Street, 


Wesley T. Pzxge, F.Z.S.ek. 

Palh'.'^Ae^ ekSoaJ" /Ae 15^ ^/^^ eikcA mon/-K, 


rublMiM by J. H. Hanttetk, Avian Pr*M. 



Quail Finches By Capt. G. E. Rattigan, F.Z.S. 

Successful Breeding of the White-breasted Dove ... By H. E. 
Bright, F.Z.S. 

Visits to Members' Aviaries By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., etc. 

August, September and October in My Aviaries By W. Shore 

Notes on '■ 

Nesting o 


Post Mo 


A Report will appear in next issue of " B N.." and members are 
requested to only ask for ^ itspij per post m cases of urgency. 


(1) A short account of the illness should accompany the specimen. 

All birds to be sent as fresh as possible to 

Mr. O. H. Hicks, 
Th<f< Prosectorium, 

The Zoological Society, 
Regent's Park, London, N.W., 8. 

(2) Should any member require an immediate reply per post, a stamped 

addressed envelope must be enclosed with the bird. 

(3) No body or skin of any bird will be returned txnder any ciroum 

itanoet whaterar 



All Ri ^ l \>s Rg served. 

PRfca 1% . AnnaeJ SaBscrfph'or^ 

■■'■■ S A? r\or\~n\en\6&Ps,/5^' 


Wedey T. Pz^^e, F.Z.S.ek 

PaD/sAe^ Si^ouJ- /Ae /5^^'^eiicA /noflM^ 

PHfitti and PubltohM by j. H. MMMtMk, Avian Pr«M. 



Visits to Members' Aviaries By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., etc. 

Exhibiting Foreign Birds By Capt. G. E. Rattigan, F.Z.S. 

Records of Birds which have bred in Captivity By Dr. E. 
HoPKiNSOxN, D.S.O., M.A., M.B., F.Z.S. . etc. 

Post Mortem Reports. 



General Index. 




A B«port will appear in next iMU« of " B.N.," and members are 
requested to onlj ask for a repty per post m cases of urgency. 


<1) A short account of the illness should accompany the specimen. 
All birds to be sent at fresh as possible to 

Mr. O. H. Hicks, 

The Proseotorium, 
The Zoological Society, 
Eegent't Park, London, N.W., 8. 

(3) Should any member require an immediate reply per post, a stamped 
addressed envelope must be enclosed with the bird. 

(9) No body or skin of any bird will be returned under any cirouai- 
■taneea whaWrw 



Annual Bubscription to Members 20b., due on the Ist January in 
•aoh year, and payable in advance. 

A new Volume oommencea every January. 

All aubsoriptions and donations to b« Bent to the Hon. BueinesB 
Secretary, and addreaaed ae under: 

Major A. E. Snape, 41, John Dalton Street, Manchester. 

All MSB. for publication, members' adverts, queries re birda and 
aviaries, and oorreapondenoe for Bird Notbs to be sent to the Hon. 
Editor, W. T. Pago, Langstone, Lingfield, Surrey. 

All enquiries as to the treatment of Birds should be sent to the 
following gentlemen : Parrots and Parrakeets, H. T. Oamps, F.Z.B., 
Linden House, Haddenham, Isle of Ely ; all other species (Frugivorous, 
Insectivorous, Seed-eaters, etc.), W. T. Pa,je, F.Z.B., Langstone, 
Lingfield, Surrey. 

All Lattart referring to the above, identification of birde, ete., 
inuet oontain a stamped addreeted envelope for reply. 

All applications for Show Medals and enquiries re Shows should 
be sent to the Hon. Ezhibitional Secretary, S. Williams, F.Z.8., Oakleigb, 
110 Biverway, Palmer's Qreen^ London, N. 13. 

All other correspondence, changes of address, etc., should be sent 
to the Hon. Business Secretary, Maj. A. E. Snape, 52, Corporation Street, 

This Magazine is printed and published by J. H. HENSTOOK, 
Avian Press, Market Place, Ashbourne, Derbyshire, to whom all orders 
for back numbers and bound volumes and Binding Covers (with remit- 
tance) should be sent. Also all complaints re non-delivery of the Magazine. 

An Illustration Fund is kept open for the purpose of increasing 
the number of plates in the Club Journal other than the regular income of 
the Club provides for. The smallest donation will be thankfully received 
for this object by the Hon. Business Secretary. 

Any member not receiving Binn Notes by the 20th of each month 
should, at once, write the Publisher, complaining of the omission. N.B. 
Deoember and January issues are always, of necessity, late. 

TRADE ADVERTISEMENTS : All correspondence, MBS. etc., 
respecting these should be sent to our Agents : 


56, Gannon Street, Manchester. 
N.B.— The above applies to all TRADE ADVERTS., whether said 
traders be members of F.B.C. or not. 


A New Binding Case in Art Linen, of Handsome Design is mom 
ready. Cases 2s. 9d. i>08t free. 

The Publisher deee NOT new undertake the binding. 



Volume I. is out of print. 

Volumes II. and III., tliere remains only a few copies; to 

Members and Associates (each) 21 

Volumes IV. and V. with Hand-coloured Plates: — 

To Members and Associates (each) 15 

Toothers 18 

Volumes VI., VII., and VIII., with Hand-eoloured Plate*: — 

To Members and Assodates (each) 20 

To Others 25 

NEW SERIES, Volume I., out of print. 

Volumes II. to VIII., to Members (each) 20 

Toothers 25 

Volumes I. and II., Series III. — 

To Members 22 6 

To Non-Members 27 6 

Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 (Old Series) may be had, 

pric« 28. 9d. post free. 
Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2. 3, 4, 5, and 6 (New Series) to be obtained 

from the Publisher, 28. 9d. post free. 

SPECIES tlf Reared Youn g 


HYBRIDS T'alt Been Bred 

in r!apli\ity in Great Britain. 



Systematically arranged according to Dr. Gadow** 

Classification slightly revised. 




5/- NETT, 

J. H. Hrnstock " Thb Avian Press," Ashbourne 


Annual Subscription to Members 20b., due on the let January in 
•aoh year, and payable in adyanoe. 

A new Volume commences every January. 

All BubBcriptions and donations to be sent to the Hon. Business 
Secretary, and addressed ae under : 

Major A. E. Snaps, 41, John Dalton Street, Manchester. 

All MS8. for publication, members' adverts, queries re birds and 
ATiaries, and oorresxwndence for Bird Notes to be sent to the Hon. 
Editor, W. T. Page, Langstone, Lingfield^ Surrey. 

All enquiries as to the treatment of Birds should be sent to the 
following gentlemen : Parrots and Parrakeets, H. T. Camps, F.Z.8., 
Linden House, Haddenham, Isle of Ely ; all other species (Frugivorous, 
Insectivorous, Seed-eaters, etc.), W. T. Paje, F.Z.S., Langstone, 
Lingfield, Surrey. 

All Lstters referring to the above, identification of birds, eto., 
must contain a stamped addressed envelope for reply. 

All applications for Show Medals and enquiries re Shows should 
be sent to the Hon. Exhibitional Secretary, S. Williams, F.Z.S., Oakleigh, 
110 Riverway, Palmer's Green^ London, N. 13. 

All other correspondeaioe, changes of address, etc., should be sent 
to the Hon. Business Secretary, Maj. A. E. Snape, 52, Corporation Street, 

This Magazine is printed and published by J. H. HFJ^STOCK, 
Avian Press, Market Place, Ashbourne, Derbyshire, to whom all orders 
for back numbers and bound volumes and Binding Covers (with remit- 
tance) should be sent. Also all complaints re non-delivery of the Magazine. 

An Illustration Fund is kept open for the purpose of increasing 
the number of plates in the Club Journal other than the regular income of 
the Club provides for. The smallest donation will be thankfully received 
for this object by the Hon. Business Secretary. 

Any member not receiving Bird Notes by the 20th of each month 
should, at onoe. write the Publisher, complaining of the omission. N.B. 
December and January issues are always, of necessity, late. 

TRADE ADVERTISEMENTS : AU correspondence, MSS. etc., 
respecting these should be sent to our Agents : 


56, Cannon Street, Mancheeter. 
N.B.— The above applies to all TRADE ADVERTS., whether said 
traders be members of F.B.C. or not. 


A New Binding Case in Art Linen, of Handsome Design is nov 
ready. Cases 2s. 9d. post free. 

The Publisher does NOT now undertake the binding. 



Volume I. is out of print. 

Volumes II. and III., there remains only a few copiea; to 

Members and Associates (each) 21 

Volumes IV. and V. with Hand-coloured Plates: — 

To Members and Associates (each) 15 

To Others 18 

Volumes VI., VII., and VIII., with Hand-tolour«d Plates: — 

To Members and Associates (each) 20 

To Others 25 

NEW SERIES, Volume I., out of print. 

Volumes II. to VIII., to Members (each) 20 

To Others 25 

Volumes I. and II., Series III. — 

To Members 22 6 

To Non-Members 27 6 

Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 (Old Series) may be had, 

price 2a. 9d. post free. 
Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2. 3, 4, 5, and 6 (New Series) to be obtained 

from the Publisher, 2s. 9d. post free. 

SPECIES g Reared Young 


HYBRIDS tit Been Bred 

in Capti\ifcy in Great Britain. 



Systematically arranged according to Dr. GadowV 

Classification slightly revised. 

• - ♦ 



5/- NETT, 

J. H. Hknstock* " The Avian Prb8S,"/|Asubournk 



Annual Subscription to Members 208., due on the Ist January in 
•ftch year, and payable in adranoe. 

A new Volume commences every January, 

All subscriptions ftnd donations to be sent to the Hon. Bueiness 
Secretary, and addressed as under : 

Major A. E. Snape, 41, John Dalton Streetj Manchester. 

Ail MS8. for publication, members' adverts, queries re birds and 
aviaries, and correspondence for Bird Notes to be sent to the Hon. 
Editor, W. T. Page, Langstone, Lingfield Surrey. 

All enquiries as to the ti"eatraent of Birds should be sent to the 
following gentlemen : Parrots and Parrakoots, H. T. Camps, F.Z.S., 
Linden House, Haddenham, Isle of Ely; all other species (Frugivorous, 
Insectivorous, Seed-eaters, etc.), W. T. Paje, F.Z.S., Langstone, 
Lingfield, Surrey. 

Ail Ltttere referring to the above, identificaticn of birds, etc., 
must contain a stamped addressed envelope for reply. 

All applications for Shov.- Medals and enquiries re Shows should 
be sent to the Hon. Exhibitional Secretary, S. Williams, F.Z.S., Oakleigh, 
110 Riverway, Palmer's Green^ London, N. 13. 

All other correspondence, clianges of address, etc., should be sent 
to the Hon. Business Stcretary, Mai. A. E. Snape, 52, Corporation Street, 

This Magazine is printed and pubhshed by J. H. HENSTOCK, 
Avian Press, Market Place, Ashbourne, Derbyshire, to whom all orders 
for back numbers and bound volumfes and Binding Covers (with remit- 
tance) should be sent. Also all complaints ra non-delivery of ihe Magazine. 

An Illustration Fund is kept open for the purpose of increasing 
the number of plates in the Club Journal other than the regular income of 
the Club provides for. The smallest donation will be thankfully received 
for this object by the Hon. Business Secretary. 

Any member not receiving Bird Notes by the 20th of each month 
should, at once, write the Publisher, complaining of the omission. N.B. 
December and January issues are always, of necessity, late. 

TRADE ADVERTISEMENTS: AU correspondence, MSS. etc., 
respecting these should be sent to our Agents : 


56, Cannon Street, Manchester. 
N.B.— The above applies to all TRADE ADVERTS., whether said 
traders be members of F.B.C. or not. 


A New Binding Case in Aft Linen, of Handsome Design is now 
ready. Cases 2s. 9d. post free. 

The Publisher does NOT now undertake the binding. 



Volume I. is out of print. 

Volumes II. and III., there remains only a few copies; to 

Members and Associates (each) 21 

Volumes IV. and V. with Hand-coloured Plates: — 

To Members and Associates (each) 15 

To Others 18 

Volumes VI., VII., and VIII., with Hand-coloured Plates : — 

To Members and Associates (each) 20 

To Others 95 

NEW SERIES, Volume I., out of print. 

Volumes II. to VIII., to Members (each) 20 

Toothers 25 

Volumes I. and II., Series III. — 

To Members 22 6 

To Non-Members 27 6 

Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 (Old Series) may be had, 

price 2s. 9d. post free. 
Cases for Binding Vols. 1, 2. 3, 4, 5, and 6 (New Series) to be obtained 

from the Publisher, 2s. 9d. post free. 

SPECIES tie' Reared Young 


HYBRIDS tlf Been Bred 

in Captivity in Great Britain. 



Systematically arranged according to Dr. GadowV 

Classification slightly revised. 



5h NETT, 

J. H. Hbnstock " The Avian Pkess," Asubournb